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The files belong to unixcw package, and in the future the functions from the
two files will be provided by a library from unixcw.

I don't want to have the full files in cwdaemon repo - the files should be
copied from unixcw repo.

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Cwdaemon is a small daemon which uses the pc parallel or serial port and a
simple transistor switch to output morse code to a transmitter from a text
message sent to it via the udp internet protocol. The program uses the
soundcard or PC speaker (console buzzer) to generate a sidetone.

It is called as root, with "cwdaemon -p <portnumber> -d <device>". If no
portnumber is given, the default portnumber 6789 is used. Device can be one of
the serial (ttyS0, ttyS1, etc) or parallel (parport0, parport1, etc) ports.
Default is parport0.

For FreeBSD, use ttyd0, ttyd1, etc. for the serial ports and ppi0, ppi1, etc.
for the parallel ports. Default is the first parallel port.

You can also use dummy device "null" instead of parallel or serial port.
This device does exactly nothing (no rig keying, no ssb keying, etc.).

Cwdaemon also handles PTT, and band index output for automatic switching of
antennas, filters etc. Pinout is compatible with the standard (CT, TRlog).

cwdaemon is available on github:
cwdaemon's older webpage is

Please note
BSD and/or Linux are not real-time operating systems. e.g. the timer resolution
of the kernel is 10 milliseconds. You may especially notice this when using PTT
and setting the PTT delay value. If you experience timing problems, you might
try using the -P flag. This will set cwdaemon's priority. The default is zero,
any negative value will be a higher priority, the maximum being -20.

On linux run the script and next run cwdaemon with the -n flag.
If this does not work, read the next paragraphs....

Setting up parallel port(s) on linux for cwdaemon
You need the parport devices to use cwdaemon. Check if you have them:

  ls -al /dev/parport*

If you don't see any files, create the with MAKEDEV (as root user):

  cd /dev; ./MAKEDEV parport

Next, check whether the parport and parport_pc kernel modules are loaded: when
you type 'lsmod', you should (on the i386 architecture) see something like:

  parport_pc             23304   0 (autoclean)
  parport                25992   0 (autoclean) [parport_pc]

The lp module should not be loaded, it is only needed if you want to use a
printer and it will block the parallel port if you use cwdaemon. You can unload
it with the command 'rmmod lp' as root.

If you don't see any parport modules please check whether you have the line:

  alias parport_lowlevel parport_pc

in your /etc/modules.conf file and load the modules with:

  modprobe parport
  modprobe parport_pc

Be sure that parallel port support is enabled in your BIOS! If you use odd
ioports or interrupts, you can do things like:

  modprobe parport_pc io=0x3bc,0x378,0x278 irq=none,7,auto

which configures 3 parallel ports with the second port using irq 7 and the
third port some auto-detected irq.

When cwdaemon is run, the ppdev kernel module should be loaded automatically.
In case it doesn't, just type:

  modprobe ppdev

PLEASE NOTE: you should probably run a 2.4 kernel to use the ppdev device with

Setting up serial port(s) on linux for cwdaemon
Setting up your serial ports is straightforward. Here are some commands to get
you started:

  setserial -g /dev/ttyS*

will tell you what serial lines are configured. If you see a line with
"UART: unknown", this probably means there is no serial port for the device.

  setserial /dev/ttyS0 -v autoconfig

will try to autoconfigure your first serial port. You need to run this command
as root.

Other valid commands are:

  setserial /dev/ttyS1 auto_irq skip_test autoconfig
  setserial /dev/ttyS3 irq 5 uart 16550A skip_test

Newer distributions use a file called '/etc/serial.conf' where the information
for your serial ports are stored.

Setting up parallel port(s) on FreeBSD for cwdaemon
You will need ppbus and ppi either defined in the kernel or loaded at boot time
as kernel modules. ppbus and ppi are defined in the GENERIC kernel hence should
work as is unless you have removed them from your kernel. If not, you can add
the following in the kernel config, recompiling and reloading a kernel as
outlined in the FreeBSD handbook.

# Parallel port
device          ppbus           # Parallel port bus (required)
device          ppi             # Parallel port interface device

You can also load ppbus.ko and ppi.ko at boot time instead of rebuilding your
kernel. This is also outlined in the FreeBSD handbook.

e.g. In /boot add


Setting up serial port(s) on FreeBSD for cwdaemon
The serial port driver is loaded by default in the GENERIC kernel. If not
configured in the kernel, you can add to the kernel config and rebuild the
kernel as outlined in the FreeBSD handbook.

# Serial (COM) ports
device          sio             # 8250, 16[45]50 based serial ports

How cwdaemon works

After starting, the program detaches from its controlling terminal,
after that the program can be controlled via its network udp input

You can control cwdaemon by sending requests to it. Recognized
requests are listed below. Skip the quotes around codes when sending
actual requests. <ESC> is ASCII escape character (decimal 27, hex 1B).
Most of the requests are so called "escape requests", because they
start with Escape character.

<ESC>0                   Reset to default values
<ESC>2<speed value>      Set keying speed (5 ... 60 wpm)
<ESC>3<tone value>       Set sidetone (300 ... 1000 Hz)
<ESC>3<0>                Sound off
<ESC>4                   Abort message
<ESC>5                   Stop (Exit) the daemon
<ESC>6                   Set uninterruptable (word- ) mode for simulator
<ESC>7<weight value>     Set weighting (-50 ... 50)
<ESC>8<device>           Set device for keying (same as -d)
<ESC>9<port number>      Obsolete
<ESC>a<0|1>              PTT keying off or on
<ESC>b<0|1>              SSB signal from microphone or soundcard
<ESC>c<x>                Tune x seconds long (limit = 10 seconds)
<ESC>d<delay>            PTT on delay 0..50 (0 .. 50ms)
<ESC>e<bandindex>        Band info output on pins 2, 7, 8, 9 of the parport
                         (pin 2 = lsb, 9 = msb, e.g. 1000 = 160m, 1001 = 10m)
<ESC>f<sound system>     Set sound system, same as '-x' command line option.
                         Recognized values are:
                         c - console buzzer (PC speaker) - default system,
                         o - OSS,
                         a - ALSA,
                         p - PulseAudio,
                         n - none - no audio,
                         s - soundcard - autoselect from OSS/ALSA/PulseAudio.
                         You may experience few seconds of delay (~4 s) when
                         switching from ALSA or PulseAudio to OSS audio
                         system. This is because OSS waits until audio device
                         stops being blocked by ALSA or PulseAudio.
<ESC>g<volume>           Set soundcard volume (0 .. 100).

<ESC>h<text>             This request must be followed by a second request
                         containing only text to be played by cwdaemon. Once
			 the cwdaemon finishes playing the text from second
			 request, it replies to the client with "h"+<text>+"\r\n",
			 where <text> is a text from first request.

			 "text" is optional.

			 The reply defined in first request is used by
			 cwdaemon only once, i.e. only for a single
			 text request that follows the escape
			 request. If you want to receive a reply from
			 the cwdaemon after playing each text request,
			 you need to send the "<ESC>h" escape request
			 first, for every text request.

			 client sends: "<ESC>hcat"
			 client sends: "purring"
			 server plays: "purring"
			 server sends back: "hcat"

			 client sends: "<ESC>hdog"
			 client sends: "barking"
			 server plays: "barking"
			 server sends back: "hdog"

			 client sends: "<ESC>h"
			 client sends: "whispering"
			 server plays: "whispering"
			 server sends back: "h"

			 client sends: "<ESC>hdog"
			 client sends: "barking"
			 server plays: "barking"
			 server sends back: "hdog"

			 client sends: "purring"
			 server plays: "purring"
			 server does not send a reply - none was specified this time for "purring"

Any message              Send morse code message  (max 1 packet!)
qrz de pa0rct ++test--   In- and decrease speed on the fly in 2 wpm steps.
                         Repeated '+' and '-' characters are allowed,
                         in such cases increase and decrease of speed is
                         multiple of 2 wpm.
de ~d~l~2~w~rj pse k     Add half-space delay after characters
                         NOTE: the delay is added after the character
                         _following_ the tilde (~). E.g. AB~CD results in
                         a delay between C and D.

Default startup values
Speed = 24 wpm
Tone = 800 Hz
Sound = on
Wordmode = off
Weight = 0
UDP port = 6789
PTT delay = 0 (off)
Device = parport0
Sound device = console buzzer

tty driver tuning

The default tty driver pinout uses DTR (pin 4 on DB-9) for keying CW,
and RTS (pin 7 on DB-9) for PTT.  This is the equivalent of

-o key=DTR -o ptt=RTS

To swap both pins, use

-o key=RTS -o ptt=DTR

To turn PTT off (e.g. transceiver in QSK mode) while retaining CW key
at DTR, use

-o ptt=none ["-o key=DTR" can be omitted]

Cwdaemon supports the following special characters
*	AR
=	BT
<	SK
(	KN
!	SN
&	AS
>	BK

Cwdaemon parallel and serial port circuitry
See the examples in the schematics directory.

Tests and examples
Test scripts in Perl are located in tests/ directory.
Example programs are located in examples/ directory.

cwdaemon 0.11.0 has been compiled and tested on following platforms:
 - Debian GNU/Linux 11, x86_64, gcc 10.2.1, libcw 7.0.0 (unixcw 3.6.0)
 - Alpine Linux 3.15, x86_64, gcc 10.3.1, libcw 7.0.0 (unixcw 3.6.0)
 - Ubuntu 18.04.6 LTS, x86_64, gcc 7.5.0, libcw 7.0.0 (unixcw 3.6.0)

Conversion to stand-alone utility, basic work, POSIX porting, integration
with unixcw and initial FreeBSD support by PG4I.
Networking, daemon mode and band switching by PA0R.
Rework of the device handling, echo-ing and Debian init.d support by OK1ZIA.
Many contributions by DL2WRJ. Unixcw library by G0FRD. FreeBSD support by
Diane Bruce, VA3DB. OpenBSD and multi-platform support by Jason L. Wright,

All of this code is distributed under the GNU GPL license.


Morse code daemon for unix systems







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