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README.md

Swipe - A CoffeeScript App Framework

Swipe is a simple javascript framework which allows for easy development of a HTML5 application. You must be using CoffeeScript to develop with Swipe otherwise your life will be pretty bad.

Before we get started, this is not designed to be very complicated and really should not be compared to other JS frameworks like Ember or Backbone. It has been developed for use in the development of our own applications which follow our own design pattern. If you like it, great - feel free to use it. If you don't, that's fair enough, there are plenty of other great frameworks out there for you to look at it.

If you prefer to jump right in, I would recommend taking a look at the examples in this repo. The example 'app.coffee' and 'index.html' are well commented and show how to get up and running quite easily. View a live example?

Please also note, we are still working on this and it will be developed constantly over the next few months and should not be considered stable or feature-locked.

Now, onwards with some theory...

Layouts

A layout is an HTML document which includes an area for views to be inserted within. You should define a default layout class within the Swipe.App namespace as shown below.

class Swipe.App.DefaultLayout extends Swipe.Layout

  # Specify the default template for the layout
  template: -> Swipe.getTemplate('default-layout')

When using the Swipe.getTemplate(name, vars) method, it will automatically return an HTML string which can been found by looking for a <script> object with the ID tpl-#{name}. All templates will be passed through Handlebars and the vars passed to the getTemplate method will be available.

Layouts will be loaded directly into the <body> of the page so your template should reflect this positioning. An example HTML layout may look like the code below. In all cases a layout should define an object with the ID views. This is where your views will be stacked (by default).

<header>
  <h1>My Website</h1>
</header>
<div id='views'></div>
<footer>
  <p>&copy; My Website 2013</p>
</footer>

When a layout is inserted into the page, it will be wrapped within in a <div> object. This tag will have and ID of swipeLayout and only one can be present at a time.

If a new layout is loaded into your application, any existing layout along with it's view stack will be removed.

Loading a layout

In order to load a layout into your page, you need to load it. Loading a layout is usually one of the first things which happens in the application and occurs in your main application.coffee file.

Swipe.initializeApp ()->
  # Load the default layout for the application when the DOM has
  # been loaded.
  $(document).ready ->
    Swipe.App.DefaultLayout.load()

If you want to change layout within your application, you can do so by just loading in your other layout. This will do everything needed to unload any existing layout and load your new layout.

Swipe.App.LoginLayout.load()

Views

A view is a page which is displayed within your layout. They function in a similar way to layouts and each view has it's own class.

Unlike layouts, you can insert as many views into your page as you wish. Each view has a unique ID which identifies it within your page's view stack.

class Swipe.App.TicketView extends Swipe.View

  # Specify the default template for the view
  template: -> Swipe.getTemplate('ticket-view')

To display a view in your page, you need to load it in a similar way to layouts. You will call it's load method and pass an ID (as a string) and an, optional, function to execute when the tab has been loaded

Swipe.App.TicketView.load id, (completeFunction)->

  # We will set some properties for the view. 'this' is the instance
  # of the new view.
  this.properties             = {}
  this.properties.subject     = "My Example Ticket Subject"
  this.properties.reference   = "AB-123123"

  # Setting the pageTitle variable will ensure the page's <title>
  # attribute is set as appropriate when the view is visible.
  this.setPageTitle this.properties.subject

  # We must remember to execute the completeFunction function when
  # we're finishing loading.
  completeFunction.call()

If a view with the provided ID does not exist on your view stack, it will be loaded otherwise the view will be initialized and inserted onto the stack.

If you pass a function to the load method, this will be executed before the view is added to the stack and displayed to the user. You can use this method to load data from an external source, if needed. However, it is important to remember to execute the passed completeFunction otherwise the view loading will not complete and the view will not be inserted into your stack.

Multiple View Containers

In some cases, you may wish to open a view in a different container within your layout. By default, all pages will be loaded into the element with the ID views. If you wish to create a view which loads into a different element, you can change this on a per-view basis.

class Swipe.App.ContactView extends Swipe.View
  viewContainer: '#contact'

When you specify a different view container for a view, only the contents of this container will be hidden when it is unfocused (or another view is pushed into the stack). The views shown in other containers will remain visible.

One item to note about this functionality is that the contents of your URL will most likely only ever update one view which means other views can end up unloaded unless load the other views on load too.

Routing

Swipe includes a routing engine which allows you to convert a URL into a view. For example, you may wish to route tickets/AB-123123 to your TicketView and contact/1 to a ContactView. Any changes to the URL will cause the router to trigger it's associated method.

Swipe.Router.add 'ticket', '/ticket/:ref', ->
  Swipe.App.TicketView.loadFromReference this.ref

Swipe.Router.add 'contact', '/contact/:id', ->
  Swipe.App.ContactView.loadFromId this.id

You will notice that we have used a loadFromReference and loadFromId method. These are not part of the framework and are often configured on the View object to assist with loading external resources. Essentially, they are just methods which call the load method we talked about earlier.

All views remember the URL they were open with and if a view is brought back into focus, the URL will be updated automatically.

There are a number of other methods on the router which may be helpful:

Swipe.Router.linkTo 'ticket', {ref: 'AB-123123'}    #=> '/ticket/AB-123123'
Swipe.Router.goTo 'ticket', {ref: 'AB-123123'}      #=> executes the matched route
Swipe.Router.currentURL()                           #=> '/contact/1'

The Store

Storing preferences & user data locally is made easy using the Swipe.Store object. This provides an interface to the HTML5 Local Storage API.

Swipe.Store.put 'hello', 'world'      #=> 'world'
Swipe.Store.get 'hello'               #=> 'world'
Swipe.Store.delete 'hello'            #=> true

Exploring Views & Layouts

Layouts & Views implement a great way to manage behaviours & keyboard shortcut as well as hooking into the view lifecycle.

Keyboard Shortcuts

Keyboard shortcuts are vital for modern HTML5 applications and Swipe treats them well and provides a nice interface for managing which keyboard shortcuts are available and when.

Keyboard shortcuts can be assigned to views and they will be only be active when the view is visible.

Swipe.App.TicketView.addKeyboardShortcut 'ctrl+s', {}, ->
  alert "Subject is #{this.properties.subject}"

Behaviours

It's more than likely that you'll need to attach functions to various events which occur within your views. For example, you may wish to display an alert box when a link is clicked, handle a form submission or something else entirely.

Behaviours allow you to automatically bind functions to elements inserted into your view when it is loaded.

Swipe.App.TicketView.addBehaviour 'click', 'ul.list li a', (view)->
  alert "You clicked on a link in the list!"

Swipe.App.TicketView.addBehaviour 'submit', 'form', (view)->
  form = $(this).attr 'href'
  view.submitFormTo form

View Lifecycle

There are number of built-in hooks which you can attach methods to. The primary reason for this is that it allows you to extend your view from an alternative file.

The main hooks which you may wish to use are:

  • load - called when the view is loaded for the first time (layouts & views)
  • unload - called when the view is removed from the DOM (layouts & views)
  • focus - called when an existing view is brought into the foreground (views only)
  • blur - called when a view is hidden (views only)
  • visible - called when a view is made visible (loaded or brought into focus)
  • hidden - called when a view is no longer visible (unloaded or blurred)
Swipe.App.TicketView.addBindEvent 'load', ->
  console.log "I have been loaded!"

Swipe.App.TicketView.addBindEvent 'focus', ->
  console.log "I have just been brought into focus. I am #{this}!"

If you have a complicated view, you can trigger your own hooks. You can add hooks for any "event" that you see fit. To trigger all functions currently bound to an event, you can execute:

Swipe.App.TicketView.runBoundEvents 'event', view, otherArgs...

Bundled Utilities

Swipe is bundled with a number of external/3rd party utilities which are useful in pretty much every application.

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