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Microservices are a popular method to design scalable cloud-based applications. Microservice-based applications (μApps) rely on message passing for communication and to decouple each microservice, allowing the logic in each service to scale independently. Complex μApps can contain hundreds of microservices, complicating the ability of DevOps engineers to reason about and automatically optimize the deployment. In particular, the performance and resource utilization of a μApp depends on the placement of the microservices that compose it. However, existing tools for μApps, like Kubernetes, provide minimal ability to influence the placement and utilization of a μApp deployment. In this project, we first identify the runtime aspects of microservice execution that impact the placement of microservices in a μApp. We then review the challenges of reconfiguring a μApp based on these aspects. Our main contribution is an adaptation mechanism, named REMaP, to manage the placement of microservices in an μApp automatically. To achieve this, REMaP uses microservice affinities and resource usage history. We evaluate our REMaP prototype and demonstrate that our solution is autonomic, lowers resource utilization, and can substantially improve μApp performance.

More in Improving microservice-based applications with runtime placement adaptation

Automatic model generation of Microservice-based applications

Microservices have become a popular pattern for deploying scale-out application logic and are used by companies like Netflix, IBM, and Google. An advantage of using microservices is their loose coupling, which leads to agile and rapid evolution, and continuous re-deployment. However, developers are tasked with managing this evolution and largely do so manually by continuously collecting and evaluating low-level service behaviors.

To help the developers in the management of microservices, we are developing a mechanism to collect data from the microservices-based applications and create an evolution model both automatically.

Evolution Model


This project has been developed to collect automatically information from applications running on Kubernetes and populate the proposed model. Once running, the model is causally connected with the applications, allowing that changes on model reflect on the application and vice versa.

Current Status

The project is at an early stage of development. The model is partially constructed (only the architectural layer and parts of the instance layer). Moreover, the mechanism is only able to collect some specific data from the infrastructure. For example, metrics collected from Heapster and stored into InfluxDB, and application messages collected and stored by Zipkin.

The next steps are to finish the mechanism to create a full instance of the model and to carry out the causal connection between the model and the applications.

Future Work

As the future work, we will use this mechanism as the core of an adaptation manager. It will able to detect particular situations of the microservice applications and apply changes to improve their behavior at runtime. This adaptation process should be automatically and only guided by the model. The first use case that we envision is to adapt microservices applications to improve their performance by changing its microservices displacement in a cluster.

Final remarks

It is a Ph.D. project and is in constantly changes.


REMaP: an adaptation mechanism to manage the placement of microservices in an μApp automatically







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