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e7d914d Dec 23, 2018
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@adrianmihalko @djhworld
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1. Wireguard installation (Raspberry Pi 2 v1.2 and above)

pi@raspberrypi:~ $ sudo apt-get update
pi@raspberrypi:~ $ sudo apt-get upgrade 
pi@raspberrypi:~ $ sudo apt-get install raspberrypi-kernel-headers
pi@raspberrypi:~ $ echo "deb http://deb.debian.org/debian/ unstable main" | sudo tee --append /etc/apt/sources.list.d/unstable.list
pi@raspberrypi:~ $ sudo apt-get install dirmngr 
pi@raspberrypi:~ $ sudo apt-key adv --keyserver   keyserver.ubuntu.com --recv-keys 8B48AD6246925553 
pi@raspberrypi:~ $ printf 'Package: *\nPin: release a=unstable\nPin-Priority: 150\n' | sudo tee --append /etc/apt/preferences.d/limit-unstable
pi@raspberrypi:~ $ sudo apt-get update
pi@raspberrypi:~ $ sudo apt-get install wireguard 
pi@raspberrypi:~ $ sudo reboot

Raspberry Pi 1, Zero, ZeroW requires manual compiling.

Enable ipv4 forwarding then reboot to make changes active:

pi@raspberrypi:~ $ sudo perl -pi -e 's/#{1,}?net.ipv4.ip_forward ?= ?(0|1)/net.ipv4.ip_forward = 1/g' /etc/sysctl.conf 
pi@raspberrypi:~ $ sudo reboot

To check if it has been enabled:

pi@raspberrypi:~ $ sysctl net.ipv4.ip_forward 
net.ipv4.ip_forward = 1

If you get net.ipv4.ip_forward = 0, please manually edit sudo nano /etc/sysctl.conf and add net.ipv4.ip_forward = 1.

2. Configuring WireGuard

We cover two way of setting up Wireguard and clients:

3. Generate private and public keys for server and client1

pi@raspberrypi:~ $ mkdir wgkeys
pi@raspberrypi:~ $ cd wgkeys  
pi@raspberrypi:~/wgkeys $ wg genkey > server_private.key  
Warning: writing to world accessible file.
Consider setting the umask to 077 and trying again.

pi@raspberrypi:~/wgkeys $ wg pubkey > server_public.key < server_private.key
pi@raspberrypi:~/wgkeys $ wg genkey > client1_private.key  
Warning: writing to world accessible file.
Consider setting the umask to 077 and trying again.
pi@raspberrypi:~/wgkeys $ wg pubkey > client1_public.key < client1_private.key
pi@raspberrypi:~/wgkeys $ ls
client1_private.key client1_public.key server_private.key server_public.key

Use cat command to view content of the file. You need this in the next step.

pi@raspberrypi:~/wgkeys $ cat server_public.key 
Aj2HHAutB2U0O56jJBdkZ/xgb9pnmUPJ0IeiuACLLmI=

4. Setup Wireguard interface on server

pi@raspberrypi:~/wgkeys $ sudo nano /etc/wireguard/wg0.conf    
[Interface]
Address = 192.168.99.1/24
ListenPort = 51820

PrivateKey = <server_private.key>
PostUp = iptables -A FORWARD -i %i -j ACCEPT; iptables -A FORWARD -o %i -j ACCEPT; iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -o eth0 -j MASQUERADE
PostDown = iptables -D FORWARD -i %i -j ACCEPT; iptables -D FORWARD -o %i -j ACCEPT; iptables -t nat -D POSTROUTING -o eth0 -j MASQUERADE

[Peer]
#Client1
PublicKey = <client1_public.key>
AllowedIPs = 192.168.99.2/32

5. Start Wireguard

Start Wireguard with wg-quick command.

pi@raspberrypi:~/wgkeys $ sudo wg-quick up wg0 
[#] ip link add wg0 type wireguard
[#] wg setconf wg0 /dev/fd/63
[#] ip address add 192.168.99.1/24 dev wg0
[#] ip link set mtu 1420 dev wg0
[#] ip link set wg0 up

Use sudo wg command to check if it is working:

pi@raspberrypi:~/wgkeys $ sudo wg 
interface: wg0
public key: Aj2HHAutB2U0O56jJBdkZ/xgb9pnmUPJ0IeiuACLLmI=
private key: (hidden)
listening port: 51820

peer: ht4+w8Tk28hFQCpXWnL4ftGAu/IwtMvD2yEZ+1hp7zA=
allowed ips: 192.168.99.2/32

You can launch automatically at startup:

pi@raspberrypi:~/wgkeys $ sudo systemctl enable wg-quick@wg0  
Created symlink /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/wg-quick@wg0.service → /lib/systemd/system/wg-quick@.service.

6. Setup clients

You will need to install wireguard on clients as well. Wireguard does not have separate apps for server and client, just differences in the configuration file. On Debian based distros (Ubuntu, Debian etc.) you just run sudo apt-get install wireguard.

For installing on other systems, please visit Wireguard website.

We generated credentials for one user above.

Example configuration on client:

adrian@MacBook-Pro:/Volumes$ sudo mkdir /etc/wireguard/
adrian@MacBook-Pro:/Volumes$ sudo nano /etc/wireguard/wg0.conf 
[Interface]
Address = 192.168.99.2/24
PrivateKey = <client1_private.key>

[Peer]
Endpoint = your.publicdns.com:51820
PublicKey = <server_public.key>
AllowedIPs = 192.168.99.1/32, 192.168.1.0/24

192.168.1.0/24 is my remote LAN subnet, if you add here your own network, you can access remote LAN devices from the client.

adrian@MacBook-Pro:/Volumes$ sudo wg-quick up wg0 
Warning: '/private/etc/wireguard/wg0.conf' is world accessible


[#] wireguard-go utun
INFO: (utun3) 2018/12/19 00:14:21 Starting wireguard-go version 0.0.20181018

[+] Interface for wg0 is utun3
[#] wg setconf utun3 /dev/fd/63
[#] ifconfig utun3 inet 192.168.99.2/24 192.168.99.2 alias
[#] ifconfig utun3 mtu 1416
[#] ifconfig utun3 up
[#] route -q -n add -inet 192.168.99.1/32 -interface utun3
[+] Backgrounding route monitor

Check if Wireguard is working:

adrian@MacBook-Pro:/Volumes$ sudo wg
interface: utun3
public key: ht4+w8Tk28hFQCpXWnL4ftGAu/IwtMvD2yEZ+1hp7zA=
private key: (hidden)
listening port: 53694

peer: Aj2HHAutB2U0O56jJBdkZ/xgb9pnmUPJ0IeiuACLLmI=
endpoint: your.publicdns.com:51820
allowed ips: 192.168.99.1/32

adrian@MacBook-Pro:/Volumes$ ping 192.168.99.1

PING 192.168.99.1 (192.168.99.1): 56 data bytes
64 bytes from 192.168.99.1: icmp_seq=0 ttl=64 time=13.447 ms
^C
--- 192.168.99.1 ping statistics ---

3 packets transmitted, 3 packets received, 0.0% packet loss
round-trip min/avg/max/stddev = 4.565/8.495/13.447/3.697 ms

Mobile clients (iOS, Android)

Generate key pairs:

pi@raspberrypi:~/wgkeys $ wg genkey > client2_private.key
Warning: writing to world accessible file.
Consider setting the umask to 077 and trying again.

pi@raspberrypi:~/wgkeys $ wg pubkey > client2_public.key < client2_private.key

To the bottom of your config add:

pi@raspberrypi:~/wgkeys $ sudo nano /etc/wireguard/wg0.conf
[Peer]
#Client2
PublicKey = <client2_public.key>
AllowedIPs = 192.168.99.2/32

pi@raspberrypi:~/wgkeys $ sudo wg-quick down wg0
pi@raspberrypi:~/wgkeys $ sudo wg-quick up wg0

iOS configuration

Download and install official Wireguard app: Wireguard beta is available in the App Store.

Android configuration

Additional INFO:

If you put 0.0.0.0/0 in AllowedIPs on clients, all traffic will be redirected trough this interface.

Q&A:

Q: No network problems if the lans are in the same dhcp range?

A: You can't have same dhcp range on both sides. There are workarounds, but it is not trivial to set up.

Q: Do you need port forward?

A: Yes, you need to forward one port, type: UDP. In example we used port 51820.

Q: Can you make a VM with Wireguard instead of a Raspberry Pi?

A: Of course you can, there is no restriction, the configuration is the same. Virtual machine, physical machine, doesn’t matter.

Resources:

WireGuard website: https://www.wireguard.com

WireGuard presentation https://www.wireguard.com/talks/eindhoven2018-slides.pdf

Actual version of this guide is available at: https://github.com/adrianmihalko/raspberrypiwireguard/

TODO:

  • Port forwarding on router UDP 51820
  • Double WARN users for using the right key at the right place