Bootstrap a zfs-on-root NixOS configuration in one command. Themelios automates the entire installation process using any NixOS livedisk with an internet connection and your git repository. Themelios is flexible with many configuration options and allows for unique, per-machine customization.
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README.md

Themelios - NixOS on a rock-solid ZFS foundation.

Bootstrap a zfs-on-root NixOS configuration in one command.

Themelios NixOS Screenshot

From any NixOS live disk, Themelios

  • Automatically installs zfs and git to the livedisk if needed.
  • Clones your git repo, optionally using a non-master branch.
  • Finds your configuration.sh file automatically.
  • Configures a zfs-on-root system to your configuration.sh file specification including the following options:
    • Uses sgdisk and/or wipefs, or dd to clear your disks.
    • Creates a single/mirror/raidz1/raidz2/raidz3 zpool.
    • Configures a zfs-on-root dataset scheme by default.
    • Optionally generates and imports an /etc/nixos/themelios-zfs.nix which includes sensible settings for zfs-on-root.
    • Optional "zfs-extra" enables further zfs-support options in NixOS.
    • Optional "overlay" feature allows easy custom pool creation settings and dataset scheme changes without need to hack on the script directly.
  • Generates an /etc/nixos/configuration.nix which imports your top-level-nixfile from your repo-- (and thereby nixos-install's the rest of your operating system.)
  • Aims to fail gracefully with continue and retry options.

What Themelios does not do (yet)

  • Currently UEFI is unsupported. I do have plans to add this in as an option, and also to give legacy users the additional option to use e.g. ext2 for /boot.

  • Full Disk encryption (Let's wait for zfsonlinux native encryption to reach full maturity before implementing this...)

Try it in it a VM right now!

  • From a NixOS LiveDisk VM,
[root@nixos:~] bash <(curl https://raw.githubusercontent.com/a-schaefers/themelios/master/themelios) vm-example a-schaefers/themelios

This command executes the script with curl and bash, which in turn downloads the a-schaefers/themelios repo from github, finds the "vm-example" directory with a configuration.sh file and begins the bootstrap process.

"configuration.sh" [so-called]

Configuration.sh may actually be named anything you want and located anywhere in your project, Themelios will search for $1 by filename first and find it automatically, provided it is a uniquely named file.

If the filename isn't found, then Themelios will search for directories by the same name. So if you prefer using a standard naming convention, put a literal "configuration.sh" file inside of a uniquely named directory and feed Themelios the unique directory name. The example "Try it init a VM right now!" command of this repository uses this method:

# vm-example is not a file inside this repo, but is a directory-- so this finds the dir hosts/vm-example/ and loads thel literal "configuration.sh" file.
[root@nixos:~] themelios vm-example a-schaefers/themelios

If none of this works for you, just tell themelios where the file is relative to project root:

[root@nixos:~] themelios ./hosts/vm-example/configuration.sh https://github.com/a-schaefers/themelios.git master

NOTE: The username/repo-name shortcut only works for Github repos. Non-Github repos must provide the full remote.

TL;DR. Feed Themelios a git repository url that contains a file which has the following configuration variables:

# Themelios configuration.sh example

# DISK PREPARATION SETTINGS #

use_sgdisk_clear="true"    # use sgdisk --clear
use_wipefs_all="true"      # use wipefs --all
use_zero_disks="false"     # use dd if=/dev/zero ...

# ZFS POOL SETTINGS #

zfs_pool_name="zroot"
zfs_pool_type="mirror"     # use "" for single, or "mirror", "raidz1", etc.

# Note: using /dev/disk/by-id is also preferable.
zfs_pool_disks=("/dev/sda" "/dev/sdb")

# Datasets to be set with com.sun:auto-snapshot=true.
zfs_auto_snapshot=("$zfs_pool_name/HOME" "$zfs_pool_name/ROOT")

# If true, mount /nix outside of the / (root) dataset.
# Recommended true for now due to https://github.com/a-schaefers/themelios/issues/1
zfs_dataset_slashnix_no_root="true"

# Todo allow true or false for this exception.
zfs_use_atime="off"              # set to "on" or "off" (recommended "off" for ssd.)

zfs_make_swap="false"            # creates a swap zvol (Not recommended in zfs-land.)
zfs_swap_size="4G"

# If set, themelios will source them if the files exist alongside configuration.sh
zfs_pool_overlay_file=""         # override zpool_create()
zfs_dataset_overlay_file=""      # override datasets_create()

# NIX_OS BOOTSTRAP SETTINGS #

# Your top-level configuration.nix file to be bootstrapped-- (use the relative path from the project_root.)
# For example, to bootstrap project_root/hosts/vm-example/default.nix
nix_top_level_configuration="hosts/vm-example"

# Directory name of to clone your git-remote in "/" (root). Do not use slashes.
# This is intended to be the directory to operate the nix installation from.
# For example, here is mine! https://github.com/a-schaefers/nix-config
nix_repo_name="nix-config"

# Optionally inserted as "nixos-install --root /mnt $nix_install_opts"
nix_install_opts=""

# Creates /etc/nixos/zfs-configuration.nix with sensible settings.
nix_zfs_configuration_enabled="true"

# Enable "extra" options [below] in addition to zfs_configuration?
nix_zfs_configuration_extra_enabled="true"

Optional overlays

If you want to override the default Themelios zpool_create() or datasets_create() functions with your own code, then set the optional variables in your configuration.sh,

# If set, themelios will source them if the files exist alongside configuration.sh
zfs_pool_overlay_file=""         # override zpool_create()
zfs_dataset_overlay_file=""      # override datasets_create()

Create the files and place them alongside wherever your configuration.sh is. The vm-example in this repo uses stock pool and dataset overlays by default. :)

You can also set the postinstall_overlay_file in the same way,

postinstall_overlay_file=""      # run arbritrary code after nixos-install and before umount /mnt.

The following is an example using postinstall_overlay_file that mounts a usb stick and copies my Private keys to my dotfiles.

zfs-configuration.nix

If nix_zfs_configuration_enabled="true" in a configuration.sh file, Themelios will create /etc/nixos/zfs-configuration.nix with the following zfs-on-root settings:

{ ... }:
{ imports = [];

# Configure grub with zfs support.
boot.supportedFilesystems = [ "zfs" ];
boot.loader.grub.enable = true;
boot.loader.grub.version = 2;
boot.loader.grub.devices = [
$(for disk_id in "${zfs_pool_disks[@]}"
do
echo "\"$disk_id\""
done)
];

# The 32-bit host id of the machine, formatted as 8 hexadecimal characters.
# You should try to make this id unique among your machines.
networking.hostId = "$zfs_host_id";

# noop, the recommended elevator with zfs.
# shell_on_fail allows to force import manually in the case of zfs import failure.
boot.kernelParams = [ "elevator=noop" "boot.shell_on_fail" ];

# Grub on zfs has been known to have a hard time finding kernels with really/long/dir/paths.
# Copy the kernels to /boot and avoid the issue.
boot.loader.grub.copyKernels = true;

# Ensure some safeguards are active that zfs uses to protect zfs pools.
boot.zfs.forceImportAll = false;
boot.zfs.forceImportRoot = false;
}

Additional configuration.sh settings - zfs extra

Enable nix_zfs_configuration_extra_enabled="true" in addition to nix_zfs_configuration_enabled="true" in configuration.sh for the following extras:

# Enables periodic scrubbing of ZFS pools.
nix_zfs_extra_auto_scrub="true"

# Enable the (OpenSolaris-compatible) ZFS auto-snapshotting service.
nix_zfs_extra_auto_snapshot_enabled="true"
nix_zfs_extra_auto_snapshot_frequent="8"   # take a snapshot every 15 minutes and keep 8 in rotation
nix_zfs_extra_auto_snapshot_hourly="0"
nix_zfs_extra_auto_snapshot_daily="7"      # take a daily snapshot and keep 7 in rotation
nix_zfs_extra_auto_snapshot_weekly="0"
nix_zfs_extra_auto_snapshot_monthly="0"

# Use NixOs automatic garbage collection?
nix_zfs_extra_gc_automatic="true"
nix_zfs_extra_gc_dates="weekly"
nix_zfs_extra_gc_options="--delete-older-than 30d"

# Clean /tmp automatically on boot.
nix_zfs_extra_clean_tmp_dir="true"

Last things

If you have special [post nixos-install] needs and do not want the script to automatically umount /mnt, export zpool, and ask to reboot, pass NOUMOUNT=1 to the script.

[root@nixos:~] NOUMOUNT=1 themelios foo bar ...

Debugging

If something goes haywire and you just want to start the process all over without rebooting the machine, you could try the following:

[root@nixos:~] STARTOVER=1 POOL=zroot themelios foo bar

Build Themelios into a custom NixOS rescue iso

Save the following somewhere on an already existing NixOS install as iso.nix:

{config, pkgs, ...}:
let
  themelios = pkgs.writeScriptBin "themelios" ''
    bash <(curl https://raw.githubusercontent.com/a-schaefers/themelios/master/themelios) $@
  '';
in {
  imports = [
    <nixpkgs/nixos/modules/installer/cd-dvd/installation-cd-minimal.nix>
    <nixpkgs/nixos/modules/installer/cd-dvd/channel.nix>
  ];

  networking = {
    networkmanager.enable = true;
    wireless.enable = false; #networkmanager.enable handles this
  };
    boot.supportedFilesystems = [ "zfs" ];
  environment.systemPackages = with pkgs; [ git themelios ];
}

And build it!

nix-build '<nixpkgs/nixos>' -A config.system.build.isoImage -I nixos-config=iso.nix

The generated iso will be found inside the newly created "result/" directory.

Note: It would be best practice to fork the project, audit the script, and modify the curl url to use your fork. :)

Putting it all together (a real-world example)

While I do not regard my personal setup to be the ideal for everybody, what follows is to show-case how Themelios can be used to bootstrap multiple, per-machine configurations. The goal was simplicity, efficiency, and reproducibility.

Making contributions

Check out the What Themelios does not do section and make PR's. I appreciate all the help I can get!

Thank you!