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AFLSmart: Smart Greybox Fuzzing

AFLSmart is a smart (input-structure aware) greybox fuzzer which leverages a high-level structural representation of the seed files to generate new files. It uses higher-order mutation operators that work on the virtual file structure rather than on the bit level which allows AFLSmart to explore completely new input domains while maintaining file validity. It uses a novel validity-based power schedule that enables AFLSmart to spend more time generating files that are more likely to pass the parsing stage of the program, which can expose vulnerabilities much deeper in the processing logic.

AFLSmart is an extension of American Fuzzy Lop (AFL) written and maintained by Michał Zalewski <lcamtuf@google.com>, and builds upon the Peach Fuzzer Community Edition written and maintained by PeachTech. We thank PeachTech for making the community version open source.

Smart Greybox Fuzzing was developed by Van-Thuan Pham, Marcel Böhme, Andrew E. Santosa, Alexandru Răzvan Căciulescu, and Abhik Roychoudhury.

See here what has changed versus AFL 2.52b: https://github.com/aflsmart/aflsmart/compare/2fb5a34..master

For more details, please checkout our preprint: Smart Greybox Fuzzing. For details on American Fuzzy Lop, we refer to docs/README.

Citing AFLSmart

AFLSmart has been accepted for publication in a future issue of IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering (TSE).

@ARTICLE{AFLSmart,
author={V. {Pham} and M. {B{\"o}hme} and A. E. {Santosa} and A. R. {Caciulescu} and A. {Roychoudhury}},
journal={IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering},
title={Smart Greybox Fuzzing},
year={2019},
doi={10.1109/TSE.2019.2941681},}

Installation

Prerequisites

Install automake and some required packages

sudo apt-get install build-essential automake libtool libc6-dev-i386 python-pip g++-multilib

Compile and install mono package to support C# on Linux

sudo apt-get install mono-complete

Install gcc-4.4 and g++-4.4 (as Pin component in Peach has a compilation issue with newer version of gcc like gcc-5.4)

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:ubuntu-toolchain-r/test
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt install gcc-4.4
sudo apt install g++-4.4

If you find that it just didn't work on your linux distribution and got failed at installing gcc/g++ 4.4 follow the commands below :

First edit the sources.list file :

sudo vim /etc/apt/sources.list

then add the following line to your sources.list file :

deb  http://dk.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/  trusty  main  universe

Now :

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt install gcc-4.4
sudo apt install g++-4.4

(This should work on many distributions without any failure)

AFLSmart

Download AFLSmart and compile it.

git clone https://github.com/aflsmart/aflsmart
cd aflsmart
make clean all
cd ..

export AFLSMART=$(pwd)/aflsmart
export WORKDIR=$(pwd)

Modified version of Peach

cd $AFLSMART
wget https://sourceforge.net/projects/peachfuzz/files/Peach/3.0/peach-3.0.202-source.zip
unzip peach-3.0.202-source.zip
patch -p1 < peach-3.0.202.patch
cd peach-3.0.202-source
CC=gcc-4.4 CXX=g++-4.4 ./waf configure
CC=gcc-4.4 CXX=g++-4.4 ./waf install

Setup PATH environment variables

cd $AFLSMART
source $AFLSMART/setup_env.sh

Usage

AFLSmart adds four more options to AFL

-w: input model type. AFLSmart currently only supports Peach.

-g: input model file. Path to the input model file (a.k.a Peach pit) is required. We have provided 10 sample Peach pits in the input_models folder. To write a new Peach pit for a new file format, please follow this tutorial and revisit Section 4 - File Format Specification of the AFLSmart paper.

-h: stacking mutations mode which mixes normal and higher-order mutation operators together.

-H: limit the number of higher-order mutations for each input. This is an optional option; there is no limit if the option is not set.

Example command:

afl-fuzz -h -i in -o out -w peach -g <input model file> -x <dictionary file> <executable binary and its arguments> @@

During the fuzzing process, AFLSmart will interact with Peach to get the validity and chunks' boundary information. Please check the out/chunks folder and make sure that it is not empty. If it is empty, Peach executable may not be found and you need to compile Peach and/or check the PATH environment variable.

Examples

To fuzz WavPack and reproduce CVE-2018-10536. See Section 2 - Motivating Example in the AFLSmart paper.

Compile the vulnerable version of WavPack

cd $WORKDIR
git clone https://github.com/dbry/WavPack.git
cd WavPack
git checkout 0a72951
./autogen.sh
CC=afl-gcc ./configure --disable-shared
make clean all

Fuzz it in 24 hrs

cd $WORKDIR/WavPack
timeout 24h $AFLSMART/afl-fuzz -m none -h -d -i $AFLSMART/testcases/aflsmart/wav -o out -w peach -g $AFLSMART/input_models/wav.xml -x $AFLSMART/dictionaries/wav.dict -e wav -- ./cli/wavpack -y @@ -o out

Trophy case

We would love to hear from you if you have found interesting vulnerabilities with AFLSmart

  • FFmpeg: 10 bugs reported, 9 CVEs assigned (CVE-2018-12458, CVE-2018-12459, CVE-2018-12460, CVE-2018-13300, CVE-2018-13301, CVE-2018-13302, CVE-2018-13303, CVE-2018-13304, CVE-2018-13305)
  • PDFium: Issue-912846
  • LibPNG: CVE-2018-13785
  • Binutils: 4 bugs reported, 2 CVEs assigned (CVE-2018-10372, CVE-2018-10373)
  • OpenJPEG: 3 bugs reported, 1 CVE assigned (CVE-2018-21010)
  • Jasper: 11 bugs reported, 5 CVEs assigned (CVE-2018-19539, CVE-2018-19540, CVE-2018-19541, CVE-2018-19542, CVE-2018-19543)
  • LibAV: 6 bugs reported
  • WavPack: CVE-2018-10536, CVE-2018-10537, CVE-2018-10538, CVE-2018-10539, CVE-2018-10540

Contributions

All contributions are welcome. We would love to get your pull requests for bug fixes, improvements and new input models. We have provided 10 Peach pits for popular file formats (e.g., PDF, PNG, AVI ...) and will try to gradually upload more to the repository but there are hundreds of file formats out there and it would be great if AFLSmart's users could contribute their models.

Licences

AFLSmart is licensed under Apache License, Version 2.0.

AFLSmart is an extension of American Fuzzy Lop written and maintained by Michał Zalewski <lcamtuf@google.com>, and builds upon the Peach Fuzzer Community Edition written and maintained by PeachTech. We thank PeachTech for making the community version open source.

  • AFL: Copyright 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016 Google Inc. All rights reserved. Released under terms and conditions of Apache License, Version 2.0.
  • Peach: Peach is not distributed with this repository. Instead, we ask to download here. The Peach Fuzzer Community Edition is licenced under the MIT License