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ffuzzy++ : C++ implementation of ssdeep-compatible fast fuzzy hashing

What is ffuzzy++?

ffuzzy++ is a fuzzy hash implementation compatible with ssdeep version 2.13 ( Using this implementation, you can:

  • Generate fuzzy digests from files and buffers
  • Compare fuzzy digests generated from ffuzzy++ or other ssdeep-compatible implementations

This implementation is designed to be fast, stable and thread-safe. Sometimes this is about 60% to 120% faster than ssdeep when you cluster digests and is about 10% to 60% faster than ssdeep when you generate digests.

However, this C++ implementation is primarily designed to be fast by exposing internal structure of fuzzy hashing. So this implementation may not be safe as you think (depends on function you use). Instead, you can boost your clustering application using efficient digest utilities.


You will need C++ compiler with full C++11 support.

You will also need GNU Autoconf Archive when you build configure script (

If you wish to run the test, Google C++ Testing Framework ( will be needed.


This program can be installed without proper "installation". Just copy ffuzzy.hpp and ffuzzypp directory to anywhere you want. In this case, you need to define FFUZZYPP_DECLARATIONS before ffuzzy.hpp in one of the source files to make the linker happy.

You can compile and install a static helper library libffuzzypp.a by running ./configure && make && make install. If you don't have configure script on the top directory, you need to run ./ to make build files.

Configuration Options

  • --disable-static-lib
    Disable building libffuzzypp.a
  • --disable-debug
    Disable assertions on examples and tests. Don't disable assertions if you wish to test ffuzzy++.
  • --disable-position-array
    Disable using bit-parallel algorithms on examples and tests.
  • --enable-examples
    Enable building examples (see "Building Examples" section)
  • --enable-tests
    Enable building test cases (see "Running Tests" section)
  • --disable-compatibility-tests
    Ignore ssdeep-specific parameters during compilation of test cases. This option prevents compiling compatibility tests.

Building Examples

There are two examples:

  • examples/compare-hash
    You can use this program to compare two fuzzy digests.
  • examples/compute-hash
    You can use this program to compute fuzzy digests from given files.

Running Tests

By default, compatibility tests (which depends on ssdeep-specific parameters) are enabled and you can disable these tests by adding --disable-compatibility-tests configuration option.

  • tests/test-small
    Relatively small tests (that can be done in a few minutes).
  • tests/test-compatibility-small
    Compatibility tests (depends on ssdeep parameters)
  • tests/test-compatibility-large
    Large compatibility tests (depends on ssdeep parameters)
  • tests/test-precond
    Precondition tests (it always succeeds at runtime because all "tests" are performed while compiling this executable).


Defining certain macros before including ffuzzy.hpp can change some behavior of this library.

    This macro enables assertions for debugging.
    This macro disables using bit-parallel algorithms.


  • This package is intended for static-linking to your program.
  • Packaging this implementation alone for OS distribution is not recommended. The interface may change without notice.
  • Digests generated from files equal to or larger than 4GiB are not portable enough. See following secions for details.

Differences between ssdeep

When comparing identical digests, ssdeep 2.9 and 2.13 return different values. By default, ffuzzy++ emulates behavior of version 2.13. If you give comparison_version::v2_9 to comparison-related function as a template parameter, ffuzzy++ will emulate behavior of version 2.9.

Result of comparison is not in a signed type but in an unsigned type because error handling things are moved out of comparison. So comparison functions cannot return -1 on error (like ssdeep/libfuzzy). Instead, digest parser (which will be used before comparison) will raise an exception when it fails to parse digest string.

Differences between ssdeep -2.12 (DETAILS)

Because of current implementation restrictions in ssdeep 2.12 and before (not in ffuzzy++), the digest and comparison result may different when:

  • Extremely large files are given (for example):
    • For files equal to or larger than 4GiB,
      ssdeep 2.10-2.12 on 32-bit platform and ssdeep -2.9 causes arithmetic overflow while handling file sizes. This will result in unexpected behavior.
    • For files larger than 4GiB,
      ssdeep -2.12's rolling hash implementation is not exactly rolling. This will result in incorrect digest value.
    • For files larger than 96GiB,
      ssdeep 2.10-2.12 will crash under some circumstances. ssdeep 2.9 with 64-bit file size patch will use incorrect value (because of arithmetic overflow) when generating digests.
      ffuzzy++'s implementation matches mathematical properties of ssdeep digest generation algorithm while preventing arithmetic overflow bug on ssdeep 2.9 with 64-bit file size patch.
    • For files equal to or larger than 2^64 bytes,
      ssdeep 2.10-2.12 on 64-bit platform will cause arithmetic overflow on file sizes. Although we don't accept files larger than 192GiB (see "Limitations" section), ssdeep -2.12 doesn't have mechanism to prevent file size overflow.
  • Some digests generated from extremely large files are given:
    • For digests generated from files larger than 12GiB,
      ssdeep -2.12 may cause arithmetic overflow while comparing digests. This may make incorrect comparison score of zero.

Overrall, ffuzzy++ is almost compatible with ssdeep -2.12. But on some circumstances which ssdeep will fail or did not support (yes, actually files equal to or larger than 4GiB are not officially supported by ssdeep -2.12), ffuzzy++ returns mostly legit values (based on mathematical properties of ssdeep).

Differences between ssdeep 2.13

ssdeep 2.13 behaves very similar to ffuzzy++ due to bug fixes. There are few implementation differences but behaves the same when:

  • Generating fuzzy digests from arbitrary input
  • Comparing digests generated by new implementations
  • Comparing digests generated from files up to 96GiB by previous ssdeep versions


Both implementations (ssdeep and ffuzzy++) have a limit of 192GiB in digest generator. Based on mathematical properties of ssdeep, we could accept much larger files. However, digests generated from such files are nearly useless (because resulting digests will not represent signature of whole file contents).

So I decided not to accept files larger than 192GiB on ffuzzy++ as well as ssdeep 2.10+.

Although ffuzzy++ implementation is completely platform-independent, ssdeep digest for files equal to or larger than 4GiB are still not portable enough (varies by ssdeep versions and platforms).

Make sure that you use new implementations (ssdeep 2.13 or ffuzzy++) when you accept extremely large files. If you use older versions of ssdeep, please consider rejecting such big files (equal to or larger than 4GiB) when you generate digests.

License / Copying

See file for details.


C++ implementation of ssdeep-compatible fast fuzzy hashing



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