Skip to content
Go to file

Latest commit


Git stats


Failed to load latest commit information.
Latest commit message
Commit time

Dreams Before Speeches

Dreams Before Speeches is my National Novel Generating Month entry. It presents a series of presidential speeches made or rehearsed in dreams during the presidency of Ronald Reagan.

The novel is available here


MR. NEWMAN : I'm afraid my message that night was grim and disturbing. I remember telling you we were in the worst economic mess since the Depression. We're here because humanity refuses to accept that our relationship be guided by reason in everything; that is to say, in good conscience, the satisfaction which we no longer have any Real knowledge of it.

The world exists as the mirror of the Indian philosophers declares, “ It is a narrow-minded and ridiculous thing not to architecture, which admits it merely as extraneous ornament, and could Dispense with it.

We're also gathered here for a special event -- the national funeral for an unknown soldier who will today join the heroes of Lebanon and for the preservation of the sacred fire of liberty “ is “ finally staked on the experiment entrusted to the hands of the people. The Bible tells us there will be no immigration reform without employer sanctions, because it does such violence to the spirit, thwarting the human impulse to create, to enjoy life to the fullest, and to inquire into the cause of mankind and world peace. We can decide the tough issues not by who is right, infinitely surpassing Everything else that exists merely relatively, still remained unknown.

Make no mistake about it, this attack was not just against ourselves or the Republic of Korea -- South Korea -- has offered to permit certain events of the 1988 Olympics to take place to begin with, and this will also show how old our view is, though the mass of philosophical knowledge of the subject, which makes mathematics so difficult. This becomes less in the idyll, still less to reproach him because he is Yet always thrown aside as vanished illusions. We are compelled by the principle of sufficient reason is truth, only as modifications of the actual world; thus according to this doctrine is old : it appears in the one case we find in the Vedas, Purana, poems, myths, legends of their saints, maxims and precepts, (85) we see that several ideas which are different in unessential particulars may be Allowed expressing myself by a metaphor.

About the Novel

The novel is generated using a series of modified Markov models trained on both the collected speeches of the Reagan presidency and several of the works of Arthur Schopenhauer, the pessimist philosopher.

The novel is available here

Building Your Own

You can generate a different set of Dreams Before Speeches by installing nodejs:

npm init
nodejs generate-novel.js

You'll need to install a JDK, JLanguage Tool and (potentially) the Stanford Tokenizer.

I clean up the generated text by passing it through the command line tool fmt, eg

cat output/dream-speeches.txt | fmt -tuw 60

Technical Notes

Limitations of Markov Models

Dreams Before Speeches attempts to mitigate the weaknesses of generating texts via Markov models in a variety of ways. A basic Markov model calculates for each word in the text a probability of appearance given some N previous words. This technique has shortcomings. For small N, for instance, the generate texts tend to be very random, full of grammatical errors. For larger N, the requirements for training data become obstructive. In all the speeches of Ronald Reagan, for instance, no 4 word phrase ever appears twice. In this case, the generated text will always recapitulate exactly one element of the training data.

Furthermore, most pieces of text are not stationary: that is to say that within a given speech or chapter of a book certain words and phrases are more likely to occur near the start of the piece, others near the end, and others in the middle. This is just a restatement, in a sense, of the above problem: word to word correlations are simply not very informative about human text documents, which usually have very large scale correlations (indeed, correlations to things outside the text are needed for commprehension, to say nothing of generation).

We can mitigate this problem by training a Markov model for each position in our corpora, but this shrinks considerably our data set for a given model.


Dreams Before Speeches uses such positional markov models with a lookback of three.

To resolve the issue of small amounts of training data, we add a warmness to our generator which, according to some probability, draws the next word from a global, rather than positional model. This allows what would otherwise be a fixed text generator to move into new directions.

We also post-process the output with the free grammar correction tool JLanguageTool. Sentences are still, of course, plagued by randomness, but many grammatical problems are automatically fixed which improves the readability of the text.

Finally, we situate the output work itself as a stream of consciousness dream: communicating to the reader that the text is not a literal retelling of a specific series of events but, in a sense, a soup of ideas drawn up from the subconcious.

Notes on the Corpora

I've chosen to train this novel generator on the combined works of Ronald Reagan and Arthur Schopenhauer because I see these two thinkings occupying opposite ends of a rhetorical axis: one at asinine political speech full of platitudes and back patting and the other a serious philosophical text engaging issues which would never appear in any political speech.


A novel.



No releases published


No packages published
You can’t perform that action at this time.