Skip to content
Permalink
Branch: master
Find file Copy path
Find file Copy path
Fetching contributors…
Cannot retrieve contributors at this time
738 lines (615 sloc) 23.4 KB

core/state 包主要为以太坊的state trie提供了一层缓存层(cache)

state的结构主要如下图

image

蓝色的矩形代表本模块, 灰色的矩形代表外部模块。

  • database主要提供了trie树的抽象,提供trie树的缓存和合约代码长度的缓存。
  • journal主要提供了操作日志,以及操作回滚的功能。
  • state_object是account对象的抽象,提供了账户的一些功能。
  • statedb主要是提供了state trie的部分功能。

database.go

database.go 提供了一个数据库的抽象。

数据结构

// Database wraps access to tries and contract code.
type Database interface {
	// Accessing tries:
	// OpenTrie opens the main account trie.
	// OpenStorageTrie opens the storage trie of an account.
	// OpenTrie 打开了主账号的trie树
	// OpenStorageTrie 打开了一个账号的storage trie
	OpenTrie(root common.Hash) (Trie, error)
	OpenStorageTrie(addrHash, root common.Hash) (Trie, error)
	// Accessing contract code:
	// 访问合约代码
	ContractCode(addrHash, codeHash common.Hash) ([]byte, error)
	// 访问合约的大小。 这个方法可能经常被调用。因为有缓存。
	ContractCodeSize(addrHash, codeHash common.Hash) (int, error)
	// CopyTrie returns an independent copy of the given trie.
	// CopyTrie 返回了一个指定trie的独立的copy
	CopyTrie(Trie) Trie
}

// NewDatabase creates a backing store for state. The returned database is safe for
// concurrent use and retains cached trie nodes in memory.
func NewDatabase(db ethdb.Database) Database {
	csc, _ := lru.New(codeSizeCacheSize)
	return &cachingDB{db: db, codeSizeCache: csc}
}

type cachingDB struct {
	db            ethdb.Database
	mu            sync.Mutex
	pastTries     []*trie.SecureTrie  //trie树的缓存
	codeSizeCache *lru.Cache		  //合约代码大小的缓存
}

OpenTrie,从缓存里面查找。如果找到了返回缓存的trie的copy, 否则重新构建一颗树返回。

func (db *cachingDB) OpenTrie(root common.Hash) (Trie, error) {
	db.mu.Lock()
	defer db.mu.Unlock()

	for i := len(db.pastTries) - 1; i >= 0; i-- {
		if db.pastTries[i].Hash() == root {
			return cachedTrie{db.pastTries[i].Copy(), db}, nil
		}
	}
	tr, err := trie.NewSecure(root, db.db, MaxTrieCacheGen)
	if err != nil {
		return nil, err
	}
	return cachedTrie{tr, db}, nil
}

func (db *cachingDB) OpenStorageTrie(addrHash, root common.Hash) (Trie, error) {
	return trie.NewSecure(root, db.db, 0)
}

ContractCode 和 ContractCodeSize, ContractCodeSize有缓存。

func (db *cachingDB) ContractCode(addrHash, codeHash common.Hash) ([]byte, error) {
	code, err := db.db.Get(codeHash[:])
	if err == nil {
		db.codeSizeCache.Add(codeHash, len(code))
	}
	return code, err
}

func (db *cachingDB) ContractCodeSize(addrHash, codeHash common.Hash) (int, error) {
	if cached, ok := db.codeSizeCache.Get(codeHash); ok {
		return cached.(int), nil
	}
	code, err := db.ContractCode(addrHash, codeHash)
	if err == nil {
		db.codeSizeCache.Add(codeHash, len(code))
	}
	return len(code), err
}

cachedTrie的结构和commit方法,commit的时候会调用pushTrie方法把之前的Trie树缓存起来。

// cachedTrie inserts its trie into a cachingDB on commit.
type cachedTrie struct {
	*trie.SecureTrie
	db *cachingDB
}

func (m cachedTrie) CommitTo(dbw trie.DatabaseWriter) (common.Hash, error) {
	root, err := m.SecureTrie.CommitTo(dbw)
	if err == nil {
		m.db.pushTrie(m.SecureTrie)
	}
	return root, err
}
func (db *cachingDB) pushTrie(t *trie.SecureTrie) {
	db.mu.Lock()
	defer db.mu.Unlock()

	if len(db.pastTries) >= maxPastTries {
		copy(db.pastTries, db.pastTries[1:])
		db.pastTries[len(db.pastTries)-1] = t
	} else {
		db.pastTries = append(db.pastTries, t)
	}
}

journal.go

journal代表了操作日志, 并针对各种操作的日志提供了对应的回滚功能。 可以基于这个日志来做一些事务类型的操作。

类型定义,定义了journalEntry这个接口,提供了undo的功能。 journal 就是journalEntry的列表。

type journalEntry interface {
	undo(*StateDB)
}

type journal []journalEntry

各种不同的日志类型以及undo方法。

createObjectChange struct {  //创建对象的日志。 undo方法就是从StateDB中删除创建的对象。
	account *common.Address
}
func (ch createObjectChange) undo(s *StateDB) {
	delete(s.stateObjects, *ch.account)
	delete(s.stateObjectsDirty, *ch.account)
}
// 对于stateObject的修改, undo方法就是把值改为原来的对象。
resetObjectChange struct {
	prev *stateObject
}
func (ch resetObjectChange) undo(s *StateDB) {
	s.setStateObject(ch.prev)
}
// 自杀的更改。自杀应该是删除账号,但是如果没有commit的化,对象还没有从stateDB删除。
suicideChange struct {
	account     *common.Address
	prev        bool // whether account had already suicided
	prevbalance *big.Int
}
func (ch suicideChange) undo(s *StateDB) {
	obj := s.getStateObject(*ch.account)
	if obj != nil {
		obj.suicided = ch.prev
		obj.setBalance(ch.prevbalance)
	}
}

// Changes to individual accounts.
balanceChange struct {
	account *common.Address
	prev    *big.Int
}
nonceChange struct {
	account *common.Address
	prev    uint64
}
storageChange struct {
	account       *common.Address
	key, prevalue common.Hash
}
codeChange struct {
	account            *common.Address
	prevcode, prevhash []byte
}

func (ch balanceChange) undo(s *StateDB) {
	s.getStateObject(*ch.account).setBalance(ch.prev)
}
func (ch nonceChange) undo(s *StateDB) {
	s.getStateObject(*ch.account).setNonce(ch.prev)
}
func (ch codeChange) undo(s *StateDB) {
	s.getStateObject(*ch.account).setCode(common.BytesToHash(ch.prevhash), ch.prevcode)
}
func (ch storageChange) undo(s *StateDB) {
	s.getStateObject(*ch.account).setState(ch.key, ch.prevalue)
}

// 我理解是DAO事件的退款处理
refundChange struct {
	prev *big.Int
}
func (ch refundChange) undo(s *StateDB) {
	s.refund = ch.prev
}
// 增加了日志的修改
addLogChange struct {
	txhash common.Hash
}
func (ch addLogChange) undo(s *StateDB) {
	logs := s.logs[ch.txhash]
	if len(logs) == 1 {
		delete(s.logs, ch.txhash)
	} else {
		s.logs[ch.txhash] = logs[:len(logs)-1]
	}
	s.logSize--
}
// 这个是增加 VM看到的 SHA3的 原始byte[], 增加SHA3 hash -> byte[] 的对应关系
addPreimageChange struct {
	hash common.Hash
}
func (ch addPreimageChange) undo(s *StateDB) {
	delete(s.preimages, ch.hash)
}

touchChange struct {
	account   *common.Address
	prev      bool
	prevDirty bool
}
var ripemd = common.HexToAddress("0000000000000000000000000000000000000003")
func (ch touchChange) undo(s *StateDB) {
	if !ch.prev && *ch.account != ripemd {
		s.getStateObject(*ch.account).touched = ch.prev
		if !ch.prevDirty {
			delete(s.stateObjectsDirty, *ch.account)
		}
	}
}

state_object.go

stateObject表示正在修改的以太坊帐户。

数据结构

type Storage map[common.Hash]common.Hash

// stateObject represents an Ethereum account which is being modified.
// stateObject表示正在修改的以太坊帐户。
// The usage pattern is as follows:
// First you need to obtain a state object.
// Account values can be accessed and modified through the object.
// Finally, call CommitTrie to write the modified storage trie into a database.

使用模式如下:
首先你需要获得一个state_object。
帐户值可以通过对象访问和修改。
最后,调用CommitTrie将修改后的存储trie写入数据库。

type stateObject struct {
	address  common.Address
	addrHash common.Hash // hash of ethereum address of the account 以太坊账号地址的hash值
	data     Account  // 这个是实际的以太坊账号的信息
	db       *StateDB //状态数据库

	// DB error.
	// State objects are used by the consensus core and VM which are
	// unable to deal with database-level errors. Any error that occurs
	// during a database read is memoized here and will eventually be returned
	// by StateDB.Commit.
	// 
	数据库错误。
	stateObject会被共识算法的核心和VM使用,在这些代码内部无法处理数据库级别的错误。 
	在数据库读取期间发生的任何错误都会在这里被存储,最终将由StateDB.Commit返回。
	dbErr error

	// Write caches.  写缓存
	trie Trie // storage trie, which becomes non-nil on first access 用户的存储trie ,在第一次访问的时候变得非空
	code Code // contract bytecode, which gets set when code is loaded 合约代码,当代码被加载的时候被设置

	cachedStorage Storage // Storage entry cache to avoid duplicate reads 用户存储对象的缓存,用来避免重复读
	dirtyStorage  Storage // Storage entries that need to be flushed to disk 需要刷入磁盘的用户存储对象

	// Cache flags.  Cache 标志
	// When an object is marked suicided it will be delete from the trie
	// during the "update" phase of the state transition.
	// 当一个对象被标记为自杀时,它将在状态转换的“更新”阶段期间从树中删除。
	dirtyCode bool // true if the code was updated 如果代码被更新,会设置为true
	suicided  bool
	touched   bool
	deleted   bool
	onDirty   func(addr common.Address) // Callback method to mark a state object newly dirty  第一次被设置为drity的时候会被调用。
}

// Account is the Ethereum consensus representation of accounts.
// These objects are stored in the main account trie.
// 帐户是以太坊共识表示的帐户。 这些对象存储在main account trie。
type Account struct {
	Nonce    uint64
	Balance  *big.Int
	Root     common.Hash // merkle root of the storage trie
	CodeHash []byte
}

构造函数

// newObject creates a state object.
func newObject(db *StateDB, address common.Address, data Account, onDirty func(addr common.Address)) *stateObject {
	if data.Balance == nil {
		data.Balance = new(big.Int)
	}
	if data.CodeHash == nil {
		data.CodeHash = emptyCodeHash
	}
	return &stateObject{
		db:            db,
		address:       address,
		addrHash:      crypto.Keccak256Hash(address[:]),
		data:          data,
		cachedStorage: make(Storage),
		dirtyStorage:  make(Storage),
		onDirty:       onDirty,
	}
}

RLP的编码方式,只会编码 Account对象。

// EncodeRLP implements rlp.Encoder.
func (c *stateObject) EncodeRLP(w io.Writer) error {
	return rlp.Encode(w, c.data)
}

一些状态改变的函数。

func (self *stateObject) markSuicided() {
	self.suicided = true
	if self.onDirty != nil {
		self.onDirty(self.Address())
		self.onDirty = nil
	}
}

func (c *stateObject) touch() {
	c.db.journal = append(c.db.journal, touchChange{
		account:   &c.address,
		prev:      c.touched,
		prevDirty: c.onDirty == nil,
	})
	if c.onDirty != nil {
		c.onDirty(c.Address())
		c.onDirty = nil
	}
	c.touched = true
}

Storage的处理

// getTrie返回账户的Storage Trie
func (c *stateObject) getTrie(db Database) Trie {
	if c.trie == nil {
		var err error
		c.trie, err = db.OpenStorageTrie(c.addrHash, c.data.Root)
		if err != nil {
			c.trie, _ = db.OpenStorageTrie(c.addrHash, common.Hash{})
			c.setError(fmt.Errorf("can't create storage trie: %v", err))
		}
	}
	return c.trie
}

// GetState returns a value in account storage.
// GetState 返回account storage 的一个值,这个值的类型是Hash类型。
// 说明account storage里面只能存储hash值?
// 如果缓存里面存在就从缓存里查找,否则从数据库里面查询。然后存储到缓存里面。
func (self *stateObject) GetState(db Database, key common.Hash) common.Hash {
	value, exists := self.cachedStorage[key]
	if exists {
		return value
	}
	// Load from DB in case it is missing.
	enc, err := self.getTrie(db).TryGet(key[:])
	if err != nil {
		self.setError(err)
		return common.Hash{}
	}
	if len(enc) > 0 {
		_, content, _, err := rlp.Split(enc)
		if err != nil {
			self.setError(err)
		}
		value.SetBytes(content)
	}
	if (value != common.Hash{}) {
		self.cachedStorage[key] = value
	}
	return value
}

// SetState updates a value in account storage.
// 往 account storeage 里面设置一个值 key value 的类型都是Hash类型。
func (self *stateObject) SetState(db Database, key, value common.Hash) {
	self.db.journal = append(self.db.journal, storageChange{
		account:  &self.address,
		key:      key,
		prevalue: self.GetState(db, key),
	})
	self.setState(key, value)
}

func (self *stateObject) setState(key, value common.Hash) {
	self.cachedStorage[key] = value
	self.dirtyStorage[key] = value

	if self.onDirty != nil {
		self.onDirty(self.Address())
		self.onDirty = nil
	}
}

提交 Commit

// CommitTrie the storage trie of the object to dwb.
// This updates the trie root.
// 步骤,首先打开,然后修改,然后提交或者回滚
func (self *stateObject) CommitTrie(db Database, dbw trie.DatabaseWriter) error {
	self.updateTrie(db) // updateTrie把修改过的缓存写入Trie树
	if self.dbErr != nil {
		return self.dbErr
	}
	root, err := self.trie.CommitTo(dbw)
	if err == nil {
		self.data.Root = root
	}
	return err
}

// updateTrie writes cached storage modifications into the object's storage trie.
func (self *stateObject) updateTrie(db Database) Trie {
	tr := self.getTrie(db)
	for key, value := range self.dirtyStorage {
		delete(self.dirtyStorage, key)
		if (value == common.Hash{}) {
			self.setError(tr.TryDelete(key[:]))
			continue
		}
		// Encoding []byte cannot fail, ok to ignore the error.
		v, _ := rlp.EncodeToBytes(bytes.TrimLeft(value[:], "\x00"))
		self.setError(tr.TryUpdate(key[:], v))
	}
	return tr
}

// UpdateRoot sets the trie root to the current root hash of
// 把账号的root设置为当前的trie树的跟。
func (self *stateObject) updateRoot(db Database) {
	self.updateTrie(db)
	self.data.Root = self.trie.Hash()
}

额外的一些功能 ,deepCopy提供了state_object的深拷贝。

func (self *stateObject) deepCopy(db *StateDB, onDirty func(addr common.Address)) *stateObject {
	stateObject := newObject(db, self.address, self.data, onDirty)
	if self.trie != nil {
		stateObject.trie = db.db.CopyTrie(self.trie)
	}
	stateObject.code = self.code
	stateObject.dirtyStorage = self.dirtyStorage.Copy()
	stateObject.cachedStorage = self.dirtyStorage.Copy()
	stateObject.suicided = self.suicided
	stateObject.dirtyCode = self.dirtyCode
	stateObject.deleted = self.deleted
	return stateObject
}

statedb.go

stateDB用来存储以太坊中关于merkle trie的所有内容。 StateDB负责缓存和存储嵌套状态。 这是检索合约和账户的一般查询界面:

数据结构

type StateDB struct {
	db   Database  // 后端的数据库
	trie Trie	   // trie树 main account trie

	// This map holds 'live' objects, which will get modified while processing a state transition.
	// 下面的Map用来存储当前活动的对象,这些对象在状态转换的时候会被修改。
	// stateObjects 用来缓存对象
	// stateObjectsDirty用来缓存被修改过的对象。
	stateObjects      map[common.Address]*stateObject
	stateObjectsDirty map[common.Address]struct{}

	// DB error.
	// State objects are used by the consensus core and VM which are
	// unable to deal with database-level errors. Any error that occurs
	// during a database read is memoized here and will eventually be returned
	// by StateDB.Commit.
	dbErr error

	// The refund counter, also used by state transitioning.
	// refund计数器。 暂时还不清楚功能。
	refund *big.Int

	thash, bhash common.Hash  //当前的transaction hash 和block hash 
	txIndex      int		  // 当前的交易的index
	logs         map[common.Hash][]*types.Log // 日志 key是交易的hash值
	logSize      uint

	preimages map[common.Hash][]byte  // EVM计算的 SHA3->byte[]的映射关系

	// Journal of state modifications. This is the backbone of
	// Snapshot and RevertToSnapshot.
	// 状态修改日志。 这是Snapshot和RevertToSnapshot的支柱。
	journal        journal
	validRevisions []revision
	nextRevisionId int

	lock sync.Mutex
}

构造函数

// 一般的用法 statedb, _ := state.New(common.Hash{}, state.NewDatabase(db))

// Create a new state from a given trie
func New(root common.Hash, db Database) (*StateDB, error) {
	tr, err := db.OpenTrie(root)
	if err != nil {
		return nil, err
	}
	return &StateDB{
		db:                db,
		trie:              tr,
		stateObjects:      make(map[common.Address]*stateObject),
		stateObjectsDirty: make(map[common.Address]struct{}),
		refund:            new(big.Int),
		logs:              make(map[common.Hash][]*types.Log),
		preimages:         make(map[common.Hash][]byte),
	}, nil
}

对于Log的处理

state提供了Log的处理,这比较意外,因为Log实际上是存储在区块链中的,并没有存储在state trie中, state提供Log的处理, 使用了基于下面的几个函数。 奇怪的是暂时没看到如何删除logs里面的信息,如果不删除的话,应该会越积累越多。 TODO logs 删除

Prepare函数,在交易执行开始被执行。

AddLog函数,在交易执行过程中被VM执行。添加日志。同时把日志和交易关联起来,添加部分交易的信息。

GetLogs函数,交易完成取走。

// Prepare sets the current transaction hash and index and block hash which is
// used when the EVM emits new state logs.
func (self *StateDB) Prepare(thash, bhash common.Hash, ti int) {
	self.thash = thash
	self.bhash = bhash
	self.txIndex = ti
}

func (self *StateDB) AddLog(log *types.Log) {
	self.journal = append(self.journal, addLogChange{txhash: self.thash})

	log.TxHash = self.thash
	log.BlockHash = self.bhash
	log.TxIndex = uint(self.txIndex)
	log.Index = self.logSize
	self.logs[self.thash] = append(self.logs[self.thash], log)
	self.logSize++
}
func (self *StateDB) GetLogs(hash common.Hash) []*types.Log {
	return self.logs[hash]
}

func (self *StateDB) Logs() []*types.Log {
	var logs []*types.Log
	for _, lgs := range self.logs {
		logs = append(logs, lgs...)
	}
	return logs
}

stateObject处理

getStateObject,首先从缓存里面获取,如果没有就从trie树里面获取,并加载到缓存。

// Retrieve a state object given my the address. Returns nil if not found.
func (self *StateDB) getStateObject(addr common.Address) (stateObject *stateObject) {
	// Prefer 'live' objects.
	if obj := self.stateObjects[addr]; obj != nil {
		if obj.deleted {
			return nil
		}
		return obj
	}

	// Load the object from the database.
	enc, err := self.trie.TryGet(addr[:])
	if len(enc) == 0 {
		self.setError(err)
		return nil
	}
	var data Account
	if err := rlp.DecodeBytes(enc, &data); err != nil {
		log.Error("Failed to decode state object", "addr", addr, "err", err)
		return nil
	}
	// Insert into the live set.
	obj := newObject(self, addr, data, self.MarkStateObjectDirty)
	self.setStateObject(obj)
	return obj
}

MarkStateObjectDirty, 设置一个stateObject为Dirty。 直接往stateObjectDirty对应的地址插入一个空结构体。

// MarkStateObjectDirty adds the specified object to the dirty map to avoid costly
// state object cache iteration to find a handful of modified ones.
func (self *StateDB) MarkStateObjectDirty(addr common.Address) {
	self.stateObjectsDirty[addr] = struct{}{}
}

快照和回滚功能

Snapshot可以创建一个快照, 然后通过 RevertToSnapshot可以回滚到哪个状态,这个功能是通过journal来做到的。 每一步的修改都会往journal里面添加一个undo日志。 如果需要回滚只需要执行undo日志就行了。

// Snapshot returns an identifier for the current revision of the state.
func (self *StateDB) Snapshot() int {
	id := self.nextRevisionId
	self.nextRevisionId++
	self.validRevisions = append(self.validRevisions, revision{id, len(self.journal)})
	return id
}

// RevertToSnapshot reverts all state changes made since the given revision.
func (self *StateDB) RevertToSnapshot(revid int) {
	// Find the snapshot in the stack of valid snapshots.
	idx := sort.Search(len(self.validRevisions), func(i int) bool {
		return self.validRevisions[i].id >= revid
	})
	if idx == len(self.validRevisions) || self.validRevisions[idx].id != revid {
		panic(fmt.Errorf("revision id %v cannot be reverted", revid))
	}
	snapshot := self.validRevisions[idx].journalIndex

	// Replay the journal to undo changes.
	for i := len(self.journal) - 1; i >= snapshot; i-- {
		self.journal[i].undo(self)
	}
	self.journal = self.journal[:snapshot]

	// Remove invalidated snapshots from the stack.
	self.validRevisions = self.validRevisions[:idx]
}

获取中间状态的 root hash值

IntermediateRoot 用来计算当前的state trie的root的hash值。这个方法会在交易执行的过程中被调用。会被存入 transaction receipt

Finalise方法会调用update方法把存放在cache层的修改写入到trie数据库里面。 但是这个时候还没有写入底层的数据库。 还没有调用commit,数据还在内存里面,还没有落地成文件。

// Finalise finalises the state by removing the self destructed objects
// and clears the journal as well as the refunds.
func (s *StateDB) Finalise(deleteEmptyObjects bool) {
	for addr := range s.stateObjectsDirty {
		stateObject := s.stateObjects[addr]
		if stateObject.suicided || (deleteEmptyObjects && stateObject.empty()) {
			s.deleteStateObject(stateObject)
		} else {
			stateObject.updateRoot(s.db)
			s.updateStateObject(stateObject)
		}
	}
	// Invalidate journal because reverting across transactions is not allowed.
	s.clearJournalAndRefund()
}

// IntermediateRoot computes the current root hash of the state trie.
// It is called in between transactions to get the root hash that
// goes into transaction receipts.
func (s *StateDB) IntermediateRoot(deleteEmptyObjects bool) common.Hash {
	s.Finalise(deleteEmptyObjects)
	return s.trie.Hash()
}

commit方法

CommitTo用来提交更改。

// CommitTo writes the state to the given database.
func (s *StateDB) CommitTo(dbw trie.DatabaseWriter, deleteEmptyObjects bool) (root common.Hash, err error) {
	defer s.clearJournalAndRefund()

	// Commit objects to the trie.
	for addr, stateObject := range s.stateObjects {
		_, isDirty := s.stateObjectsDirty[addr]
		switch {
		case stateObject.suicided || (isDirty && deleteEmptyObjects && stateObject.empty()):
			// If the object has been removed, don't bother syncing it
			// and just mark it for deletion in the trie.
			s.deleteStateObject(stateObject)
		case isDirty:
			// Write any contract code associated with the state object
			if stateObject.code != nil && stateObject.dirtyCode {
				if err := dbw.Put(stateObject.CodeHash(), stateObject.code); err != nil {
					return common.Hash{}, err
				}
				stateObject.dirtyCode = false
			}
			// Write any storage changes in the state object to its storage trie.
			if err := stateObject.CommitTrie(s.db, dbw); err != nil {
				return common.Hash{}, err
			}
			// Update the object in the main account trie.
			s.updateStateObject(stateObject)
		}
		delete(s.stateObjectsDirty, addr)
	}
	// Write trie changes.
	root, err = s.trie.CommitTo(dbw)
	log.Debug("Trie cache stats after commit", "misses", trie.CacheMisses(), "unloads", trie.CacheUnloads())
	return root, err
}

总结

state包提供了用户和合约的状态管理的功能。 管理了状态和合约的各种状态转换。 cache, trie, 数据库。 日志和回滚功能。

You can’t perform that action at this time.