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CSR generation failure - failure to begin pcsc transaction / trailing 0s #134

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sbruton opened this issue Dec 20, 2017 · 7 comments
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@sbruton
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sbruton commented Dec 20, 2017

$ yubico-piv-tool -s9c -S'/C=US/ST=Texas/L=Austin/O=ACME/CN=Some Common Name' -averify -arequest
Enter PIN:
Successfully verified PIN.
Please paste the public key...
-----BEGIN PUBLIC KEY-----
MFkwEwYHKoZIzj0CAQYIKoZIzj0DAQcDQgAE38OtU3tVJEDGSqN273YyTRhARDrt
z4CqXYdjJRM6xglKTinxvBDtBlLnUdiAmEuu+72bwtjZWLvnMLK4mveJNA==
-----END PUBLIC KEY-----
error: Failed to begin pcsc transaction, rc=80100003
-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE REQUEST-----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AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAgQAAAAAA
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AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAABhAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAgppy3nVUAAAAAAAAAAAAACAAAAAAAAABQt5y3nVUAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAACRVgAAAAAAADCCVmswgboCAQAwWDEL
MAkGA1UEBhMCVVMxDjAMBgNVBAgMBVRleGFzMQ8wDQYDVQQHDAZBdXN0aW4xDTAL
BgNVBAoMBEFDTUUxGTAXBgNVBAMMEFNvbWUgQ29tbW9uIE5hbWUwWTATBgcqhkjO
PQIBBggqhkjOPQMBBwNCAATfw61Te1UkQMZKo3bvdjJNGEBEOu3PgKpdh2MlEzrG
CUpOKfG8EO0GUudR2ICYS677vZvC2NlYu+cwsria94k0oAAwCgYIKoZIzj0EAwID
glWeAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
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AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=
-----END CERTIFICATE REQUEST-----
Successfully generated a certificate request.
$ ykinfo  -a | grep version
version: 4.3.7
$ yubico-piv-tool -V
yubico-piv-tool 1.5.1
@jmyreen
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jmyreen commented Dec 27, 2017

I can confirm that something's amiss with the code, and it could related to the OpenSSL version. My command line is:

yubico-piv-tool -v9 -a verify-pin -a selfsign-certificate -s 9a -S "/CN=SSH Key/" -i public.pem -o /dev/null

My version of the OpenSSL library is 1.1.0.g. The version of yubico-piv-tool is 1.5.1 (427451c from git). ykinfo says version 4.3.7.

The call to X509_sign() on line 926 in yubico-piv-tool.c returns 0x5555 (= 21845 decimal), which is way too high.

The self-signed certificate looks ok when displayed with openssl x509 -noout -in cert.pem -text except for the signature at the end, which contains garbage with a lot of zeroes.

The total size of the output PEM file is around 30300 bytes, but the size is different for each run: it varies between about 30200 and 30500 bytes.

EDIT: I compiled the tool with OpenSSL 1.0.2n, and got an output file that is perfectly OK: the size is 997 bytes and I was able to verify the signature.

@jmyreen
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jmyreen commented Dec 28, 2017

Some more data: function wrap_public_key in yubico-piv-tool.c:156 passes a pointer to the local (stack) variable internal_key as a parameter to RSA_meth_set0_data, which stores this pointer in a RSA_METHOD struct. This pointer is later referenced when the yk_rsa_meth_sign callback function is called from the crypto lib, but the contents of the stack variable has been overwritten at this point. This results in bogus values for algorithm and key in the sign_data function, making it fail. The error is not propagated up, so no message is printed, but the result is wrong.

But there's more! As a quick fix, I made the internal_key variable static, and now YKPIV_IS_RSA(algorithm) evaluates to true in sign_data, so the padding is performed. The next crash happens deep in the crypto lib after calling ykpiv_sign_data a few lines down in sign_data. This time glibc detects that the stack has been smashed. I haven't investigated that further yet.

@jmyreen
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jmyreen commented Dec 29, 2017

I found the stack smasher. The yk_rsa_meth_sign function is called as a callback from the crypto lib. It has the signature

int yk_rsa_meth_sign(int dtype, const unsigned char *m, unsigned int m_length,
    unsigned char *sigret, unsigned int *siglen, const RSA *rsa);

This function calls other functions like sign_data, which calls ykpiv_sign_data, which calls _general_authenticate, which finally fills in the length of what has been put in the buffer pointed to by sigret.

Openssl's crypto library and the Yubico software use different data types for buffer lengths: the crypto lib uses unsigned int and the Yubico code uses size_t. So the callback functions pointer parameter
is naively cast to a (size_t *) before passing it down to the other functions.

The problem is that sizeof (size_t) == 8 on 64-bit Linux, whereas sizeof (unsigned int) == 4. This means that writing through the dereferenced pointer writes four extra bytes, which luckily killed the
canary that the GCC uses to detect stack smashing.

The solution I came up to fix this problem is to introduce a local variable of type size_t, the address of which is used in the downcalls. This value is then copied back up.

int yk_rsa_meth_sign(int dtype, const unsigned char *m, unsigned int m_length,
    unsigned char *sigret, unsigned int *siglen, const RSA *rsa) {
  size_t yk_siglen;
  /* ... */
  if (sign_data(key->state, m, m_length, sigret, &yk_siglen, key->algorithm, key->key)) {
    *siglen = (unsigned int)yk_siglen;
    return 0;
  }
  /* ... */
}

@jmyreen
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jmyreen commented Dec 29, 2017

But there's more! After getting rid of the two problems above, the program seems to fail executing this code in openssl-1.1.0g/crypto/asn1/a_sign.c:205:

    if (!EVP_DigestSignUpdate(ctx, buf_in, inl)
        || !EVP_DigestSignFinal(ctx, buf_out, &outl)) {
        outl = 0;
        ASN1err(ASN1_F_ASN1_ITEM_SIGN_CTX, ERR_R_EVP_LIB);
        goto err;
    }

This happens after returning from the callback function, but before returning from X509_sign. The end result is that the signature is missing from the final certificate. (I presume this also applies to the CSR generation case.)

@jmyreen
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jmyreen commented Dec 30, 2017

Fixed two more bugs, and now I am able to create seld-signed certificates using yubico-piv-tool linked with Opessl-1.1. Created a pull request with the fixes.

@jmyreen
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jmyreen commented Jan 2, 2018

The fixes have now been pulled into master. @sbruton could you try to see if they fix the tool for you, too. I know our commands are different (selfsign-certificate vs. request -certificate), but they have signing in common, and that was broken.

@qpernil
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qpernil commented Feb 7, 2020

yubico-piv-tool 2.0.0 contains a major upgrade to ykcs11. Please try with that version.
I believe the issue has been adressed, closing the issue. Please re-open if the problem persists.

@qpernil qpernil closed this as completed Feb 7, 2020
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