An variation on the Filament Group's responsive images technique (the cookie-driven version).
The aim of this variation is to cut down the amount of JS required for both the situation where there is a naming convention in place to identify the larger size image and for when the larger file needs to be specified in the source. In fact in this approach, the JS simply sets a cookie identifying whether or not the larger image should be loaded, and the .htaccess file deals with the rest.
This is not a fork of their repo as this version requires a slightly different syntax to trigger the responsive image loading behaviour.
If your small and large image filenames are consistent and predictable (such as filename.jpg vs filename.large.jpg), then you only need to add a
?r to the end of the image filename, and then a larger version will be dynamically loaded if the device screen resolution is larger than the breakpoint.
If your larger image is not predictably named then you can specify a path to the larger image by just appending it as a parameter to the query string, such as
?r=img/kitteh.large.jpg. This image will then be loaded for screen resolutions larger than the breakpoint.