Tree-Structured, First- and Higher-Order Linear Chain, and Semi-Markov CRFs
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README.md

CRFSuite (0.13)

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Introduction

CRFSuite 0.13 is a fork of Naoaki Okazaki's implementation of conditional random fields (CRFs). Please refer to the web site for more information about the original software.

Installation

In order to install the current version of the program, you need to execute the following commands in the root directory of the downloaded project:

autoreconf -f -i

./confure

make all check

sudo make install

Version 0.13

This version of CRFSuite has been extended with the following variants of CRFs:

  • tree-structured CRFs;
  • semi-Markov CRFs of arbitrary orders;
  • linear-chain CRFs of arbitrary orders.

To invoke tree-structured CRFs, you should provide the option --type=tree when running crfsuite learn and also specify this option when you later envoke crfsuite tag with the trained model.

To use higher-order linear-chain and semi-markov CRFs, you should specify the option --type=semim both during the training and during the tagging, e.g.:

crfsuite learn --type=semim -p feature.max_seg_len=-1 -m semim.model tests/test_sm_1.input

crfsuite tag --type=semim -m semim.model tests/test_sm_1.input

Setting the option -p feature.max_seg_len= to a negative value will envoke the semi-Markov variant of CRF, providing a non-negative integer will activate the linear-chain model. To specify the maximum order of transition features, use the option -p feature.max_order=, e.g.:

crfsuite learn --type=semim -p feature.max_seg_len=1 -p feature.max_order=4 -m semim.model tests/test_sm_1.input

will train a 4-th order linear-chain model.

Format

The format for the first and higher order linear-chain and semi-Markov looks as follows:

label1 \t feat_name1:value1 \t feat_name2:value2 \t feat_name3:value3

label2 \t feat_name4:value4 \t feat_name5:value5 \t feat_name6:value6

label3 \t feat_name7:value7 \t feat_name8:value8

label4 \t feat_name9:value9 \t feat_name10:value10 \t feat_name11:value11

For testing, you can either specify a valid label as the first field or put any value (e.g _ underscore ) which does not coincide with any known tagset label. This first field is skipped during the testing. Empty lines delimit the sequences.

For the tree-structured CRFs, you should specify the id of the node as the second field and the id of the parent node as the third field, e.g:

label1 \t node_id1 \t node_id2 \t feat_name1:value1

label2 \t node_id2 \t _ \t feat_name2:value2

label3 \t node_id3 \t node_id4

label4 \t node_id4 \t node_id2 \t feat_name3:value3 \t feat_name4:value4

The parent of the root node should be specified as _ (underscore) (see file tests/test_tree_2.input for an example).

Warnings

  1. Only l-BFGS is supported so far for the higher-order and semi-markov models;
  2. Semi-Markov and higher-order linear-chain models do not support the options -i and -p for tagging yet;
  3. No speed optimization was done for the higher-order semi-Markov and linear- chain models;
  4. C++ interface has not been updated to support the new types.

Copyright and Licensing

This program is distributed under the modified BSD license. Refer to COPYING file for the precise description of the license.

Portions of this software are based on libLBFGS.

The MIT License

Copyright (c) 1990 Jorge Nocedal Copyright (c) 2007 Naoaki Okazaki

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.

Portions of this software are based on Constant Quark Database (CQDB).

The BSD license.

Copyright (c) 2007, Naoaki Okazaki All rights reserved.

Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met: * Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer. * Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution. * Neither the name of the Northwestern University, University of Tokyo, nor the names of its contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without specific prior written permission.

THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.

Portions of this software are based on RumAVL.

MIT/X Consortium License.

Copyright (c) 2005-2007 Jesse Long jpl@unknown.za.net All rights reserved.

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:

  1. The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
  2. The origin of the Software must not be misrepresented; you must not claim that you wrote the original Software.
  3. Altered source versions of the Software must be plainly marked as such, and must not be misrepresented as being the original Software.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.

Portions of this software are based on a portable stdint.h (for MSVC).

Copyright (c) 2005-2007 Paul Hsieh

Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:

Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.

Redistributions in binary form must not misrepresent the orignal
source in the documentation and/or other materials provided
with the distribution.

The names of the authors nor its contributors may be used to
endorse or promote products derived from this software without
specific prior written permission.

THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.

Portions of this software are based on Mersenne Twister.

Copyright (C) 1997 - 2002, Makoto Matsumoto and Takuji Nishimura, All rights reserved.

Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:

  1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.

  2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.

  3. The names of its contributors may not be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without specific prior written permission.

THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.

Acknowledgment

Special thanks goes to:

  • Olivier Grisel
  • Andreas Holzbach
  • Baoli Li
  • Yoshimasa Tsuruoka
  • Hiroshi Manabe
  • Riza Theresa B. Batista-Navarro