Skip to content

HTTPS clone URL

Subversion checkout URL

You can clone with HTTPS or Subversion.

Download ZIP
tree: e406a70d98
Fetching contributors…

Cannot retrieve contributors at this time

executable file 610 lines (508 sloc) 21.721 kb
#!/usr/bin/env python
#
# Copyright 2010 Facebook
#
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"); you may
# not use this file except in compliance with the License. You may obtain
# a copy of the License at
#
# http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
#
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT
# WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the
# License for the specific language governing permissions and limitations
# under the License.
"""Python client library for the Facebook Platform.
This client library is designed to support the Graph API and the
official Facebook JavaScript SDK, which is the canonical way to
implement Facebook authentication. Read more about the Graph API at
http://developers.facebook.com/docs/api. You can download the Facebook
JavaScript SDK at http://github.com/facebook/connect-js/.
If your application is using Google AppEngine's webapp framework, your
usage of this module might look like this:
user = facebook.get_user_from_cookie(self.request.cookies, key, secret)
if user:
graph = facebook.GraphAPI(user["access_token"])
profile = graph.get_object("me")
friends = graph.get_connections("me", "friends")
"""
import cgi
import time
import urllib
import urllib2
import httplib
import hashlib
import hmac
import base64
import logging
import socket
# Find a JSON parser
try:
import simplejson as json
except ImportError:
try:
from django.utils import simplejson as json
except ImportError:
import json
_parse_json = json.loads
# Find a query string parser
try:
from urlparse import parse_qs
except ImportError:
from cgi import parse_qs
class GraphAPI(object):
"""A client for the Facebook Graph API.
See http://developers.facebook.com/docs/api for complete
documentation for the API.
The Graph API is made up of the objects in Facebook (e.g., people,
pages, events, photos) and the connections between them (e.g.,
friends, photo tags, and event RSVPs). This client provides access
to those primitive types in a generic way. For example, given an
OAuth access token, this will fetch the profile of the active user
and the list of the user's friends:
graph = facebook.GraphAPI(access_token)
user = graph.get_object("me")
friends = graph.get_connections(user["id"], "friends")
You can see a list of all of the objects and connections supported
by the API at http://developers.facebook.com/docs/reference/api/.
You can obtain an access token via OAuth or by using the Facebook
JavaScript SDK. See
http://developers.facebook.com/docs/authentication/ for details.
If you are using the JavaScript SDK, you can use the
get_user_from_cookie() method below to get the OAuth access token
for the active user from the cookie saved by the SDK.
"""
def __init__(self, access_token=None, timeout=None):
self.access_token = access_token
self.timeout = timeout
def get_object(self, id, **args):
"""Fetchs the given object from the graph."""
return self.request(id, args)
def get_objects(self, ids, **args):
"""Fetchs all of the given object from the graph.
We return a map from ID to object. If any of the IDs are
invalid, we raise an exception.
"""
args["ids"] = ",".join(ids)
return self.request("", args)
def get_connections(self, id, connection_name, **args):
"""Fetchs the connections for given object."""
return self.request(id + "/" + connection_name, args)
def put_object(self, parent_object, connection_name, **data):
"""Writes the given object to the graph, connected to the given parent.
For example,
graph.put_object("me", "feed", message="Hello, world")
writes "Hello, world" to the active user's wall. Likewise, this
will comment on a the first post of the active user's feed:
feed = graph.get_connections("me", "feed")
post = feed["data"][0]
graph.put_object(post["id"], "comments", message="First!")
See http://developers.facebook.com/docs/api#publishing for all
of the supported writeable objects.
Certain write operations require extended permissions. For
example, publishing to a user's feed requires the
"publish_actions" permission. See
http://developers.facebook.com/docs/publishing/ for details
about publishing permissions.
"""
assert self.access_token, "Write operations require an access token"
return self.request(parent_object + "/" + connection_name,
post_args=data)
def put_wall_post(self, message, attachment={}, profile_id="me"):
"""Writes a wall post to the given profile's wall.
We default to writing to the authenticated user's wall if no
profile_id is specified.
attachment adds a structured attachment to the status message
being posted to the Wall. It should be a dictionary of the form:
{"name": "Link name"
"link": "http://www.example.com/",
"caption": "{*actor*} posted a new review",
"description": "This is a longer description of the attachment",
"picture": "http://www.example.com/thumbnail.jpg"}
"""
return self.put_object(profile_id, "feed", message=message,
**attachment)
def put_comment(self, object_id, message):
"""Writes the given comment on the given post."""
return self.put_object(object_id, "comments", message=message)
def put_like(self, object_id):
"""Likes the given post."""
return self.put_object(object_id, "likes")
def delete_object(self, id):
"""Deletes the object with the given ID from the graph."""
self.request(id, post_args={"method": "delete"})
def delete_request(self, user_id, request_id):
"""Deletes the Request with the given ID for the given user."""
conn = httplib.HTTPSConnection('graph.facebook.com')
url = '/%s_%s?%s' % (
request_id,
user_id,
urllib.urlencode({'access_token': self.access_token}),
)
conn.request('DELETE', url)
response = conn.getresponse()
data = response.read()
response = _parse_json(data)
# Raise an error if we got one, but don't not if Facebook just
# gave us a Bool value
if (response and isinstance(response, dict) and
response.get("error")):
raise GraphAPIError(response)
conn.close()
def put_photo(self, image, message=None, album_id=None, **kwargs):
"""Uploads an image using multipart/form-data.
image=File like object for the image
message=Caption for your image
album_id=None posts to /me/photos which uses or creates and uses
an album for your application.
"""
object_id = album_id or "me"
#it would have been nice to reuse self.request;
#but multipart is messy in urllib
post_args = {
'access_token': self.access_token,
'source': image,
'message': message
}
post_args.update(kwargs)
content_type, body = self._encode_multipart_form(post_args)
req = urllib2.Request(("https://graph.facebook.com/%s/photos" %
object_id),
data=body)
req.add_header('Content-Type', content_type)
try:
data = urllib2.urlopen(req).read()
#For Python 3 use this:
#except urllib2.HTTPError as e:
except urllib2.HTTPError, e:
data = e.read() # Facebook sends OAuth errors as 400, and urllib2
# throws an exception, we want a GraphAPIError
try:
response = _parse_json(data)
# Raise an error if we got one, but don't not if Facebook just
# gave us a Bool value
if (response and isinstance(response, dict) and
response.get("error")):
raise GraphAPIError(response)
except ValueError:
response = data
return response
# based on: http://code.activestate.com/recipes/146306/
def _encode_multipart_form(self, fields):
"""Encode files as 'multipart/form-data'.
Fields are a dict of form name-> value. For files, value should
be a file object. Other file-like objects might work and a fake
name will be chosen.
Returns (content_type, body) ready for httplib.HTTP instance.
"""
BOUNDARY = '----------ThIs_Is_tHe_bouNdaRY_$'
CRLF = '\r\n'
L = []
for (key, value) in fields.items():
logging.debug("Encoding %s, (%s)%s" % (key, type(value), value))
if not value:
continue
L.append('--' + BOUNDARY)
if hasattr(value, 'read') and callable(value.read):
filename = getattr(value, 'name', '%s.jpg' % key)
L.append(('Content-Disposition: form-data;'
'name="%s";'
'filename="%s"') % (key, filename))
L.append('Content-Type: image/jpeg')
value = value.read()
logging.debug(type(value))
else:
L.append('Content-Disposition: form-data; name="%s"' % key)
L.append('')
if isinstance(value, unicode):
logging.debug("Convert to ascii")
value = value.encode('ascii')
L.append(value)
L.append('--' + BOUNDARY + '--')
L.append('')
body = CRLF.join(L)
content_type = 'multipart/form-data; boundary=%s' % BOUNDARY
return content_type, body
def request(self, path, args=None, post_args=None):
"""Fetches the given path in the Graph API.
We translate args to a valid query string. If post_args is
given, we send a POST request to the given path with the given
arguments.
"""
args = args or {}
if self.access_token:
if post_args is not None:
post_args["access_token"] = self.access_token
else:
args["access_token"] = self.access_token
post_data = None if post_args is None else urllib.urlencode(post_args)
try:
file = urllib2.urlopen("https://graph.facebook.com/" + path + "?" +
urllib.urlencode(args), post_data, timeout=self.timeout)
except urllib2.HTTPError, e:
response = _parse_json(e.read())
raise GraphAPIError(response)
except TypeError:
# Timeout support for Python <2.6
if self.timeout:
socket.setdefaulttimeout(self.timeout)
file = urllib2.urlopen("https://graph.facebook.com/" + path + "?" +
urllib.urlencode(args), post_data)
try:
fileInfo = file.info()
if fileInfo.maintype == 'text':
response = _parse_json(file.read())
elif fileInfo.maintype == 'image':
mimetype = fileInfo['content-type']
response = {
"data": file.read(),
"mime-type": mimetype,
"url": file.url,
}
else:
raise GraphAPIError('Maintype was not text or image')
finally:
file.close()
if response and isinstance(response, dict) and response.get("error"):
raise GraphAPIError(response["error"]["type"],
response["error"]["message"])
return response
def api_request(self, path, args=None, post_args=None):
"""Fetches the given path in the Graph API.
We translate args to a valid query string. If post_args is
given, we send a POST request to the given path with the given
arguments.
"""
args = args or {}
if self.access_token:
if post_args is not None:
post_args["access_token"] = self.access_token
else:
args["access_token"] = self.access_token
if self.api_key:
if post_args is not None:
post_args["api_key"] = self.api_key
else:
args["api_key"] = self.api_key
if post_args is not None:
post_args["format"] = "json-strings"
else:
args["format"] = "json-strings"
post_data = None if post_args is None else urllib.urlencode(post_args)
try:
file = urllib.urlopen("https://api.facebook.com/method/" + path +
"?" + urllib.urlencode(args),
post_data, timeout=self.timeout)
except TypeError:
# Timeout support for Python <2.6
if self.timeout:
socket.setdefaulttimeout(self.timeout)
file = urllib.urlopen("https://api.facebook.com/method/" + path +
"?" + urllib.urlencode(args), post_data)
try:
response = _parse_json(file.read())
finally:
file.close()
if response and response.get("error"):
raise GraphAPIError(response)
return response
def fql(self, query, args=None, post_args=None):
"""FQL query.
Example query: "SELECT affiliations FROM user WHERE uid = me()"
"""
args = args or {}
if self.access_token:
if post_args is not None:
post_args["access_token"] = self.access_token
else:
args["access_token"] = self.access_token
post_data = None if post_args is None else urllib.urlencode(post_args)
"""Check if query is a dict and
use the multiquery method
else use single query
"""
if not isinstance(query, basestring):
args["queries"] = query
fql_method = 'fql.multiquery'
else:
args["query"] = query
fql_method = 'fql.query'
args["format"] = "json"
try:
file = urllib2.urlopen("https://api.facebook.com/method/" +
fql_method + "?" + urllib.urlencode(args),
post_data, timeout=self.timeout)
except TypeError:
# Timeout support for Python <2.6
if self.timeout:
socket.setdefaulttimeout(self.timeout)
file = urllib2.urlopen("https://api.facebook.com/method/" +
fql_method + "?" + urllib.urlencode(args),
post_data)
try:
content = file.read()
response = _parse_json(content)
#Return a list if success, return a dictionary if failed
if type(response) is dict and "error_code" in response:
raise GraphAPIError(response)
except Exception, e:
raise e
finally:
file.close()
return response
def extend_access_token(self, app_id, app_secret):
"""
Extends the expiration time of a valid OAuth access token. See
<https://developers.facebook.com/roadmap/offline-access-removal/
#extend_token>
"""
args = {
"client_id": app_id,
"client_secret": app_secret,
"grant_type": "fb_exchange_token",
"fb_exchange_token": self.access_token,
}
response = urllib.urlopen("https://graph.facebook.com/oauth/"
"access_token?" + urllib.urlencode(args)).read()
query_str = parse_qs(response)
if "access_token" in query_str:
result = {"access_token": query_str["access_token"][0]}
if "expires" in query_str:
result["expires"] = query_str["expires"][0]
return result
else:
response = json.loads(response)
raise GraphAPIError(response)
class GraphAPIError(Exception):
def __init__(self, result):
#Exception.__init__(self, message)
#self.type = type
self.result = result
try:
self.type = result["error_code"]
except:
self.type = ""
# OAuth 2.0 Draft 10
try:
self.message = result["error_description"]
except:
# OAuth 2.0 Draft 00
try:
self.message = result["error"]["message"]
except:
# REST server style
try:
self.message = result["error_msg"]
except:
self.message = result
Exception.__init__(self, self.message)
def get_user_from_cookie(cookies, app_id, app_secret):
"""Parses the cookie set by the official Facebook JavaScript SDK.
cookies should be a dictionary-like object mapping cookie names to
cookie values.
If the user is logged in via Facebook, we return a dictionary with
the keys "uid" and "access_token". The former is the user's
Facebook ID, and the latter can be used to make authenticated
requests to the Graph API. If the user is not logged in, we
return None.
Download the official Facebook JavaScript SDK at
http://github.com/facebook/connect-js/. Read more about Facebook
authentication at
http://developers.facebook.com/docs/authentication/.
"""
cookie = cookies.get("fbsr_" + app_id, "")
if not cookie:
return None
parsed_request = parse_signed_request(cookie, app_secret)
try:
result = get_access_token_from_code(parsed_request["code"], "",
app_id, app_secret)
except GraphAPIError:
return None
result["uid"] = parsed_request["user_id"]
return result
def parse_signed_request(signed_request, app_secret):
""" Return dictionary with signed request data.
We return a dictionary containing the information in the
signed_request. This includes a user_id if the user has authorised
your application, as well as any information requested.
If the signed_request is malformed or corrupted, False is returned.
"""
try:
l = signed_request.split('.', 2)
encoded_sig = str(l[0])
payload = str(l[1])
sig = base64.urlsafe_b64decode(encoded_sig + "=" *
((4 - len(encoded_sig) % 4) % 4))
data = base64.urlsafe_b64decode(payload + "=" *
((4 - len(payload) % 4) % 4))
except IndexError:
# Signed request was malformed.
return False
except TypeError:
# Signed request had a corrupted payload.
return False
data = _parse_json(data)
if data.get('algorithm', '').upper() != 'HMAC-SHA256':
return False
# HMAC can only handle ascii (byte) strings
# http://bugs.python.org/issue5285
app_secret = app_secret.encode('ascii')
payload = payload.encode('ascii')
expected_sig = hmac.new(app_secret,
msg=payload,
digestmod=hashlib.sha256).digest()
if sig != expected_sig:
return False
return data
def auth_url(app_id, canvas_url, perms=None, state=None):
url = "https://www.facebook.com/dialog/oauth?"
kvps = {'client_id': app_id, 'redirect_uri': canvas_url}
if perms:
kvps['scope'] = ",".join(perms)
if state:
kvps['state'] = state
return url + urllib.urlencode(kvps)
def get_access_token_from_code(code, redirect_uri, app_id, app_secret):
"""Get an access token from the "code" returned from an OAuth dialog.
Returns a dict containing the user-specific access token and its
expiration date (if applicable).
"""
args = {
"code": code,
"redirect_uri": redirect_uri,
"client_id": app_id,
"client_secret": app_secret,
}
# We would use GraphAPI.request() here, except for that the fact
# that the response is a key-value pair, and not JSON.
response = urllib.urlopen("https://graph.facebook.com/oauth/access_token" +
"?" + urllib.urlencode(args)).read()
query_str = parse_qs(response)
if "access_token" in query_str:
result = {"access_token": query_str["access_token"][0]}
if "expires" in query_str:
result["expires"] = query_str["expires"][0]
return result
else:
response = json.loads(response)
raise GraphAPIError(response)
def get_app_access_token(app_id, app_secret):
"""Get the access_token for the app.
This token can be used for insights and creating test users.
app_id = retrieved from the developer page
app_secret = retrieved from the developer page
Returns the application access_token.
"""
# Get an app access token
args = {'grant_type': 'client_credentials',
'client_id': app_id,
'client_secret': app_secret}
file = urllib2.urlopen("https://graph.facebook.com/oauth/access_token?" +
urllib.urlencode(args))
try:
result = file.read().split("=")[1]
finally:
file.close()
return result
Jump to Line
Something went wrong with that request. Please try again.