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$:.unshift File.dirname(__FILE__) # for use/testing when no gem is installed
# external
require 'net/http'
require 'net/https'
require 'uri'
require 'cgi'
require 'logger'
require 'rubygems'
require 'hpricot'
require 'yaml'
# internal
require 'gattica/core_extensions'
require 'gattica/convertible'
require 'gattica/exceptions'
require 'gattica/user'
require 'gattica/auth'
require 'gattica/account'
require 'gattica/data_set'
require 'gattica/data_point'
# Gattica is a Ruby library for talking to the Google Analytics API.
# Please see the README for usage docs.
module Gattica
VERSION = '0.3.1'
# Creates a new instance of Gattica::Engine and gets us going. Please see the README for usage docs.
# ga ={:email => '', :password => 'password, :profile_id => 123456 })
# The real meat of Gattica, deals with talking to GA, returning and parsing results. You actually get
# an instance of this when you go
class Engine
PORT = 443
SECURE = true
DEFAULT_ARGS = { :start_date => nil, :end_date => nil, :dimensions => [], :metrics => [], :filters => [], :sort => [] }
DEFAULT_OPTIONS = { :email => nil, :password => nil, :token => nil, :profile_id => nil, :debug => false, :headers => {}, :logger => }
FILTER_METRIC_OPERATORS = %w{ == != > < >= <= }
FILTER_DIMENSION_OPERATORS = %w{ == != =~ !~ =@ ~@ }
attr_reader :user
attr_accessor :profile_id, :token
# Create a user, and get them authorized.
# If you're making a web app you're going to want to save the token that's retrieved by Gattica
# so that you can use it later (Google recommends not re-authenticating the user for each and every request)
# ga ={:email => '', :password => 'password', :profile_id => 123456})
# ga.token => 'DW9N00wenl23R0...' (really long string)
# Or if you already have the token (because you authenticated previously and now want to reuse that session):
# ga ={:token => '23ohda09hw...', :profile_id => 123456})
def initialize(options={})
@options = DEFAULT_OPTIONS.merge(options)
@logger = @options[:logger]
@profile_id = @options[:profile_id] # if you don't include the profile_id now, you'll have to set it manually later via Gattica::Engine#profile_id=
@user_accounts = nil # filled in later if the user ever calls Gattica::Engine#accounts
@headers = {}.merge(@options[:headers]) # headers used for any HTTP requests (Google requires a special 'Authorization' header which is set any time @token is set)
# save an http connection for everyone to use
@http =, PORT)
@http.use_ssl = SECURE
@http.set_debug_output $stdout if @options[:debug]
# authenticate
if @options[:email] && @options[:password] # email and password: authenticate, get a token from Google's ClientLogin, save it for later
@user =[:email], @options[:password])
@auth =, user)
self.token = @auth.tokens[:auth]
elsif @options[:token] # use an existing token
self.token = @options[:token]
else # no login or token, you can't do anything
raise GatticaError::NoLoginOrToken, 'You must provide an email and password, or authentication token'
# TODO: check that the user has access to the specified profile and show an error here rather than wait for Google to respond with a message
# Returns the list of accounts the user has access to. A user may have multiple accounts on Google Analytics
# and each account may have multiple profiles. You need the profile_id in order to get info from GA. If you
# don't know the profile_id then use this method to get a list of all them. Then set the profile_id of your
# instance and you can make regular calls from then on.
# ga ={:email => '', :password => 'password'})
# ga.get_accounts
# # you parse through the accounts to find the profile_id you need
# ga.profile_id = 12345678
# # now you can perform a regular search, see Gattica::Engine#get
# If you pass in a profile id when you instantiate Gattica::Search then you won't need to
# get the accounts and find a profile_id - you apparently already know it!
# See Gattica::Engine#get to see how to get some data.
def accounts
# if we haven't retrieved the user's accounts yet, get them now and save them
if @user_accounts.nil?
data = do_http_get('/analytics/feeds/accounts/default')
xml = Hpricot(data)
@user_accounts = { |entry| }
return @user_accounts
# This is the method that performs the actual request to get data.
# == Usage
# gs ={:email => '', :password => 'password', :profile_id => 123456})
# gs.get({ :start_date => '2008-01-01',
# :end_date => '2008-02-01',
# :dimensions => 'browser',
# :metrics => 'pageviews',
# :sort => 'pageviews',
# :filters => ['browser == Firefox']})
# == Input
# When calling +get+ you'll pass in a hash of options. For a description of what these mean to
# Google Analytics, see
# Required values are:
# * +start_date+ => Beginning of the date range to search within
# * +end_date+ => End of the date range to search within
# Optional values are:
# * +dimensions+ => an array of GA dimensions (without the ga: prefix)
# * +metrics+ => an array of GA metrics (without the ga: prefix)
# * +filter+ => an array of GA dimensions/metrics you want to filter by (without the ga: prefix)
# * +sort+ => an array of GA dimensions/metrics you want to sort by (without the ga: prefix)
# == Exceptions
# If a user doesn't have access to the +profile_id+ you specified, you'll receive an error.
# Likewise, if you attempt to access a dimension or metric that doesn't exist, you'll get an
# error back from Google Analytics telling you so.
def get(args={})
args = validate_and_clean(DEFAULT_ARGS.merge(args))
query_string = build_query_string(args,@profile_id)
@logger.debug(query_string) if @debug
data = do_http_get("/analytics/feeds/data?#{query_string}")
# Since google wants the token to appear in any HTTP call's header, we have to set that header
# again any time @token is changed so we override the default writer (note that you need to set
# @token with self.token= instead of @token=)
def token=(token)
@token = token
# Does the work of making HTTP calls and then going through a suite of tests on the response to make
# sure it's valid and not an error
def do_http_get(query_string)
response, data = @http.get(query_string, @headers)
# error checking
if response.code != '200'
case response.code
when '400'
raise GatticaError::AnalyticsError, response.body + " (status code: #{response.code})"
when '401'
raise GatticaError::InvalidToken, "Your authorization token is invalid or has expired (status code: #{response.code})"
else # some other unknown error
raise GatticaError::UnknownAnalyticsError, response.body + " (status code: #{response.code})"
return data
# Sets up the HTTP headers that Google expects (this is called any time @token is set either by Gattica
# or manually by the user since the header must include the token)
def set_http_headers
@headers['Authorization'] = "GoogleLogin auth=#{@token}"
# Creates a valid query string for GA
def build_query_string(args,profile)
output = "ids=ga:#{profile}&start-date=#{args[:start_date]}&end-date=#{args[:end_date]}"
unless args[:dimensions].empty?
output += '&dimensions=' + args[:dimensions].collect do |dimension|
unless args[:metrics].empty?
output += '&metrics=' + args[:metrics].collect do |metric|
unless args[:sort].empty?
output += '&sort=' + args[:sort].collect do |sort|
sort[0..0] == '-' ? "-ga:#{sort[1..-1]}" : "ga:#{sort}" # if the first character is a dash, move it before the ga:
# TODO: update so that in regular expression filters (=~ and !~), any initial special characters in the regular expression aren't also picked up as part of the operator (doesn't cause a problem, but just feels dirty)
unless args[:filters].empty? # filters are a little more complicated because they can have all kinds of modifiers
output += '&filters=' + args[:filters].collect do |filter|
match, name, operator, expression = *filter.match(/^(\w*)\s*([=!<>~@]*)\s*(.*)$/) # splat the resulting Match object to pull out the parts automatically
unless name.empty? || operator.empty? || expression.empty? # make sure they all contain something
"ga:#{name}#{CGI::escape(operator.gsub(/ /,''))}#{CGI::escape(expression)}" # remove any whitespace from the operator before output
raise GatticaError::InvalidFilter, "The filter '#{filter}' is invalid. Filters should look like 'browser == Firefox' or 'browser==Firefox'"
return output
# Validates that the args passed to +get+ are valid
def validate_and_clean(args)
raise GatticaError::MissingStartDate, ':start_date is required' if args[:start_date].nil? || args[:start_date].empty?
raise GatticaError::MissingEndDate, ':end_date is required' if args[:end_date].nil? || args[:end_date].empty?
raise GatticaError::TooManyDimensions, 'You can only have a maximum of 7 dimensions' if args[:dimensions] && (args[:dimensions].is_a?(Array) && args[:dimensions].length > 7)
raise GatticaError::TooManyMetrics, 'You can only have a maximum of 10 metrics' if args[:metrics] && (args[:metrics].is_a?(Array) && args[:metrics].length > 10)
possible = args[:dimensions] + args[:metrics]
# make sure that the user is only trying to sort fields that they've previously included with dimensions and metrics
if args[:sort]
missing = args[:sort].find_all do |arg|
!possible.include? arg.gsub(/^-/,'') # remove possible minuses from any sort params
unless missing.empty?
raise GatticaError::InvalidSort, "You are trying to sort by fields that are not in the available dimensions or metrics: #{missing.join(', ')}"
# make sure that the user is only trying to filter fields that are in dimensions or metrics
if args[:filters]
missing = args[:filters].find_all do |arg|
!possible.include? arg.match(/^\w*/).to_s # get the name of the filter and compare
unless missing.empty?
raise GatticaError::InvalidSort, "You are trying to filter by fields that are not in the available dimensions or metrics: #{missing.join(', ')}"
return args
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