Source code for the analysis described in:
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Mar 5.
Molecular adaptations of striatal spiny projection neurons during levodopa-induced dyskinesia. Heiman M1, Heilbut A, Francardo V, Kulicke R, Fenster RJ, Kolaczyk ED, Mesirov JP, Surmeier DJ, Cenci MA, Greengard P.
Abstract Levodopa treatment is the major pharmacotherapy for Parkinson's disease. However, almost all patients receiving levodopa eventually develop debilitating involuntary movements (dyskinesia). Although it is known that striatal spiny projection neurons (SPNs) are involved in the genesis of this movement disorder, the molecular basis of dyskinesia is not understood. In this study, we identify distinct cell-type-specific gene-expression changes that occur in subclasses of SPNs upon induction of a parkinsonian lesion followed by chronic levodopa treatment. We identify several hundred genes, the expression of which is correlated with levodopa dose, many of which are under the control of activator protein-1 and ERK signaling. Despite homeostatic adaptations involving several signaling modulators, activator protein-1-dependent gene expression remains highly dysregulated in direct pathway SPNs upon chronic levodopa treatment. We also discuss which molecular pathways are most likely to dampen abnormal dopaminoceptive signaling in spiny projection neurons, hence providing potential targets for antidyskinetic treatments in Parkinson's disease.