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Step 7. Add Dependency Injection and Refactor

To this point, we've converted the entire application from JavaScript to TypeScript and have added unit tests. We will now decouple the data layer and the service layer by introducing dependency injection. By adding dependency injection, we can easily switch between our two repositories while requiring very minimal refactoring.

Switch to the XML Repository Manually

Before we get into dependency injection, let's look at the XML data through our web application.

Open the file step 7/app/api/booksController.ts and change the second line reference to our books JSON data layer to our XML data layer by updating the path:

import { Books } from '../data/xml/books';

Build and run the web application:

npm start

If everything compiles and runs correctly, then you should now see a list of XML-related books in our application.

Traditional Constructor 'Injection'

You may be thinking at this point, "Big Deal". I get it.

Two things:

  1. As with every tightly-coupled application, we would need to update everywhere we referenced the JSON data layer to now access the XML version. In this application, that's only one place. However, in a much larger application, that could be a problem.
  2. And, if we wanted to be creative, we theoretically could import this dependecy through our constructor. Typically, in traditional JavaScript, this is precisely what we would have done. However, that's not very clean, ellegant, nor does it give us a lot of options for future growth (e.g. SOA, microservices, etc.). We need something a little more robust. Still, we would need to manually import the dependency through every instantiation of the data layer class. Again, too cumbersome.

Let's proceed with true dependency injection the TypeScript way.

Add InversifyJS and reflect-metadata

InversifyJS is an extremely powerful IoC container for TypeScript. While it has a ton of options, we're going to perform very simple dependency injection in our project.

Additionally, in some environments, reflect-metadata may not be required. However, for safety, let's go ahead and add it.

In the step 7 project folder, add InversifyJS to the project:

npm i inversify reflect-metadata --save

Implement Dependency Injection

We're now going to fully implement the dependency injection. Looking below, you may think it's a lot of steps. However, you'll be surprised on how easy it is.

Create InversifyJS Configuration

As stated earlier, InversifyJS has many powerful capabilities. However, I'm going to keep it simple for this workshop.

In the step 7 project folder, create a new file named inversify.config.ts and paste the following into it:

import { Container} from 'inversify';
import { IBook } from './app/data/interfaces/books';

import { Books as BooksJSON } from './app/data/json/books' ;
import { Books as BooksXML }  from './app/data/xml/books';

let Kernel = new Container();

export default Kernel;

Import InversifyJS Configuration

Now, in the file step 7/app/api/booksController.js, we'll need to make some changes.

First, insert the following as the first line:

import Kernel from '../../inversify.config';

Reference the Abstract Interface

Next, change line 2 from:

import { Books } from '../data/json/books';


import { IBook } from '../data/interfaces/books';

Instantiate Concrete Class from IoC Container

Change the begining of the class constructor from:

export class BooksController {

    public constructor() { }


to (and replace the constructor):

export class BooksController {
    private _books: IBook;

    public constructor() { 
        this._books = Kernel.get<IBook>('IBook');


Update References

Because the concrete class is now instantiated in the constructor, we no longer need to do it in the routes. Therefore, remove the two lines (one in each route):

var books = new Books();

Then, on the very next line (after the two lines you removed), updated the books reference to:

this._books.getAll().then((bkArr) => { ...

this._books.get( => { ...

Make Concrete Classes 'Injectable'

We now need to make both of our concrete classes (JSON and XML) injectable.

Open up both step 7/app/data/json/books.ts and step 7/app/data/xml/books.ts and:

  1. Before the first line, insert the following 2 lines:
import 'reflect-metadata';
import { injectable } from 'inversify';
  1. Before the class declaration line, insert the following descriptor:


  1. We first created a configuration file for InversifyJS. This configuration file maps concrete implementations to interfaces. This allows us to reference these bound concrete classes later throughout our code while simply providing a promise at the moment. InversifyJS's web site typically demonstrates doing this through symbols. Again, I wanted to keep this as simple as possible and, with the exception of the necessary reflect-metadata, wanted to eliminate polyfills as much as possible from our demo.
  2. We then reference this configuration everywhere we need to inject our dependency. In our case, it's the booksController.
  3. Because we could, at any time, change out the concrete implementation of our books repository, we are simply going to reference a promise of a books repository by providing the interface.
  4. In the constructor, we reference the instantiated instance of our concrete class that was created by our IoC container and update our API to use the methods from that instance.
  5. Finally, we inform InversifyJS that our concrete classes are injectable and provide a reference to reflect-metadata so that InversifyJS can properly perform reflection.

Compile and Test

Let's make sure everything is working as expected. In the step 7 folder, type the following:

npm run tsc
npm test

You should now see 10 passing tests.

Running npm start should allow you to view the web application (with the JSON books).

Switch the Dependency

Now, instead of opening and editing multiple files, we only need to edit our configuration file to switch repositories.

Open step 7/inversify.config.js and change the binding (line 8) from BooksJSON to BooksXML.

Running npm start should now allow you view the web application, but this time with the XML books.


Congratulations! You have now implemented dependency injection into your Node.js application.

Keep in mind that the inversify.config.js can programmatically change dependencies based on certain conditions (e.g. configuration files, envrionments, etc.).

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