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//
// Copyright 2017 The Abseil Authors.
//
// Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
// you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
// You may obtain a copy of the License at
//
// http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
//
// Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
// distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
// WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
// See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
// limitations under the License.
//
// -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
// File: str_cat.h
// -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
//
// This package contains functions for efficiently concatenating and appending
// strings: `StrCat()` and `StrAppend()`. Most of the work within these routines
// is actually handled through use of a special AlphaNum type, which was
// designed to be used as a parameter type that efficiently manages conversion
// to strings and avoids copies in the above operations.
//
// Any routine accepting either a string or a number may accept `AlphaNum`.
// The basic idea is that by accepting a `const AlphaNum &` as an argument
// to your function, your callers will automagically convert bools, integers,
// and floating point values to strings for you.
//
// NOTE: Use of `AlphaNum` outside of the //absl/strings package is unsupported
// except for the specific case of function parameters of type `AlphaNum` or
// `const AlphaNum &`. In particular, instantiating `AlphaNum` directly as a
// stack variable is not supported.
//
// Conversion from 8-bit values is not accepted because, if it were, then an
// attempt to pass ':' instead of ":" might result in a 58 ending up in your
// result.
//
// Bools convert to "0" or "1".
//
// Floating point numbers are formatted with six-digit precision, which is
// the default for "std::cout <<" or printf "%g" (the same as "%.6g").
//
//
// You can convert to hexadecimal output rather than decimal output using the
// `Hex` type contained here. To do so, pass `Hex(my_int)` as a parameter to
// `StrCat()` or `StrAppend()`. You may specify a minimum hex field width using
// a `PadSpec` enum.
//
// -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
#ifndef ABSL_STRINGS_STR_CAT_H_
#define ABSL_STRINGS_STR_CAT_H_
#include <array>
#include <cstdint>
#include <string>
#include <type_traits>
#include "absl/base/port.h"
#include "absl/strings/numbers.h"
#include "absl/strings/string_view.h"
namespace absl {
namespace strings_internal {
// AlphaNumBuffer allows a way to pass a string to StrCat without having to do
// memory allocation. It is simply a pair of a fixed-size character array, and
// a size. Please don't use outside of absl, yet.
template <size_t max_size>
struct AlphaNumBuffer {
std::array<char, max_size> data;
size_t size;
};
} // namespace strings_internal
// Enum that specifies the number of significant digits to return in a `Hex` or
// `Dec` conversion and fill character to use. A `kZeroPad2` value, for example,
// would produce hexadecimal strings such as "0A","0F" and a 'kSpacePad5' value
// would produce hexadecimal strings such as " A"," F".
enum PadSpec : uint8_t {
kNoPad = 1,
kZeroPad2,
kZeroPad3,
kZeroPad4,
kZeroPad5,
kZeroPad6,
kZeroPad7,
kZeroPad8,
kZeroPad9,
kZeroPad10,
kZeroPad11,
kZeroPad12,
kZeroPad13,
kZeroPad14,
kZeroPad15,
kZeroPad16,
kSpacePad2 = kZeroPad2 + 64,
kSpacePad3,
kSpacePad4,
kSpacePad5,
kSpacePad6,
kSpacePad7,
kSpacePad8,
kSpacePad9,
kSpacePad10,
kSpacePad11,
kSpacePad12,
kSpacePad13,
kSpacePad14,
kSpacePad15,
kSpacePad16,
};
// -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Hex
// -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
//
// `Hex` stores a set of hexadecimal string conversion parameters for use
// within `AlphaNum` string conversions.
struct Hex {
uint64_t value;
uint8_t width;
char fill;
template <typename Int>
explicit Hex(
Int v, PadSpec spec = absl::kNoPad,
typename std::enable_if<sizeof(Int) == 1 &&
!std::is_pointer<Int>::value>::type* = nullptr)
: Hex(spec, static_cast<uint8_t>(v)) {}
template <typename Int>
explicit Hex(
Int v, PadSpec spec = absl::kNoPad,
typename std::enable_if<sizeof(Int) == 2 &&
!std::is_pointer<Int>::value>::type* = nullptr)
: Hex(spec, static_cast<uint16_t>(v)) {}
template <typename Int>
explicit Hex(
Int v, PadSpec spec = absl::kNoPad,
typename std::enable_if<sizeof(Int) == 4 &&
!std::is_pointer<Int>::value>::type* = nullptr)
: Hex(spec, static_cast<uint32_t>(v)) {}
template <typename Int>
explicit Hex(
Int v, PadSpec spec = absl::kNoPad,
typename std::enable_if<sizeof(Int) == 8 &&
!std::is_pointer<Int>::value>::type* = nullptr)
: Hex(spec, static_cast<uint64_t>(v)) {}
template <typename Pointee>
explicit Hex(Pointee* v, PadSpec spec = absl::kNoPad)
: Hex(spec, reinterpret_cast<uintptr_t>(v)) {}
private:
Hex(PadSpec spec, uint64_t v)
: value(v),
width(spec == absl::kNoPad
? 1
: spec >= absl::kSpacePad2 ? spec - absl::kSpacePad2 + 2
: spec - absl::kZeroPad2 + 2),
fill(spec >= absl::kSpacePad2 ? ' ' : '0') {}
};
// -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Dec
// -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
//
// `Dec` stores a set of decimal string conversion parameters for use
// within `AlphaNum` string conversions. Dec is slower than the default
// integer conversion, so use it only if you need padding.
struct Dec {
uint64_t value;
uint8_t width;
char fill;
bool neg;
template <typename Int>
explicit Dec(Int v, PadSpec spec = absl::kNoPad,
typename std::enable_if<(sizeof(Int) <= 8)>::type* = nullptr)
: value(v >= 0 ? static_cast<uint64_t>(v)
: uint64_t{0} - static_cast<uint64_t>(v)),
width(spec == absl::kNoPad
? 1
: spec >= absl::kSpacePad2 ? spec - absl::kSpacePad2 + 2
: spec - absl::kZeroPad2 + 2),
fill(spec >= absl::kSpacePad2 ? ' ' : '0'),
neg(v < 0) {}
};
// -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
// AlphaNum
// -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
//
// The `AlphaNum` class acts as the main parameter type for `StrCat()` and
// `StrAppend()`, providing efficient conversion of numeric, boolean, and
// hexadecimal values (through the `Hex` type) into strings.
class AlphaNum {
public:
// No bool ctor -- bools convert to an integral type.
// A bool ctor would also convert incoming pointers (bletch).
AlphaNum(int x) // NOLINT(runtime/explicit)
: piece_(digits_,
numbers_internal::FastIntToBuffer(x, digits_) - &digits_[0]) {}
AlphaNum(unsigned int x) // NOLINT(runtime/explicit)
: piece_(digits_,
numbers_internal::FastIntToBuffer(x, digits_) - &digits_[0]) {}
AlphaNum(long x) // NOLINT(*)
: piece_(digits_,
numbers_internal::FastIntToBuffer(x, digits_) - &digits_[0]) {}
AlphaNum(unsigned long x) // NOLINT(*)
: piece_(digits_,
numbers_internal::FastIntToBuffer(x, digits_) - &digits_[0]) {}
AlphaNum(long long x) // NOLINT(*)
: piece_(digits_,
numbers_internal::FastIntToBuffer(x, digits_) - &digits_[0]) {}
AlphaNum(unsigned long long x) // NOLINT(*)
: piece_(digits_,
numbers_internal::FastIntToBuffer(x, digits_) - &digits_[0]) {}
AlphaNum(float f) // NOLINT(runtime/explicit)
: piece_(digits_, numbers_internal::SixDigitsToBuffer(f, digits_)) {}
AlphaNum(double f) // NOLINT(runtime/explicit)
: piece_(digits_, numbers_internal::SixDigitsToBuffer(f, digits_)) {}
AlphaNum(Hex hex); // NOLINT(runtime/explicit)
AlphaNum(Dec dec); // NOLINT(runtime/explicit)
template <size_t size>
AlphaNum( // NOLINT(runtime/explicit)
const strings_internal::AlphaNumBuffer<size>& buf)
: piece_(&buf.data[0], buf.size) {}
AlphaNum(const char* c_str) : piece_(c_str) {} // NOLINT(runtime/explicit)
AlphaNum(absl::string_view pc) : piece_(pc) {} // NOLINT(runtime/explicit)
template <typename Allocator>
AlphaNum( // NOLINT(runtime/explicit)
const std::basic_string<char, std::char_traits<char>, Allocator>& str)
: piece_(str) {}
// Use std::string literals ":" instead of character literals ':'.
AlphaNum(char c) = delete; // NOLINT(runtime/explicit)
AlphaNum(const AlphaNum&) = delete;
AlphaNum& operator=(const AlphaNum&) = delete;
absl::string_view::size_type size() const { return piece_.size(); }
const char* data() const { return piece_.data(); }
absl::string_view Piece() const { return piece_; }
// Normal enums are already handled by the integer formatters.
// This overload matches only scoped enums.
template <typename T,
typename = typename std::enable_if<
std::is_enum<T>{} && !std::is_convertible<T, int>{}>::type>
AlphaNum(T e) // NOLINT(runtime/explicit)
: AlphaNum(static_cast<typename std::underlying_type<T>::type>(e)) {}
private:
absl::string_view piece_;
char digits_[numbers_internal::kFastToBufferSize];
};
// -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
// StrCat()
// -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
//
// Merges given strings or numbers, using no delimiter(s).
//
// `StrCat()` is designed to be the fastest possible way to construct a string
// out of a mix of raw C strings, string_views, strings, bool values,
// and numeric values.
//
// Don't use `StrCat()` for user-visible strings. The localization process
// works poorly on strings built up out of fragments.
//
// For clarity and performance, don't use `StrCat()` when appending to a
// string. Use `StrAppend()` instead. In particular, avoid using any of these
// (anti-)patterns:
//
// str.append(StrCat(...))
// str += StrCat(...)
// str = StrCat(str, ...)
//
// The last case is the worst, with a potential to change a loop
// from a linear time operation with O(1) dynamic allocations into a
// quadratic time operation with O(n) dynamic allocations.
//
// See `StrAppend()` below for more information.
namespace strings_internal {
// Do not call directly - this is not part of the public API.
std::string CatPieces(std::initializer_list<absl::string_view> pieces);
void AppendPieces(std::string* dest,
std::initializer_list<absl::string_view> pieces);
} // namespace strings_internal
ABSL_MUST_USE_RESULT inline std::string StrCat() { return std::string(); }
ABSL_MUST_USE_RESULT inline std::string StrCat(const AlphaNum& a) {
return std::string(a.data(), a.size());
}
ABSL_MUST_USE_RESULT std::string StrCat(const AlphaNum& a, const AlphaNum& b);
ABSL_MUST_USE_RESULT std::string StrCat(const AlphaNum& a, const AlphaNum& b,
const AlphaNum& c);
ABSL_MUST_USE_RESULT std::string StrCat(const AlphaNum& a, const AlphaNum& b,
const AlphaNum& c, const AlphaNum& d);
// Support 5 or more arguments
template <typename... AV>
ABSL_MUST_USE_RESULT inline std::string StrCat(const AlphaNum& a, const AlphaNum& b,
const AlphaNum& c, const AlphaNum& d,
const AlphaNum& e,
const AV&... args) {
return strings_internal::CatPieces(
{a.Piece(), b.Piece(), c.Piece(), d.Piece(), e.Piece(),
static_cast<const AlphaNum&>(args).Piece()...});
}
// -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
// StrAppend()
// -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
//
// Appends a string or set of strings to an existing string, in a similar
// fashion to `StrCat()`.
//
// WARNING: `StrAppend(&str, a, b, c, ...)` requires that none of the
// a, b, c, parameters be a reference into str. For speed, `StrAppend()` does
// not try to check each of its input arguments to be sure that they are not
// a subset of the string being appended to. That is, while this will work:
//
// string s = "foo";
// s += s;
//
// This output is undefined:
//
// string s = "foo";
// StrAppend(&s, s);
//
// This output is undefined as well, since `absl::string_view` does not own its
// data:
//
// string s = "foobar";
// absl::string_view p = s;
// StrAppend(&s, p);
inline void StrAppend(std::string*) {}
void StrAppend(std::string* dest, const AlphaNum& a);
void StrAppend(std::string* dest, const AlphaNum& a, const AlphaNum& b);
void StrAppend(std::string* dest, const AlphaNum& a, const AlphaNum& b,
const AlphaNum& c);
void StrAppend(std::string* dest, const AlphaNum& a, const AlphaNum& b,
const AlphaNum& c, const AlphaNum& d);
// Support 5 or more arguments
template <typename... AV>
inline void StrAppend(std::string* dest, const AlphaNum& a, const AlphaNum& b,
const AlphaNum& c, const AlphaNum& d, const AlphaNum& e,
const AV&... args) {
strings_internal::AppendPieces(
dest, {a.Piece(), b.Piece(), c.Piece(), d.Piece(), e.Piece(),
static_cast<const AlphaNum&>(args).Piece()...});
}
// Helper function for the future StrCat default floating-point format, %.6g
// This is fast.
inline strings_internal::AlphaNumBuffer<
numbers_internal::kSixDigitsToBufferSize>
SixDigits(double d) {
strings_internal::AlphaNumBuffer<numbers_internal::kSixDigitsToBufferSize>
result;
result.size = numbers_internal::SixDigitsToBuffer(d, &result.data[0]);
return result;
}
} // namespace absl
#endif // ABSL_STRINGS_STR_CAT_H_