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CoFloCo is a static analysis tool to infer automatically symbolic complexity upper and lower bounds of imperative and recursive programs. CoFloCo's analysis is not binded to any specific programming language, instead it takes an abstract representation of programs as an input. The abstract representation is a set of cost equations that can be generated from source code, bytecode or other intermediate representations.

CoFloCo is intended to be used as a backend. Here are some systems that use CoFloCo:

  • CoFloCo+llvm2kittel: A web interface to analyze programs written in C with the help of llvm2kittel and easyinterface.

  • Saco: Saco contains multiple static analyses for concurrent programs written in the ABS language. CoFloCo can be selected as an alternative backend to PUBS for the resource analysis.

  • SRA: A resource analysis tool for a concurrent language with explicit acquire and release operations for virtual machines.

The main techniques used in CoFloCo are described in the papers:

Using Vagrant

You can use CoFloCo without installing any of the dependencies using Vagrant. Vagrant will start a Linux virtual machine and install the needed dependencies. In the CoFloCo/ directory, run the command vagrant up to provision and start a VM, then vagrant ssh to connect.

Within the VM, this directory is accessible in the directory /vagrant.


  • Linux or Mac: In principle it should be possible to use CoFloCo in Windows but it might require some slight changes.

  • SWI-Prolog (Tried on Versions 6.6.6 and 7.4.2) or YAP-Prolog (Development version 6.3.3)

  • GMP: The GNU Multiple Precision Arithmetic Library (It is required by SWI-Prolog)

  • Parma Polyhedra Library (PPL): CoFloCo uses the latest version available at the moment (1.2)

Complete Installation

  • Install SWI-Prolog or YAP and the GMP library

  • CoFloCo requires the Parma Polyhedra Library (PPL) with the SWI-Prolog interface or YAP-Prolog installed (Depending on which prolog system you are using). The distributions that are available with apt-get (linux) or port (mac) do not include these interfaces at the moment.

    For convenience, the binary of PPL for Linux x64 and SWI-Prolog 7.4.2 is included in src/lib/. If you have this system, you can use CoFloCo with SWI-Prolog 7.4.2 without compiling and installing the library. Just make sure the make sure the libraries are found by cofloco before you execute it:

    export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$LD_LIBRARY_PATH:./src/lib/

    If you want to use your own installation of PPL (say you have a mac of a different prolog), you can download the sources from the official page In the directory of ppl execute:

    ./configure --enable-interfaces=swi_prolog,yap_prolog


    sudo make install

    Some extra options might be necessary depending on your system. PPL provides documentation on how to configure and compile in different systems.

    Note: According to our experience, using a sparse representation for polyhedra generally results in better performance. To compile PPL with this option, you have to change the following line in Polyhedron_defs.hh:

    static const Representation default_con_sys_repr = DENSE;

    to become

    static const Representation default_con_sys_repr = SPARSE;

  • Once installed all the requirements, you can call CoFloCo with the script "cofloco" in the main directory:

    ./cofloco -i examples/EXAMPLE_FILE

or ./cofloco_yap -i examples/EXAMPLE_FILE

Usage information

See the file ./ for a description of the parameters, input format, explanation of the outputs, etc.


  • examples/: Example input files
    • examples/evaluation/ : A set of examples used in the evaluation of the tool
    • examples/testing/ :Small examples to exercise different functionalities of the tool.
  • src/: Source files of CoFloCo
    • src/ The main module
    • ...
  • interfaces: Scripts to generate cost relations from other languages
  • static_binary: Makefile to generate a statically linked binary
  • cofloco: main script for executing CoFloCo
  • cofloco_yap: script for executing CoFloCo with YAP
  • cofloco_mac: script for executing CoFloCo in a MAC
  • README: this file
  • USAGE: basic instructions of how to use CoFloCo


CoFloCo has been compared to other cost analysis tools in several experimental evaluations. The most recent evaluation can be found here.



  • Antonio Flores-Montoya
  • Clemens Danninger (Lisp interface)


CoFloCo uses the stdlib created by the costa team ( and was in part inspired by PUBS


CoFloCo is a static analysis tool written in prolog to infer automatically symbolic complexity bounds of imperative and recursive programs.




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