Skip to content


Subversion checkout URL

You can clone with
Download ZIP
Tree: 278d6a20cc
Fetching contributors…

Cannot retrieve contributors at this time

581 lines (500 sloc) 21.558 kB
from __future__ import unicode_literals
import sys
import os
import re
import mimetypes
from copy import copy
from io import BytesIO
from urllib.parse import unquote, urlparse, urlsplit
except ImportError: # Python 2
from urllib import unquote
from urlparse import urlparse, urlsplit
from django.conf import settings
from django.contrib.auth import authenticate, login
from django.core.handlers.base import BaseHandler
from django.core.handlers.wsgi import WSGIRequest
from django.core.signals import got_request_exception
from django.http import SimpleCookie, HttpRequest, QueryDict
from django.template import TemplateDoesNotExist
from django.test import signals
from django.utils.functional import curry
from django.utils.encoding import force_bytes, force_str
from django.utils.http import urlencode
from django.utils.importlib import import_module
from django.utils.itercompat import is_iterable
from django.utils import six
from django.test.utils import ContextList
__all__ = ('Client', 'RequestFactory', 'encode_file', 'encode_multipart')
MULTIPART_CONTENT = 'multipart/form-data; boundary=%s' % BOUNDARY
CONTENT_TYPE_RE = re.compile('.*; charset=([\w\d-]+);?')
class FakePayload(object):
A wrapper around BytesIO that restricts what can be read since data from
the network can't be seeked and cannot be read outside of its content
length. This makes sure that views can't do anything under the test client
that wouldn't work in Real Life.
def __init__(self, content=None):
self.__content = BytesIO()
self.__len = 0
self.read_started = False
if content is not None:
def __len__(self):
return self.__len
def read(self, num_bytes=None):
if not self.read_started:
self.read_started = True
if num_bytes is None:
num_bytes = self.__len or 0
assert self.__len >= num_bytes, "Cannot read more than the available bytes from the HTTP incoming data."
content =
self.__len -= num_bytes
return content
def write(self, content):
if self.read_started:
raise ValueError("Unable to write a payload after he's been read")
content = force_bytes(content)
self.__len += len(content)
def closing_iterator_wrapper(iterable, close):
for item in iterable:
yield item
class ClientHandler(BaseHandler):
A HTTP Handler that can be used for testing purposes.
Uses the WSGI interface to compose requests, but returns
the raw HttpResponse object
def __init__(self, enforce_csrf_checks=True, *args, **kwargs):
self.enforce_csrf_checks = enforce_csrf_checks
super(ClientHandler, self).__init__(*args, **kwargs)
def __call__(self, environ):
from django.conf import settings
from django.core import signals
# Set up middleware if needed. We couldn't do this earlier, because
# settings weren't available.
if self._request_middleware is None:
request = WSGIRequest(environ)
# sneaky little hack so that we can easily get round
# CsrfViewMiddleware. This makes life easier, and is probably
# required for backwards compatibility with external tests against
# admin views.
request._dont_enforce_csrf_checks = not self.enforce_csrf_checks
response = self.get_response(request)
# We're emulating a WSGI server; we must call the close method
# on completion.
if response.streaming:
response.streaming_content = closing_iterator_wrapper(
response.streaming_content, response.close)
return response
def store_rendered_templates(store, signal, sender, template, context, **kwargs):
Stores templates and contexts that are rendered.
The context is copied so that it is an accurate representation at the time
of rendering.
store.setdefault('templates', []).append(template)
store.setdefault('context', ContextList()).append(copy(context))
def encode_multipart(boundary, data):
Encodes multipart POST data from a dictionary of form values.
The key will be used as the form data name; the value will be transmitted
as content. If the value is a file, the contents of the file will be sent
as an application/octet-stream; otherwise, str(value) will be sent.
lines = []
to_bytes = lambda s: force_bytes(s, settings.DEFAULT_CHARSET)
# Not by any means perfect, but good enough for our purposes.
is_file = lambda thing: hasattr(thing, "read") and callable(
# Each bit of the multipart form data could be either a form value or a
# file, or a *list* of form values and/or files. Remember that HTTP field
# names can be duplicated!
for (key, value) in data.items():
if is_file(value):
lines.extend(encode_file(boundary, key, value))
elif not isinstance(value, six.string_types) and is_iterable(value):
for item in value:
if is_file(item):
lines.extend(encode_file(boundary, key, item))
lines.extend([to_bytes(val) for val in [
'--%s' % boundary,
'Content-Disposition: form-data; name="%s"' % key,
lines.extend([to_bytes(val) for val in [
'--%s' % boundary,
'Content-Disposition: form-data; name="%s"' % key,
to_bytes('--%s--' % boundary),
return b'\r\n'.join(lines)
def encode_file(boundary, key, file):
to_bytes = lambda s: force_bytes(s, settings.DEFAULT_CHARSET)
content_type = mimetypes.guess_type([0]
if content_type is None:
content_type = 'application/octet-stream'
return [
to_bytes('--%s' % boundary),
to_bytes('Content-Disposition: form-data; name="%s"; filename="%s"' \
% (key, os.path.basename(,
to_bytes('Content-Type: %s' % content_type),
class RequestFactory(object):
Class that lets you create mock Request objects for use in testing.
rf = RequestFactory()
get_request = rf.get('/hello/')
post_request ='/submit/', {'foo': 'bar'})
Once you have a request object you can pass it to any view function,
just as if that view had been hooked up using a URLconf.
def __init__(self, **defaults):
self.defaults = defaults
self.cookies = SimpleCookie()
self.errors = BytesIO()
def _base_environ(self, **request):
The base environment for a request.
# This is a minimal valid WSGI environ dictionary, plus:
# - HTTP_COOKIE: for cookie support,
# - REMOTE_ADDR: often useful, see #8551.
# See
environ = {
'HTTP_COOKIE': self.cookies.output(header='', sep='; '),
'PATH_INFO': str('/'),
'REMOTE_ADDR': str(''),
'SCRIPT_NAME': str(''),
'SERVER_NAME': str('testserver'),
'SERVER_PORT': str('80'),
'wsgi.version': (1, 0),
'wsgi.url_scheme': str('http'),
'wsgi.input': FakePayload(b''),
'wsgi.errors': self.errors,
'wsgi.multiprocess': True,
'wsgi.multithread': False,
'wsgi.run_once': False,
return environ
def request(self, **request):
"Construct a generic request object."
return WSGIRequest(self._base_environ(**request))
def _encode_data(self, data, content_type, ):
if content_type is MULTIPART_CONTENT:
return encode_multipart(BOUNDARY, data)
# Encode the content so that the byte representation is correct.
match = CONTENT_TYPE_RE.match(content_type)
if match:
charset =
charset = settings.DEFAULT_CHARSET
return force_bytes(data, encoding=charset)
def _get_path(self, parsed):
path = force_str(parsed[2])
# If there are parameters, add them
if parsed[3]:
path += str(";") + force_str(parsed[3])
path = unquote(path)
# WSGI requires latin-1 encoded strings. See get_path_info().
if six.PY3:
path = path.encode('utf-8').decode('iso-8859-1')
return path
def get(self, path, data={}, **extra):
"Construct a GET request."
parsed = urlparse(path)
r = {
'CONTENT_TYPE': str('text/html; charset=utf-8'),
'PATH_INFO': self._get_path(parsed),
'QUERY_STRING': urlencode(data, doseq=True) or force_str(parsed[4]),
return self.request(**r)
def post(self, path, data={}, content_type=MULTIPART_CONTENT,
"Construct a POST request."
post_data = self._encode_data(data, content_type)
parsed = urlparse(path)
r = {
'CONTENT_LENGTH': len(post_data),
'CONTENT_TYPE': content_type,
'PATH_INFO': self._get_path(parsed),
'QUERY_STRING': force_str(parsed[4]),
'wsgi.input': FakePayload(post_data),
return self.request(**r)
def head(self, path, data={}, **extra):
"Construct a HEAD request."
parsed = urlparse(path)
r = {
'CONTENT_TYPE': str('text/html; charset=utf-8'),
'PATH_INFO': self._get_path(parsed),
'QUERY_STRING': urlencode(data, doseq=True) or force_str(parsed[4]),
return self.request(**r)
def options(self, path, data='', content_type='application/octet-stream',
"Construct an OPTIONS request."
return self.generic('OPTIONS', path, data, content_type, **extra)
def put(self, path, data='', content_type='application/octet-stream',
"Construct a PUT request."
return self.generic('PUT', path, data, content_type, **extra)
def delete(self, path, data='', content_type='application/octet-stream',
"Construct a DELETE request."
return self.generic('DELETE', path, data, content_type, **extra)
def generic(self, method, path,
data='', content_type='application/octet-stream', **extra):
parsed = urlparse(path)
data = force_bytes(data, settings.DEFAULT_CHARSET)
r = {
'PATH_INFO': self._get_path(parsed),
'QUERY_STRING': force_str(parsed[4]),
'REQUEST_METHOD': str(method),
if data:
'CONTENT_LENGTH': len(data),
'CONTENT_TYPE': str(content_type),
'wsgi.input': FakePayload(data),
return self.request(**r)
class Client(RequestFactory):
A class that can act as a client for testing purposes.
It allows the user to compose GET and POST requests, and
obtain the response that the server gave to those requests.
The server Response objects are annotated with the details
of the contexts and templates that were rendered during the
process of serving the request.
Client objects are stateful - they will retain cookie (and
thus session) details for the lifetime of the Client instance.
This is not intended as a replacement for Twill/Selenium or
the like - it is here to allow testing against the
contexts and templates produced by a view, rather than the
HTML rendered to the end-user.
def __init__(self, enforce_csrf_checks=False, **defaults):
super(Client, self).__init__(**defaults)
self.handler = ClientHandler(enforce_csrf_checks)
self.exc_info = None
def store_exc_info(self, **kwargs):
Stores exceptions when they are generated by a view.
self.exc_info = sys.exc_info()
def _session(self):
Obtains the current session variables.
if 'django.contrib.sessions' in settings.INSTALLED_APPS:
engine = import_module(settings.SESSION_ENGINE)
cookie = self.cookies.get(settings.SESSION_COOKIE_NAME, None)
if cookie:
return engine.SessionStore(cookie.value)
return {}
session = property(_session)
def request(self, **request):
The master request method. Composes the environment dictionary
and passes to the handler, returning the result of the handler.
Assumes defaults for the query environment, which can be overridden
using the arguments to the request.
environ = self._base_environ(**request)
# Curry a data dictionary into an instance of the template renderer
# callback function.
data = {}
on_template_render = curry(store_rendered_templates, data)
signals.template_rendered.connect(on_template_render, dispatch_uid="template-render")
# Capture exceptions created by the handler.
got_request_exception.connect(self.store_exc_info, dispatch_uid="request-exception")
response = self.handler(environ)
except TemplateDoesNotExist as e:
# If the view raises an exception, Django will attempt to show
# the 500.html template. If that template is not available,
# we should ignore the error in favor of re-raising the
# underlying exception that caused the 500 error. Any other
# template found to be missing during view error handling
# should be reported as-is.
if e.args != ('500.html',):
# Look for a signalled exception, clear the current context
# exception data, then re-raise the signalled exception.
# Also make sure that the signalled exception is cleared from
# the local cache!
if self.exc_info:
exc_info = self.exc_info
self.exc_info = None
# Save the client and request that stimulated the response.
response.client = self
response.request = request
# Add any rendered template detail to the response.
response.templates = data.get("templates", [])
response.context = data.get("context")
# Flatten a single context. Not really necessary anymore thanks to
# the __getattr__ flattening in ContextList, but has some edge-case
# backwards-compatibility implications.
if response.context and len(response.context) == 1:
response.context = response.context[0]
# Update persistent cookie data.
if response.cookies:
return response
def get(self, path, data={}, follow=False, **extra):
Requests a response from the server using GET.
response = super(Client, self).get(path, data=data, **extra)
if follow:
response = self._handle_redirects(response, **extra)
return response
def post(self, path, data={}, content_type=MULTIPART_CONTENT,
follow=False, **extra):
Requests a response from the server using POST.
response = super(Client, self).post(path, data=data, content_type=content_type, **extra)
if follow:
response = self._handle_redirects(response, **extra)
return response
def head(self, path, data={}, follow=False, **extra):
Request a response from the server using HEAD.
response = super(Client, self).head(path, data=data, **extra)
if follow:
response = self._handle_redirects(response, **extra)
return response
def options(self, path, data='', content_type='application/octet-stream',
follow=False, **extra):
Request a response from the server using OPTIONS.
response = super(Client, self).options(path,
data=data, content_type=content_type, **extra)
if follow:
response = self._handle_redirects(response, **extra)
return response
def put(self, path, data='', content_type='application/octet-stream',
follow=False, **extra):
Send a resource to the server using PUT.
response = super(Client, self).put(path,
data=data, content_type=content_type, **extra)
if follow:
response = self._handle_redirects(response, **extra)
return response
def delete(self, path, data='', content_type='application/octet-stream',
follow=False, **extra):
Send a DELETE request to the server.
response = super(Client, self).delete(path,
data=data, content_type=content_type, **extra)
if follow:
response = self._handle_redirects(response, **extra)
return response
def login(self, **credentials):
Sets the Factory to appear as if it has successfully logged into a site.
Returns True if login is possible; False if the provided credentials
are incorrect, or the user is inactive, or if the sessions framework is
not available.
user = authenticate(**credentials)
if user and user.is_active \
and 'django.contrib.sessions' in settings.INSTALLED_APPS:
engine = import_module(settings.SESSION_ENGINE)
# Create a fake request to store login details.
request = HttpRequest()
if self.session:
request.session = self.session
request.session = engine.SessionStore()
login(request, user)
# Save the session values.
# Set the cookie to represent the session.
session_cookie = settings.SESSION_COOKIE_NAME
self.cookies[session_cookie] = request.session.session_key
cookie_data = {
'max-age': None,
'path': '/',
'domain': settings.SESSION_COOKIE_DOMAIN,
'secure': settings.SESSION_COOKIE_SECURE or None,
'expires': None,
return True
return False
def logout(self):
Removes the authenticated user's cookies and session object.
Causes the authenticated user to be logged out.
session = import_module(settings.SESSION_ENGINE).SessionStore()
session_cookie = self.cookies.get(settings.SESSION_COOKIE_NAME)
if session_cookie:
self.cookies = SimpleCookie()
def _handle_redirects(self, response, **extra):
"Follows any redirects by requesting responses from the server using GET."
response.redirect_chain = []
while response.status_code in (301, 302, 303, 307):
url = response['Location']
redirect_chain = response.redirect_chain
redirect_chain.append((url, response.status_code))
url = urlsplit(url)
if url.scheme:
extra['wsgi.url_scheme'] = url.scheme
if url.hostname:
extra['SERVER_NAME'] = url.hostname
if url.port:
extra['SERVER_PORT'] = str(url.port)
response = self.get(url.path, QueryDict(url.query), follow=False, **extra)
response.redirect_chain = redirect_chain
# Prevent loops
if response.redirect_chain[-1] in response.redirect_chain[0:-1]:
return response
Jump to Line
Something went wrong with that request. Please try again.