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Rationale for Web Bluetooth design decisions

This document attempts to explain why various decisions were made the way they were.

Why only BTLE, Central, and Client?

  • The key/value structure of GATT is believed to reduce the risk of device exploits compared to the unstructured byte-stream of other protocols. When the Characteristic Aggregate Format and Characteristic Presentation Format Descriptors are provided for a Characteristic, the UA can further validate any data passed to the device.

  • Energy usage is becoming more important, especially on mobile devices, and the BTLE spec is significantly more optimized for this concern.

  • Future devices are increasingly likely to support BTLE, so supporting that in the first version of the web API provides more long-term reach than supporting Bluetooth Classic first. The disadvantage of this choice is that fewer current devices and operating systems support BTLE.

  • While devices that run web browsers can benefit from Peripheral support, more use cases require Central support.

  • While the Server role can work in a Central device, Client is more natural and is required for more use cases.

Why does requestDevice() require non-empty filters?

In order to communicate with a device, that device needs to support a GATT Service that the web page understands and has permission to access. If the web page doesn't filter the devices that appear in the requestDevice() dialog, users could easily select a device the web page can't use, which is a bad experience.

One reason for scanning without service UUID filters is to collect just advertising data from several nearby devices. The first version of Web Bluetooth is aimed at GATT communication with particular paired devices and doesn't support this use case. A subsequent version will most likely include such support, likely through a different entry point.

Why so many Get{,All}{Service,Characteristic,Descriptor}() overloads?

GATT provides two ways of finding primary services: Discover All Primary Services and Discover Primary Service by Service UUID. Each can be stopped early if the desired service is found. Discover All Primary Services encodes the result more efficiently: each response packet can include multiple services, while the by Service UUID variant only returns one service per packet. Although we don't want to require UAs to do anything beyond discovering all services on connection, we'd like to allow them to optimize their use of the radio.

  • The fact that the procedures can stop early means it could help to declare that a call only needs one result.
  • The by Service UUID variant means it could help to accept a single UUID argument.
  • Developers also need to be able to get access to all instances of a single UUID, for example to retrieve the services describing several batteries in a device.

This covers Promise<Service> getService(UUID), Promise<Service> getAnyService(sequence<UUID>), Promise<sequence<Service>> getAllServices(UUID), and Promise<sequence<Service>> getAllServices(). (We currently omit Promise<Service> getAnyService(sequence<UUID>) to keep the API a bit smaller.)

If a developer wants to interact with a set of services, the above set of functions makes them choose between calling getService(UUID) several times, or calling getAllServices() and filtering out the results they're not interested in. Calling getService(UUID) several times may cause the UA to waste round trips given the less efficient encoding of the response to Discover Primary Service by Service UUID. So we offer Promise<sequence<Service>> getAllServices(sequence<UUID>) to let the developer express their goals up front, so the UA can optimize appropriately.

Only services and characteristics offer the by UUID procedure, but we offer the full set of overloads for included services and descriptors as well so that the API doesn't have unexpected gaps.

Why does getAllServices() return only primary services?

GATT allows a service to be either "primary" or "secondary" and allows the Read By Group Type Request to ask for an enumeration of either (3.G.2.5.3). However, all secondary services are also included services in some primary service (1.A.6.5.1), and having getAllServices() include them would cost an extra request sequence.

The current API does give UAs the freedom to scan for secondary services eagerly.

When a device supports both Notification and Indication, why not give the site control of which to use?

The Mac API defaults to Notification, and the [Android API](, boolean%29) doesn't document which it prefers when both are available. Neither gives enough control to implement a web standard that gives the web page the ability to choose.

Why do we have just one connection instead of one per call to connectGATT()?

If each call to BluetoothDevice.connectGATT() returned a separate BluetoothGATTRemoteServer instance, which could be disconnected independently of other concurrent instances, then components of a page could do their own lifecycle management, disconnecting when they were finished with a device. This implies separate Service, Characteristic, and Descriptor instances for each connection because we'd want some way to get a BluetoothGATTRemoteServer instance given a BluetoothGATTService, but we wouldn't want to return a different one than the component-using-the-Service controlled the lifetime of. However, because events bubble, this would result in a separate, e.g., characteristicvaluechanged event to arrive at the BluetoothDevice for each connection. To avoid that, we have only one connection per device.

Why is BluetoothGATTRemoteServer created lazily?

If/when Bluetooth devices support more than GATT communication, this may allow implementations to avoid creating data structures that aren't used.

Why are GATT connection and disconnection asymmetric?

BluetoothGATTRemoteServer.disconnect() exists to release the current script's claim on the GATT connection, but there's no parallel BluetoothGATTRemoteServer.connect(). Users just have to call BluetoothDevice.connectGATT() again. If we made users call BluetoothDevice.gattServer.connect(), it would still need to return a Promise<BluetoothGATTRemoteServer> (#65), and would just be more characters in the common case. We could provide both, but they'd be two ways of spelling the same operation, which seems more confusing than worth it.

Why doesn't BluetoothGATTRemoteServer.disconnect() return a Promise?

Disconnection can easily take effect synchronously (if it is physically asynchronous, simply discard events that came in after it was requested). We're also not signaling any error conditions from the disconnection: if other operations were in flight, they'll return a NetworkError, which still allows the possibility that they took effect.

Why is the blocklist at a custom file format?

The initial blocklist design desired the simplest solution that supported:

  • Comments
  • Pairs of validated UUIDs, possibly labeled with an exclusion tokens

The minimal text file definition is simple, UUIDs are separated from tokens by only a space and listed one per line. There are no needs for additional structural parsing complexity.

A solution such as JSON does not support comments, UUID or token validation, but adds structural parsing complexity.


00002a02-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb exclude-writes
  "00001812-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb": "excludes",
  "00002a02-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb": "exclude-writes"