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The C API

You can integrate YARA into your C/C++ project by using the API provided by the libyara library. This API gives you access to every YARA feature and it's the same API used by the command-line tools yara and yarac.

Initializing and finalizing libyara

The first thing your program must do when using libyara is initializing the library. This is done by calling the :c:func:`yr_initialize` function. This function allocates any resources needed by the library and initializes internal data structures. Its counterpart is :c:func:`yr_finalize`, which must be called when you are finished using the library.

In a multi-threaded program only the main thread must call :c:func:`yr_initialize` and :c:func:`yr_finalize`. No additional work is required from other threads using the library.

Compiling rules

Before using your rules to scan any data you need to compile them into binary form. For that purpose you'll need a YARA compiler, which can be created with :c:func:`yr_compiler_create`. After being used, the compiler must be destroyed with :c:func:`yr_compiler_destroy`.

You can use :c:func:`yr_compiler_add_file`, :c:func:`yr_compiler_add_fd`, or :c:func:`yr_compiler_add_string` to add one or more input sources to be compiled. Both of these functions receive an optional namespace. Rules added under the same namespace behave as if they were contained within the same source file or string, so, rule identifiers must be unique among all the sources sharing a namespace. If the namespace argument is NULL the rules are put in the default namespace.

The :c:func:`yr_compiler_add_file`, :c:func:`yr_compiler_add_fd`, and :c:func:`yr_compiler_add_string` functions return the number of errors found in the source code. If the rules are correct they will return 0. If any of these functions return an error the compiler can't used anymore, neither for adding more rules nor getting the compiled rules.

For obtaining detailed error information you must set a callback function by using :c:func:`yr_compiler_set_callback` before calling any of the compiling functions. The callback function has the following prototype:

void callback_function(
    int error_level,
    const char* file_name,
    int line_number,
    const char* message,
    void* user_data)
.. versionchanged:: 3.3.0

Possible values for error_level are YARA_ERROR_LEVEL_ERROR and YARA_ERROR_LEVEL_WARNING. The arguments file_name and line_number contains the file name and line number where the error or warning occurs. file_name is the one passed to :c:func:`yr_compiler_add_file` or :c:func:`yr_compiler_add_fd`. It can be NULL if you passed NULL or if you're using :c:func:`yr_compiler_add_string`. The user_data pointer is the same you passed to :c:func:`yr_compiler_set_callback`.

By default, for rules containing references to other files (include "filename.yara"), YARA will try to find those files on disk. However, if you want to fetch the imported rules from another source (eg: from a database or remote service), a callback function can be set with :c:func:`yr_compiler_set_include_callback`.

The callback receives the following parameters:
  • include_name: name of the requested file.
  • calling_rule_filename: the requesting file name (NULL if not a file).
  • calling_rule_namespace: namespace (NULL if undefined).
  • user_data pointer is the same you passed to :c:func:`yr_compiler_set_include_callback`.

It should return the requested file's content as a null-terminated string. The memory for this string should be allocated by the callback function. Once it is safe to free the memory used to return the callback's result, the include_free function passed to :c:func:`yr_compiler_set_include_callback` will be called. If the memory does not need to be freed, NULL can be passed as include_free instead. You can completely disable support for includes by setting a NULL callback function with :c:func:`yr_compiler_set_include_callback`.

The callback function has the following prototype:

const char* include_callback(
    const char* include_name,
    const char* calling_rule_filename,
    const char* calling_rule_namespace,
    void* user_data);

The free function has the following prototype:

void include_free(
    const char* callback_result_ptr,
    void* user_data);

After you successfully added some sources you can get the compiled rules using the :c:func:`yr_compiler_get_rules` function. You'll get a pointer to a :c:type:`YR_RULES` structure which can be used to scan your data as described in :ref:`scanning-data`. Once :c:func:`yr_compiler_get_rules` is invoked you can not add more sources to the compiler, but you can get multiple instances of the compiled rules by calling :c:func:`yr_compiler_get_rules` multiple times.

Each instance of :c:type:`YR_RULES` must be destroyed with :c:func:`yr_rules_destroy`.

Defining external variables

If your rules make use of external variables (like in the example below), you must define those variables by using any of the yr_compiler_define_XXXX_variable functions. Variables must be defined before rules are compiled with yr_compiler_add_XXXX and they must be defined with a type that matches the context in which the variable is used in the rule, a variable that is used like my_var == 5 can't be defined as a string variable.

While defining external variables with yr_compiler_define_XXXX_variable you must provide a value for each variable. That value is embedded in the compiled rules and used whenever the variable appears in a rule. However, you can change the value associated to an external variable after the rules has been compiled by using any of the yr_rules_define_XXXX_variable functions.

Saving and retrieving compiled rules

Compiled rules can be saved to a file and retrieved later by using :c:func:`yr_rules_save` and :c:func:`yr_rules_load`. Rules compiled and saved in one machine can be loaded in another machine as long as they have the same endianness, no matter the operating system or if they are 32-bit or 64-bit systems. However files saved with older versions of YARA may not work with newer versions due to changes in the file layout.

You can also save and retrieve your rules to and from generic data streams by using functions :c:func:`yr_rules_save_stream` and :c:func:`yr_rules_load_stream`. These functions receive a pointer to a :c:type:`YR_STREAM` structure, defined as:

typedef struct _YR_STREAM
{
  void* user_data;

  YR_STREAM_READ_FUNC read;
  YR_STREAM_WRITE_FUNC write;

} YR_STREAM;

You must provide your own implementation for read and write functions. The read function is used by :c:func:`yr_rules_load_stream` to read data from your stream and the write function is used by :c:func:`yr_rules_save_stream` to write data into your stream.

Your read and write functions must respond to these prototypes:

size_t read(
    void* ptr,
    size_t size,
    size_t count,
    void* user_data);

size_t write(
    const void* ptr,
    size_t size,
    size_t count,
    void* user_data);

The ptr argument is a pointer to the buffer where the read function should put the read data, or where the write function will find the data that needs to be written to the stream. In both cases size is the size of each element being read or written and count the number of elements. The total size of the data being read or written is size * count. The read function must return the number of elements read, the write function must return the total number of elements written.

The user_data pointer is the same you specified in the :c:type:`YR_STREAM` structure. You can use it to pass arbitrary data to your read and write functions.

Scanning data

Once you have an instance of :c:type:`YR_RULES` you can use it directly with one of the yr_rules_scan_XXXX functions described below, or create a scanner with :c:func:`yr_scanner_create`. Let's start by discussing the first approach.

The :c:type:`YR_RULES` you got from the compiler can be used with :c:func:`yr_rules_scan_file`, :c:func:`yr_rules_scan_fd` or :c:func:`yr_rules_scan_mem` for scanning a file, a file descriptor and a in-memory buffer respectively. The results from the scan are returned to your program via a callback function. The callback has the following prototype:

int callback_function(
    int message,
    void* message_data,
    void* user_data);

Possible values for message are:

CALLBACK_MSG_RULE_MATCHING
CALLBACK_MSG_RULE_NOT_MATCHING
CALLBACK_MSG_SCAN_FINISHED
CALLBACK_MSG_IMPORT_MODULE
CALLBACK_MSG_MODULE_IMPORTED

Your callback function will be called once for each rule with either a CALLBACK_MSG_RULE_MATCHING or CALLBACK_MSG_RULE_NOT_MATCHING message, depending if the rule is matching or not. In both cases a pointer to the :c:type:`YR_RULE` structure associated with the rule is passed in the message_data argument. You just need to perform a typecast from void* to YR_RULE* to access the structure.

This callback is also called with the CALLBACK_MSG_IMPORT_MODULE message. All modules referenced by an import statement in the rules are imported once for every file being scanned. In this case message_data points to a :c:type:`YR_MODULE_IMPORT` structure. This structure contains a module_name field pointing to a null terminated string with the name of the module being imported and two other fields module_data and module_data_size. These fields are initially set to NULL and 0, but your program can assign a pointer to some arbitrary data to module_data while setting module_data_size to the size of the data. This way you can pass additional data to those modules requiring it, like the :ref:`Cuckoo-module` for example.

Once a module is imported the callback is called again with the CALLBACK_MSG_MODULE_IMPORTED. When this happens message_data points to a :c:type:`YR_OBJECT_STRUCTURE` structure. This structure contains all the information provided by the module about the currently scanned file.

Lastly, the callback function is also called with the CALLBACK_MSG_SCAN_FINISHED message when the scan is finished. In this case message_data is NULL.

Your callback function must return one of the following values:

CALLBACK_CONTINUE
CALLBACK_ABORT
CALLBACK_ERROR

If it returns CALLBACK_CONTINUE YARA will continue normally, CALLBACK_ABORT will abort the scan but the result from the yr_rules_scan_XXXX function will be ERROR_SUCCESS. On the other hand CALLBACK_ERROR will abort the scanning too, but the result from yr_rules_scan_XXXX will be ERROR_CALLBACK_ERROR.

The user_data argument passed to your callback function is the same you passed yr_rules_scan_XXXX. This pointer is not touched by YARA, it's just a way for your program to pass arbitrary data to the callback function.

All yr_rules_scan_XXXX functions receive a flags argument and a timeout argument. The only flag defined at this time is SCAN_FLAGS_FAST_MODE, so you must pass either this flag or a zero value. The timeout argument forces the function to return after the specified number of seconds approximately, with a zero meaning no timeout at all.

The SCAN_FLAGS_FAST_MODE flag makes the scanning a little faster by avoiding multiple matches of the same string when not necessary. Once the string was found in the file it's subsequently ignored, implying that you'll have a single match for the string, even if it appears multiple times in the scanned data. This flag has the same effect of the -f command-line option described in :ref:`command-line`.

Notice that you shouldn't call any of the yr_rules_scan_XXXX functions from within the callback as those functions are not re-entrant.

Using a scanner

The yr_rules_scan_XXXX functions are enough in most cases, but sometimes you may need a fine-grained control over the scanning. In those cases you can create a scanner with :c:func:`yr_scanner_create`. A scanner is simply a wrapper around a :c:type:`YR_RULES` structure that holds additional configuration like external variables without affecting other users of the :c:type:`YR_RULES` structure.

A scanner is particularly useful when you want to use the same :c:type:`YR_RULES` with multiple workers (it could be a separate thread, a coroutine, etc) and each worker needs to set different set of values for external variables. In that case you can't use yr_rules_define_XXXX_variable for setting the values of your external variables, as every worker using the :c:type:`YR_RULES` will be affected by such changes. However each worker can have its own scanner, where the scanners share the same :c:type:`YR_RULES`, and use yr_scanner_define_XXXX_variable for setting external variables without affecting the rest of the workers.

This is a better solution than having a separate :c:type:`YR_RULES` for each worker, as :c:type:`YR_RULES` structures have large memory footprint (specially if you have a lot of rules) while scanners are very lightweight.

API reference

Data structures

.. c:type:: YR_COMPILER

  Data structure representing a YARA compiler.

.. c:type:: YR_MATCH

  Data structure representing a string match.

  .. c:member:: int64_t base

    Base offset/address for the match. While scanning a file this field is
    usually zero, while scanning a process memory space this field is the
    virtual address of the memory block where the match was found.

  .. c:member:: int64_t offset

    Offset of the match relative to *base*.

  .. c:member:: int32_t match_length

    Length of the matching string

  .. c:member:: const uint8_t* data

    Pointer to a buffer containing a portion of the matching string.

  .. c:member:: int32_t data_length

    Length of ``data`` buffer. ``data_length`` is the minimum of
    ``match_length`` and ``MAX_MATCH_DATA``.

  .. versionchanged:: 3.5.0

.. c:type:: YR_META

  Data structure representing a metadata value.

  .. c:member:: const char* identifier

    Meta identifier.

  .. c:member:: int32_t type

    One of the following metadata types:

      ``META_TYPE_NULL``
      ``META_TYPE_INTEGER``
      ``META_TYPE_STRING``
      ``META_TYPE_BOOLEAN``

.. c:type:: YR_MODULE_IMPORT

  .. c:member:: const char* module_name

    Name of the module being imported.

  .. c:member:: void* module_data

    Pointer to additional data passed to the module. Initially set to
    ``NULL``, your program is responsible for setting this pointer while
    handling the CALLBACK_MSG_IMPORT_MODULE message.

  .. c:member:: size_t module_data_size

    Size of additional data passed to module. Your program must set the
    appropriate value if ``module_data`` is modified.

.. c:type:: YR_RULE

  Data structure representing a single rule.

  .. c:member:: const char* identifier

    Rule identifier.

  .. c:member:: const char* tags

    Pointer to a sequence of null terminated strings with tag names. An
    additional null character marks the end of the sequence. Example:
    ``tag1\0tag2\0tag3\0\0``. To iterate over the tags you can use
    :c:func:`yr_rule_tags_foreach`.

  .. c:member:: YR_META* metas

    Pointer to a sequence of :c:type:`YR_META` structures. To iterate over the
    structures use :c:func:`yr_rule_metas_foreach`.

  .. c:member:: YR_STRING* strings

    Pointer to a sequence of :c:type:`YR_STRING` structures. To iterate over the
    structures use :c:func:`yr_rule_strings_foreach`.

  .. c:member:: YR_NAMESPACE* ns

    Pointer to a :c:type:`YR_NAMESPACE` structure.

.. c:type:: YR_RULES

  Data structure representing a set of compiled rules.

.. c:type:: YR_STREAM

  .. versionadded:: 3.4.0

  Data structure representing a stream used with functions
  :c:func:`yr_rules_load_stream` and :c:func:`yr_rules_save_stream`.

  .. c:member:: void* user_data

    A user-defined pointer.

  .. c:member:: YR_STREAM_READ_FUNC read

    A pointer to the stream's read function provided by the user.

  .. c:member:: YR_STREAM_WRITE_FUNC write

    A pointer to the stream's write function provided by the user.

.. c:type:: YR_STRING

  Data structure representing a string declared in a rule.

  .. c:member:: const char* identifier

      String identifier.

.. c:type:: YR_NAMESPACE

  Data structure representing a rule namespace.

  .. c:member:: const char* name

    Rule namespace.

Functions

.. c:function:: int yr_initialize(void)

  Initialize the library. Must be called by the main thread before using any
  other function. Return :c:macro:`ERROR_SUCCESS` on success another error
  code in case of error. The list of possible return codes vary according
  to the modules compiled into YARA.

.. c:function:: int yr_finalize(void)

  Finalize the library. Must be called by the main free to release any
  resource allocated by the library. Return :c:macro:`ERROR_SUCCESS` on
  success another error code in case of error. The list of possible return
  codes vary according to the modules compiled into YARA.

.. c:function:: void yr_finalize_thread(void)

  .. deprecated:: 3.8.0

  Any thread using the library, except the main thread, must call this
  function when it finishes using the library. Since version 3.8.0 this calling
  this function is not required anymore, and it's deprecated.

.. c:function:: int yr_compiler_create(YR_COMPILER** compiler)

  Create a YARA compiler. You must pass the address of a pointer to a
  :c:type:`YR_COMPILER`, the function will set the pointer to the newly
  allocated compiler. Returns one of the following error codes:

    :c:macro:`ERROR_SUCCESS`

    :c:macro:`ERROR_INSUFFICIENT_MEMORY`

.. c:function:: void yr_compiler_destroy(YR_COMPILER* compiler)

  Destroy a YARA compiler.

.. c:function:: void yr_compiler_set_callback(YR_COMPILER* compiler, YR_COMPILER_CALLBACK_FUNC callback, void* user_data)

  .. versionchanged:: 3.3.0

  Set a callback for receiving error and warning information. The *user_data*
  pointer is passed to the callback function.


.. c:function:: void yr_compiler_set_include_callback(YR_COMPILER* compiler, YR_COMPILER_INCLUDE_CALLBACK_FUNC callback, YR_COMPILER_INCLUDE_FREE_FUNC include_free, void* user_data)

 .. versionadded:: 3.7.0

  Set a callback to provide rules from a custom source when ``include``
  directive is invoked. The *user_data* pointer is untouched and passed back to
  the callback function and to the free function. Once the callback's result
  is no longer needed, the include_free function will be called. If the memory
  does not need to be freed, include_free can be set to NULL. If *callback* is
  set to ``NULL`` support for include directives is disabled.


.. c:function:: int yr_compiler_add_file(YR_COMPILER* compiler, FILE* file, const char* namespace, const char* file_name)

  Compile rules from a *file*. Rules are put into the specified *namespace*,
  if *namespace* is ``NULL`` they will be put into the default namespace.
  *file_name* is the name of the file for error reporting purposes and can be
  set to ``NULL``. Returns the number of errors found during compilation.


.. c:function:: int yr_compiler_add_fd(YR_COMPILER* compiler, YR_FILE_DESCRIPTOR rules_fd, const char* namespace, const char* file_name)

  .. versionadded:: 3.6.0

  Compile rules from a *file descriptor*. Rules are put into the specified *namespace*,
  if *namespace* is ``NULL`` they will be put into the default namespace.
  *file_name* is the name of the file for error reporting purposes and can be
  set to ``NULL``. Returns the number of errors found during compilation.


.. c:function:: int yr_compiler_add_string(YR_COMPILER* compiler, const char* string, const char* namespace_)

  Compile rules from a *string*. Rules are put into the specified *namespace*,
  if *namespace* is ``NULL`` they will be put into the default namespace.
  Returns the number of errors found during compilation.

.. c:function:: int yr_compiler_get_rules(YR_COMPILER* compiler, YR_RULES** rules)

  Get the compiled rules from the compiler. Returns one of the following error
  codes:

    :c:macro:`ERROR_SUCCESS`

    :c:macro:`ERROR_INSUFFICIENT_MEMORY`

.. c:function:: int yr_compiler_define_integer_variable(YR_COMPILER* compiler, const char* identifier, int64_t value)

  Define an integer external variable.

.. c:function:: int yr_compiler_define_float_variable(YR_COMPILER* compiler, const char* identifier, double value)

  Define a float external variable.

.. c:function:: int yr_compiler_define_boolean_variable(YR_COMPILER* compiler, const char* identifier, int value)

  Define a boolean external variable.

.. c:function:: int yr_compiler_define_string_variable(YR_COMPILER* compiler, const char* identifier, const char* value)

  Define a string external variable.

.. c:function:: int yr_rules_define_integer_variable(YR_RULES* rules, const char* identifier, int64_t value)

  Define an integer external variable.

.. c:function:: int yr_rules_define_boolean_variable(YR_RULES* rules, const char* identifier, int value)

  Define a boolean external variable.

.. c:function:: int yr_rules_define_float_variable(YR_RULES* rules, const char* identifier, double value)

  Define a float external variable.

.. c:function:: int yr_rules_define_string_variable(YR_RULES* rules, const char* identifier, const char* value)

  Define a string external variable.

.. c:function:: void yr_rules_destroy(YR_RULES* rules)

  Destroy compiled rules.

.. c:function:: int yr_rules_save(YR_RULES* rules, const char* filename)

  Save compiled *rules* into the file specified by *filename*. Only rules
  obtained from :c:func:`yr_compiler_get_rules` can be saved. Those obtained
  from :c:func:`yr_rules_load` or :c:func:`yr_rules_load_stream` can not be
  saved. Returns one of the following error codes:

    :c:macro:`ERROR_SUCCESS`

    :c:macro:`ERROR_COULD_NOT_OPEN_FILE`

.. c:function:: int yr_rules_save_stream(YR_RULES* rules, YR_STREAM* stream)

  .. versionadded:: 3.4.0

  Save compiled *rules* into *stream*. Only rules obtained from
  :c:func:`yr_compiler_get_rules` can be saved. Those obtained from
  :c:func:`yr_rules_load` or :c:func:`yr_rules_load_stream` can not be saved.
  Returns one of the following error codes:

    :c:macro:`ERROR_SUCCESS`

.. c:function:: int yr_rules_load(const char* filename, YR_RULES** rules)

  Load compiled rules from the file specified by *filename*. Returns one of the
  following error codes:

    :c:macro:`ERROR_SUCCESS`

    :c:macro:`ERROR_INSUFFICIENT_MEMORY`

    :c:macro:`ERROR_COULD_NOT_OPEN_FILE`

    :c:macro:`ERROR_INVALID_FILE`

    :c:macro:`ERROR_CORRUPT_FILE`

    :c:macro:`ERROR_UNSUPPORTED_FILE_VERSION`

.. c:function:: int yr_rules_load_stream(YR_STREAM* stream, YR_RULES** rules)

  .. versionadded:: 3.4.0

  Load compiled rules from *stream*. Rules loaded this way can not be saved
  back using :c:func:`yr_rules_save_stream`. Returns one of the following error
  codes:

    :c:macro:`ERROR_SUCCESS`

    :c:macro:`ERROR_INSUFFICIENT_MEMORY`

    :c:macro:`ERROR_INVALID_FILE`

    :c:macro:`ERROR_CORRUPT_FILE`

    :c:macro:`ERROR_UNSUPPORTED_FILE_VERSION`

.. c:function:: int yr_rules_scan_mem(YR_RULES* rules, const uint8_t* buffer, size_t buffer_size, int flags, YR_CALLBACK_FUNC callback, void* user_data, int timeout)

    Scan a memory buffer. Returns one of the following error codes:

      :c:macro:`ERROR_SUCCESS`

      :c:macro:`ERROR_INSUFFICIENT_MEMORY`

      :c:macro:`ERROR_TOO_MANY_SCAN_THREADS`

      :c:macro:`ERROR_SCAN_TIMEOUT`

      :c:macro:`ERROR_CALLBACK_ERROR`

      :c:macro:`ERROR_TOO_MANY_MATCHES`


.. c:function:: int yr_rules_scan_file(YR_RULES* rules, const char* filename, int flags, YR_CALLBACK_FUNC callback, void* user_data, int timeout)

  Scan a file. Returns one of the following error codes:

    :c:macro:`ERROR_SUCCESS`

    :c:macro:`ERROR_INSUFFICIENT_MEMORY`

    :c:macro:`ERROR_COULD_NOT_MAP_FILE`

    :c:macro:`ERROR_TOO_MANY_SCAN_THREADS`

    :c:macro:`ERROR_SCAN_TIMEOUT`

    :c:macro:`ERROR_CALLBACK_ERROR`

    :c:macro:`ERROR_TOO_MANY_MATCHES`

.. c:function:: int yr_rules_scan_fd(YR_RULES* rules, YR_FILE_DESCRIPTOR fd, int flags, YR_CALLBACK_FUNC callback, void* user_data, int timeout)

  Scan a file descriptor. In POSIX systems ``YR_FILE_DESCRIPTOR`` is an ``int``,
  as returned by the `open()` function. In Windows ``YR_FILE_DESCRIPTOR`` is a
  ``HANDLE`` as returned by `CreateFile()`.

  Returns one of the following error codes:

    :c:macro:`ERROR_SUCCESS`

    :c:macro:`ERROR_INSUFFICIENT_MEMORY`

    :c:macro:`ERROR_COULD_NOT_MAP_FILE`

    :c:macro:`ERROR_TOO_MANY_SCAN_THREADS`

    :c:macro:`ERROR_SCAN_TIMEOUT`

    :c:macro:`ERROR_CALLBACK_ERROR`

    :c:macro:`ERROR_TOO_MANY_MATCHES`

.. c:function:: yr_rule_tags_foreach(rule, tag)

  Iterate over the tags of a given rule running the block of code that follows
  each time with a different value for *tag* of type ``const char*``. Example:

  .. code-block:: c

    const char* tag;

    /* rule is a YR_RULE object */

    yr_rule_tags_foreach(rule, tag)
    {
      ..do something with tag
    }

.. c:function:: yr_rule_metas_foreach(rule, meta)

  Iterate over the :c:type:`YR_META` structures associated with a given rule
  running the block of code that follows each time with a different value for
  *meta*. Example:

  .. code-block:: c

    YR_META* meta;

    /* rule is a YR_RULE object */

    yr_rule_metas_foreach(rule, meta)
    {
      ..do something with meta
    }

.. c:function:: yr_rule_strings_foreach(rule, string)

  Iterate over the :c:type:`YR_STRING` structures associated with a given rule
  running the block of code that follows each time with a different value for
  *string*. Example:

  .. code-block:: c

    YR_STRING* string;

    /* rule is a YR_RULE object */

    yr_rule_strings_foreach(rule, string)
    {
      ..do something with string
    }

.. c:function:: yr_string_matches_foreach(string, match)

  Iterate over the :c:type:`YR_MATCH` structures associated with a given string
  running the block of code that follows each time with a different value for
  *match*. Example:

  .. code-block:: c

    YR_MATCH* match;

    /* string is a YR_STRING object */

    yr_string_matches_foreach(string, match)
    {
      ..do something with match
    }

.. c:function:: yr_rules_foreach(rules, rule)

  Iterate over each :c:type:`YR_RULE` in a :c:type:`YR_RULES` object running
  the block of code that follows each time with a different value for
  *rule*. Example:

  .. code-block:: c

    YR_RULE* rule;

    /* rules is a YR_RULES object */

    yr_rules_foreach(rules, rule)
    {
      ..do something with rule
    }

.. c:function:: void yr_rule_disable(YR_RULE* rule)

  .. versionadded:: 3.7.0

  Disable the specified rule. Disabled rules are completely ignored during
  the scanning process and they won't match. If the disabled rule is used in
  the condition of some other rule the value for the disabled rule is neither
  true nor false but undefined. For more information about undefined values
  see :ref:`undefined-values`.

.. c:function:: void yr_rule_enable(YR_RULE* rule)

  .. versionadded:: 3.7.0

  Enables the specified rule. After being disabled with :c:func:`yr_rule_disable`
  a rule can be enabled again by using this function.


.. c:function:: int yr_scanner_create(YR_RULES* rules, YR_SCANNER **scanner)

  .. versionadded:: 3.8.0

  Creates a new scanner that can be used for scanning data with the provided
  provided rules. `scanner` must be a pointer to a :c:type:`YR_SCANNER`, the
  function will set the pointer to the newly allocated scanner. Returns one of
  the following error codes:

    :c:macro:`ERROR_INSUFFICIENT_MEMORY`

.. c:function:: void yr_scanner_destroy(YR_SCANNER *scanner)

  .. versionadded:: 3.8.0

  Destroy a scanner. After using a scanner it must be destroyed with this
  function.

.. c:function:: void yr_scanner_set_callback(YR_SCANNER *scanner, YR_CALLBACK_FUNC callback, void* user_data)

  .. versionadded:: 3.8.0

  Set a callback function that will be called for reporting any matches found by
  the scanner.

.. c:function:: void yr_scanner_set_timeout(YR_SCANNER* scanner, int timeout)

  .. versionadded:: 3.8.0

  Set the maximum number of seconds that the scanner will spend in any call to
  `yr_scanner_scan_xxx`.

.. c:function:: void yr_scanner_set_flags(YR_SCANNER* scanner, int flags)

  .. versionadded:: 3.8.0

  Set the flags that will be used by any call to `yr_scanner_scan_xxx`.

.. c:function:: int yr_scanner_define_integer_variable(YR_SCANNER* scanner, const char* identifier, int64_t value)

  .. versionadded:: 3.8.0

  Define an integer external variable.

.. c:function:: int yr_scanner_define_boolean_variable(YR_SCANNER* scanner, const char* identifier, int value)

  .. versionadded:: 3.8.0

  Define a boolean external variable.

.. c:function:: int yr_scanner_define_float_variable(YR_SCANNER* scanner, const char* identifier, double value)

  .. versionadded:: 3.8.0

  Define a float external variable.

.. c:function:: int yr_scanner_define_string_variable(YR_SCANNER* scanner, const char* identifier, const char* value)

  .. versionadded:: 3.8.0

  Define a string external variable.

.. c:function:: int yr_scanner_scan_mem(YR_SCANNER* scanner, const uint8_t* buffer, size_t buffer_size)

  .. versionadded:: 3.8.0

  Scan a memory buffer. Returns one of the following error codes:

    :c:macro:`ERROR_SUCCESS`

    :c:macro:`ERROR_INSUFFICIENT_MEMORY`

    :c:macro:`ERROR_TOO_MANY_SCAN_THREADS`

    :c:macro:`ERROR_SCAN_TIMEOUT`

    :c:macro:`ERROR_CALLBACK_ERROR`

    :c:macro:`ERROR_TOO_MANY_MATCHES`

.. c:function:: int yr_scanner_scan_file(YR_SCANNER* scanner, const char* filename)

  .. versionadded:: 3.8.0

  Scan a file. Returns one of the following error codes:

    :c:macro:`ERROR_SUCCESS`

    :c:macro:`ERROR_INSUFFICIENT_MEMORY`

    :c:macro:`ERROR_TOO_MANY_SCAN_THREADS`

    :c:macro:`ERROR_SCAN_TIMEOUT`

    :c:macro:`ERROR_CALLBACK_ERROR`

    :c:macro:`ERROR_TOO_MANY_MATCHES`

.. c:function:: int yr_scanner_scan_fd(YR_SCANNER* scanner, YR_FILE_DESCRIPTOR fd)

  .. versionadded:: 3.8.0

  Scan a file descriptor. In POSIX systems ``YR_FILE_DESCRIPTOR`` is an ``int``,
  as returned by the `open()` function. In Windows ``YR_FILE_DESCRIPTOR`` is a
  ``HANDLE`` as returned by `CreateFile()`.

  Returns one of the following error codes:

    :c:macro:`ERROR_SUCCESS`

    :c:macro:`ERROR_INSUFFICIENT_MEMORY`

    :c:macro:`ERROR_TOO_MANY_SCAN_THREADS`

    :c:macro:`ERROR_SCAN_TIMEOUT`

    :c:macro:`ERROR_CALLBACK_ERROR`

    :c:macro:`ERROR_TOO_MANY_MATCHES`

Error codes

.. c:macro:: ERROR_SUCCESS

  Everything went fine.

.. c:macro:: ERROR_INSUFFICIENT_MEMORY

  Insufficient memory to complete the operation.

.. c:macro:: ERROR_COULD_NOT_OPEN_FILE

  File could not be opened.

.. c:macro:: ERROR_COULD_NOT_MAP_FILE

  File could not be mapped into memory.

.. c:macro:: ERROR_INVALID_FILE

  File is not a valid rules file.

.. c:macro:: ERROR_CORRUPT_FILE

  Rules file is corrupt.

.. c:macro:: ERROR_UNSUPPORTED_FILE_VERSION

  File was generated by a different YARA and can't be loaded by this version.

.. c:macro:: ERROR_TOO_MANY_SCAN_THREADS

  Too many threads trying to use the same :c:type:`YR_RULES` object
  simultaneously. The limit is defined by ``YR_MAX_THREADS`` in
  *./include/yara/limits.h*

.. c:macro:: ERROR_SCAN_TIMEOUT

  Scan timed out.

.. c:macro:: ERROR_CALLBACK_ERROR

  Callback returned an error.

.. c:macro:: ERROR_TOO_MANY_MATCHES

  Too many matches for some string in your rules. This usually happens when
  your rules contains very short or very common strings like ``01 02`` or
  ``FF FF FF FF``. The limit is defined by ``YR_MAX_STRING_MATCHES`` in
  *./include/yara/limits.h*
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