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The boolean inert attribute allows authors to mark a subtree as inert.

If an Element is inert, it is completely non-interactive: it isn't targeted for any user interaction events, and it is removed from the focus order, and it is not exposed to assistive technology.


The inert attribute was originally specced as part of the <dialog> element specification. <dialog> required the concept of inert to be defined in order to describe the blocking behaviour of dialogs, and the inert attribute was introduced "so you could do <dialog> without <dialog>".

The attribute was later removed as it was argued that its only use case was subsumed by <dialog>. However, later discussion on the original bug proposed several use cases which could not be handled, or only handled poorly, using <dialog>.

Use cases

Temporarily offscreen/hidden content**

As discussed in this article, there are a range of circumstances in which case it's desirable to add content to the DOM to be rendered but remain offscreen.

In these cases, without inert, authors are forced to choose between an accessible experience for keyboard and assistive technology users, or the factors (such as performance) which make offscreen rendering desirable - or, performing all the contortions necessary to keep the offscreen content functionally "inert".

These cases include:

  • rendering content, such as a menu, offscreen, before having it animate on-screen;
  • similarly, for content like a menu which may be repeatedly shown to the user, avoiding re-rendering this content each time;
  • a carousel or other type of content cycler (such as a "tweet cycler") which visually hides non-current items by placing them at a lower z-index than the active item, or by setting their opacity to zero, and animates transitions between items;
  • "infinitely scrolling" UI which re-uses and/or pre-renders nodes.

On-screen but non-interactive content**

Occasionally, UI designs require that certain content be visible or partially visible, but clearly non-interactive. Typically, this content is made non-interactive for pointer device users either via a semi-transparent overlay which provides a visual cue as well as intercepting pointer events, or via using pointer-events: none.

In these cases developers are once again required to perform contortions in order to ensure that this content is not an accessibility issue.

These cases include:

  • Any of the use cases for blockingElement[s]:

    • a modal dialog;
    • a focus-trapping menu;
    • a side nav.
  • A slide show or "cover flow" style carousel may have non-active items partially visible, as a preview - they may be transformed or partially obscured to indicate that they are non-interactive.

  • Form content which is not currently relevant, e.g. fading out and disabling the "Shipping Address" fields when the "Same as billing address" checkbox has been checked.

  • Disabling the entire UI while in an inconsistent state, such as showing a throbber/loading bar during unexpectedly slow loading.

Wouldn't this be better as...

  • A CSS property?

    inert encompasses the behaviour of at least two other things which are CSS properties - pointer-events: none and user-select: none, plus another attribute, aria-hidden. These behaviours, along with the currently near-impossible to achieve behaviour of preventing tabbing/programmatic focus, are very frequently applied together (or if one, such as aria-hidden, is omitted, it is more often through lack of awareness than deliberate).

    There is scope for a more primitive CSS property to "explain" the ability of inert to prevent focus, however that could easily coexist with the inert attribute.

  • blockingElements?

    blockingElements (or, potentially, a single blockingElement) represents roughly the opposite use case to inert: a per-document, single element which blocks the document, analogous to the blocking behaviour of a modal dialog.

    It's not always the case that we will want a single subtree to be non-inert. Ideally, we would have both concepts available; however, inert allows reasonable approximation of blockingElements whereas the reverse is not true.

    • To approximate a blockingElement using inert, it's most straightforward to insert a non-inert element as a sibling element to the main page content, and then use inert to mark the main page content as inert. More generally, all siblings of the desired "blocking" element, plus all siblings of all of its ancestors, could be marked inert.
  • A programmatic API?

    Something like document.makeInert(el).

    This would require waiting for script execution before parts of the page became inert, which can take some time.