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This repository contains the Qanary (Question answering vocabulary) vocabulary. The permanent URI of the ontology is:

The Qanary vocabulary aims to define a vocabulary to express information that is generated during the execution of a Question Answering (QA) systems on a question given as speech, text input or any other input.

Consider for example the question "When was Barack Obama born?". Typical pieces of information generated by components (processing steps) of a QA system are the position of named entities (NE) (like "Barack Obama"), the relations of the ontology used to express the relational phrase in the question (that "born" refers to dbo:birthPlace), the expected answer (here: a date), and the generated SPARQL query. Other such information is the language of the question, possible ontologies that can be used to answer it or if a question is a text or audio file.

The Qanary vocabulary was introduced in the following publication. Please cite:

Towards a Message-Driven Vocabulary for Promoting the Interoperability of Question Answering Systems, Kuldeep Singh, Andreas Both, Dennis Diefenbach, Saeedeh Shekarpour, 2016 IEEE Tenth International Conference on Semantic Computing (ICSC), Laguna Hills, CA, 2016.

The paper is available at and


Vocabulary for annotating questions with information generated in Question Answering piplines



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