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README.md

README.md

Hack&Roll 2020: Building Apps with Flutter

An introduction to Dart and Flutter to start building your very own app, abiding by good design principles.

Pre-Workshop Setup

1. Setup

Click on the respective links below and follow the instructions listed under Get the Flutter SDK, Update your path and Run flutter doctor only.

Flutter set up instructions:

2. Set up an IDE

Visual Studio Code is the recommended IDE. Download it and install it for your respective platforms.

Install the Flutter and Dart plugins:

  • Start VS Code.
  • Invoke View > Command Palette….
  • Type “install”, and select Extensions: Install Extensions.
  • Type “flutter” in the extensions search field, select Flutter in the list, and click Install. This also installs the required Dart plugin.

3. Android/iOS Development Dependencies

Running flutter doctor -v should now produce an output and this image shows a section of that output.

Depending on whether you are developing on an iOS device/simulator or android device/AVD or both, follow the instruction given in the output if there are any. If you have set up everything correctly you should see a [✓] for Android Studio or Xcode, again depending on whether you are developing on iOS or android or both.

Agenda

Dart Basics

Read up on all the syntax here.

Built-in types

The Dart language has special support for the following types:

  • int
  • double
  • strings
  • booleans
  • lists
  • sets
  • maps
  • runes (for expressing Unicode characters in a string)
  • symbols

Functions

Type annotated

int sum(int a, int b) {
  return a + b;
}

Type omitted

sum(a, b) {
  return a + b;
}

Arrow syntax

int sum(int a, int b) => a + b;

Parameters

Required Parameters

int sum(int a, int b, int c) {
  return a + b + c;
}

sum(1, 2, 3);

Optional Named Parameters

int sum({int a, int b, int c = 0}) {
  return a + b + c;
}

sum(a: 1, b: 2);

Optional Positional Parameters

int sum(int a, int b, [int c = 0]) {
  return a + b + c;
}

sum(1, 2);

Interesting/Important Operators

1. Conditional Expressions

condition ? expr1 : expr2

String getPlayerName(int i) {
  return (names[i] == null) ? 'Guest' : names[i];
}

expr1 ?? expr2

String getPlayerName(int i) {
  return names[i] ?? 'Guest';
}

2. Assignment Operators

// Assign value to a
a = value;
// Assign value to b if b is null; otherwise, b stays the same
b ??= value;

Basic Structure

App Lifecycle

From Stack Overflow

Create an App

$ flutter create -i swift -a kotlin list_app

Building an Infinite List

We will be building an app like this:

ListView.builder(
      padding: const EdgeInsets.all(16),
      itemBuilder: (BuildContext context, int i) {
        return _buildRow(i);
      }
    );
Widget _buildRow(int i) {
    return ListTile(
      title: Text(
        i.toString(),
      ),
    );
  }

Adding Interactivity

var values = Map();
setState(() {
    if (values.containsKey(i))
      values[i] = !values[i];
    else
      values.putIfAbsent(i, () => true);
  });

Asynchronous Functions

A Future represents the result of an asynchronous operation, and can have two states: uncompleted or completed.

The async keyword appears before a function body to mark that function as asynchronous.

The await keyword can appear before an asynchronous function to get the completed result.

Future<String>  createOrderMessage() async {
  var order = await fetchUserOrder();
  return 'Your order is: $order';
}

Navigation

From Flutter in Action

Pushing a Route

Navigator.push(context, MaterialPageRoute(builder: (context) => NewPage()));

Popping the Stack

Navigator.pop(context);

Send Data to a New Screen

Sending Data Forward

class DetailsPage extends StatefulWidget {
  final String pageName, index;

  DetailsPage(this.index, this.pageName);

  @override
  _DetailsPageState createState() => _DetailsPageState();
}

class _DetailsPageState extends State<DetailsPage> {
  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Scaffold(
      appBar: AppBar(
        title: Text(widget.pageName),
      ),
      body: Center(
        child: Text(widget.index),
      ),
    );
  }
}

Sending Data Backward

Using Navigator

var data = await Navigator.push(context, MaterialPageRoute(builder: (context) => NewPage()));
Navigator.pop(context, widget.index);

Using Parent Function

class DetailsPage extends StatefulWidget {
  final String pageName, index;
  final Function updateValue;

  DetailsPage(this.index, this.pageName, this.updateValue);

  @override
  _DetailsPageState createState() => _DetailsPageState();
}

class _DetailsPageState extends State<DetailsPage> {
  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return WillPopScope(
      onWillPop: () async {
        widget.updateValue(widget.index);
        return true;
      },
      child: Scaffold(
        appBar: AppBar(
          title: Text(widget.pageName),
        ),
        body: Center(
          child: Text(widget.index),
        ),
      ),
    );
  }
}

Intro to RxDart + BLoC Pattern

The information and graphics from this section are from here. Read the article there for a more detailed coverage.

Add rxdart: ^0.23.1 to pubspec.yaml.

BLoC Pattern

BLoC stands for Business Logic Component.

Advantages

  1. Decoupled from the UI Layer
  2. Better segmentation of app logic
  3. Makes use of streams for input and output

RxDart

The pipe is known as a Stream. A stream is controlled with a StreamController. The StreamController exposes the Sink for input. There are three types of StreamControllers - PublishSubject, BehaviorSubject, ReplaySubject.

Implementation Sample

Copy the blocs folder to the lib folder.

class SampleBloc implements BlocBase {
  int _counter;
  
  // Stream to handle the counter
  Final _counterController = BehaviorSubject<int>();
  Sink<int> get inAdd => _counterController.sink;
  Stream<int> get outCounter => _counterController.stream;

  // Constructor
  SampleBloc() {
    _counter = 0;
    _counterController.stream.listen(_handleLogic);
  }

  @override
  void dispose() {
    _counterController.close();
  }

  void _handleLogic(data) {
    ...
  }
}

Making API Calls

Add dio: ^3.0.8 to pubspec.yaml.

Future<String> fetchWeatherForecast() async {
    String weatherApiUrl =
        "https://api.data.gov.sg/v1/environment/2-hour-weather-forecast";
    String forecast;
    Dio dio = Dio();

    RequestOptions requestOptions = RequestOptions(
        receiveTimeout: 5000,
        connectTimeout: 5000,
        method: 'GET',
        responseType: ResponseType.json,
        validateStatus: (status) {
          return status == 200;
        });

    (dio.httpClientAdapter as DefaultHttpClientAdapter).onHttpClientCreate =
        (HttpClient client) {
      client.badCertificateCallback =
          (X509Certificate cert, String host, int port) => true;
      return client;
    };

    dio.interceptors.add(InterceptorsWrapper(onResponse: (Response response) {
      if (response.statusCode == 200) {
        for (Map map in response.data["items"][0]["forecasts"]) {
          if (map["area"] == "Clementi") 
            forecast = map["forecast"];
        }
      }
      return response;
    }));

    try {
      await dio.get(weatherApiUrl, options: requestOptions);
    } catch (e) {
      print(e);
      return "Error";
    }

    return forecast;
  }

Building a Weather App Using BLoC Pattern

We will be building a very simple UI like this:

Add these dependencies:

rxdart: ^0.23.1
dio: ^3.0.8
flutter_spinkit: "^4.1.1"

Use this method to display weather icons according to the forecast data:

_getIcon(String val) {
  switch (val) {
    case 'Cloudy':
      return WeatherIcons.cloudy;
    case 'Fair (Day)':
      return WeatherIcons.day_sunny;
    case 'Fair (Night)':
      return WeatherIcons.night_clear;
    case 'Fair & Warm':
      return WeatherIcons.day_sunny_overcast;
    case 'Hazy':
      return WeatherIcons.smoke;
    case 'Heavy Rain':
      return WeatherIcons.rain_wind;
    case 'Heavy Showers':
      return WeatherIcons.showers;
    case 'Heavy Thundery Showers':
      return WeatherIcons.thunderstorm;
    case 'Heavy Thundery Showers with Gusty Winds':
      return WeatherIcons.thunderstorm;
    case 'Light Rain':
      return WeatherIcons.sprinkle;
    case 'Light Showers':
      return WeatherIcons.showers;
    case 'Mist':
      return WeatherIcons.fog;
    case 'Moderate Rain':
      return WeatherIcons.rain;
    case 'Partly Cloudy (Day)':
      return WeatherIcons.day_cloudy;
    case 'Partly Cloudy (Night)':
      return WeatherIcons.night_alt_cloudy;
    case 'Passing Showers':
      return WeatherIcons.showers;
    case 'Showers':
      return WeatherIcons.showers;
    case 'Slightly Hazy':
      return WeatherIcons.smoke;
    case 'Thundery Showers':
      return WeatherIcons.storm_showers;
    case 'Windy':
      return WeatherIcons.cloudy_windy;
  }

  return WeatherIcons.cloudy;
}
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