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README.md

Analyzing nucleosome positioning with genome-wide Bayesian deconvolution

This README covers the details of carrying out an analysis of nucleosome positing from high-throughput sequencing data using the methods of Blocker and Airoldi (2016). Analyzing a single experiment separates into 3 broad phases:

  1. Data management: Aligning, parsing, and reducing the raw sequencing data (typically FASTQ files) into the form required in for statistical analysis.

  2. Estimation: Estimating the segmentation of the genome and digestion-error templates from the reduced sequencing data. Running Bayesian deconvolution (via distributed HMC). Processing MCMC draws into posterior summaries.

  3. Analysis: Subsequent biological analyses, using the estimates from deconvolution as inputs (features). Clustering, selecting regions of interest, assessing reproducibility, and so on.

Two examples are provided, one toy based on a single chromosome of fake data in examples/toy and one based on the gene-by-gene analysis of H. sapiens chromosome 21 from the Gaffney et al. (2012) data in examples/human. The former provides examples of running on an LSF-managed cluster, whereas the latter provides examples of running on a SLURM-managed cluster. cplate can be run on MPI-compatible cloud clusters such as StarCluster.

Architecture

Every script in cplate uses YAML/JSON configuration files. Each file describes all of the data, parameters, and outputs for a single experiment's dataset. These files must be created during the data management phase of the analysis. There are a lot of fields, paths, and patterns to configure in each file, but they are entirely machine- and human-readable for each configuration. The config folder contains example.yml, a fully commented example of this configuration file for a small dataset. This file is the canonical reference for the YAML configuration structure and requirements.

Tools

Each phase uses a distinct set of tools. The data management phase uses:

  • bowtie: Aligns fragments obtained from high-throughput sequencing. Takes raw FASTQ files and a reference genome as input, output a SAM file containing alignments. This would be better replaced by bwa, a more modern aligner that can handle the ALT contigs of hg38.

  • samtools and pysam: Tools for manipulating SAM and BAM files, which are standards for the storage of alignments from high-throughput sequencing. The entire SAM specification is available at http://samtools.sourceforge.net/SAM1.pdf.

  • pipeline: A custom Python package that (with samtools and pysam) does the bulk of the heavy lifting for parsing the SAM files and extracting the relevant information.

  • bash scripts: Assorted bash scripts to coordinate everything. Simple, easily maintained glue.

All of the above components can be substituted with any workflow that provides fragment center counts and length distributions in the formats required by cplate.

The estimation phase requires fewer tools, but they are more specialized:

  • cplate: The grand kahuna. The big one. Where all of the deconvolution action happens. This is a custom Python package that handles all of the segmentation, template estimation, deconvolution, and posterior summaries. It's big, it's complex, but it's also modular.

  • bash scripts: More glue. These are primarily bsub scripts that interface the distributed HMC with the Harvard Odyssey cluster.

  • R and Python scripts: Specialized R and Python scripts for the particular phases. The most important of these is R/analyze_fdr.R, which runs the FDR calibration specified in Blocker and Airoldi (2016). Another very useful pair is detections_to_bed.py and clusters_to_bed.py, which convert detection and cluster output from cplate into the BED format, which is a standard in the field and can be viewed in IGV and similar tools. BED files can also be used with the Galaxy platform, bedtools, and other standard bioinformatics packages.

The analysis phase takes a more diverse set of tools, and their selection is almost entirely up to the analyst.

Requirements

For the example data management phase, bowtie, samtools, pysam, and pipeline must be installed. pipeline requires Python 2.7 or newer and numpy in addition to pysam. Using the GUI version of pipeline requires the wx Python package and a working wx installation.

For estimation, cplate requires the Python packages mpi4py, yaml, numpy, and scipy.

For analyze_fdr.R, the plyr, stringr, reshape2, yaml, qvalue, and ascii packages are required from CRAN. The qvalue package from Bioconductor is also required.

Usage - Case study

To illustrate how the entire analysis works, we're going to go through an example from the raw FASTQ files to the final posterior summaries. The estimation portion corresponds to the example.yml file. However, the data management portion does not have a corresponding data set for practical reasons.

Throughout this example, we will be working with the following directory structure:

[user@system work]$ ls .
config data results logs

Data management

Suppose we receive a set of FASTQ files from our collaborators as experiment.fastq.tar.gz. We extract this into the data directory and find two files:

[user@system data]$ ls .
experiment.R1.fastq experiment.R2.fastq

These correspond to the forward and reversed ends from paired-end sequencing. The first step in our data processing is to align these reads to a reference genome. Assuming that we're working with S. Cerevisiae data, we can use the files provided at the bowtie website. Their reference genomes consist of a compressed set of .ebwt files, all of which should be extracted into the data directory. As an aside, the .ebwt file extension refers to the Burrows-Wheeler transformation used by bowtie for efficient alignment. After this extraction, we have:

[user@system data]$ ls .
experiment.R1.fastq experiment.R2.fastq s_cerevisiae.1.ebwt
s_cerevisiae.2.ebwt s_cerevisiae.3.ebwt s_cerevisiae.4.ebwt
s_cerevisiae.rev.1.ebwt s_cerevisiae.rev.2.ebwt

We're now ready to run bowtie and align our reads to the reference genome. A typical command for this (run in the data directory) will be:

[user@system data]$ N_THREADS=$LSB_DJOB_NUMPROC

[user@system data]$ time bowtie --phred33-quals -q \
    -n 1 --best -M 1 \
    -I 100 -X 300 \
    --threads $N_THREADS \
    -S \
    s_cerevisiae \
    -1 experiment.R1.fastq -2 experiment.R2.fastq \
    1>experiment.sam \
    2>align_experiment.log

This takes a bit of explanation and some quality time with the bowtie manual to parse. There are only a few classes of options and arguments to bowtie used above, though:

  • --phred33-quals -q tells bowtie that the inputs are FASTQ files and how to interpret the quality strings from these files.

  • -n 1 --best -M 1 -I 100 -X 300 sets the alignment policy. -n 1 tells bowtie to discard any alignment with more than 1 nucleotide mismatched. --best -M 1 tells bowtie to report a single randomly-sampled alignment among all valid alignments with the best quality. -I 100 -X 300 tells bowtie to consider only those alignments with lengths between 100 and 300 base pairs; this only makes sense because we are looking for nucleosomal DNA, which is about 150bp in length.

  • --threads $N_THREADS tells bowtie to use multiple threads for its alignment. This can speed up alignment immensely; I've found 12 cores on a single Odyssey node to be very effective for S. cerevisiae datasets. If this is running inside of an LSF job, the $LSB_DJOB_NUMPROC environment variable will contain the number of processor allocated to the job.

  • -S tells bowtie to provide SAM-formatted output. Without this, it's in a bowtie-specific format.

  • s_cerevisiae is the name of the reference genome (note the lack of file extension). It's also the only positional argument in this whole command.

  • -1 experiment.R1.fastq -2 experiment.R2.fastq specifies that the given files each contain one end from paired end sequencing.

  • 1>experiment.sam sends the output from bowtie, which is printed to stdout by default, to experiment.sam

  • 2>align_experiment.log sends the stderr output of bowtie to the given log file. This contains useful statistics about the proportions of reads that aligned at different levels of specificity.

Once this alignment is complete, there are three steps left:

# Parse SAM output into read list
[user@system data]$ time parseSAMOutput.py \
    experiment.sam \
    1>reads_experiment.txt \
    2>parseSAM_experiment.log

# Extract length distribution from read list
[user@system data]$ time buildReadLengthDist.py \
    reads_experiment.txt \
    1>lengthDist_experiment.txt \
    2>buildLengthDist_experiment.log

# Convert reads to counts of centers per base pair
[user@system data]$ time readsToChromCounts.py \
    --randomize --seed=20130530 \
    reads_experiment.txt \
    1>y_experiment.txt \
    2>count_experiment.log

All three scripts here are part of the pipeline package. The first, parseSAMOutput.py, converts the SAM output from bowtie to a condensed list of aligned reads. This simplifies subsequent processing and any read-level analyses that you choose to do later. In the process of doing this conversion, parseSAMOutput.py converts the SAM input to BAM (binary SAM), then to a sorted BAM file. These conversions make later processing much more efficient. The BAM file is also much smaller than the SAM file. The latter can be removed after this step, as parseSAMOutput.py can also (intelligently) use BAM and sorted BAM inputs if you need to rerun it.

The second script, buildReadLengthDist.py, extracts the distribution of aligned read lengths from the condensed list of reads. Its output consists of a space-separated file with two columns. The first column is the read length in base pairs, and the second is the number of aligned reads with that length. This is needed to estimate the distribution of digestion errors.

The third scripts, readsToChromCounts.py, reduces the list of aligned reads to the number of aligned reads centered at each base pair of the genome. It outputs a ragged, comma-separated array to stdout. Each row of this array contains the counts for each base pair of a single chromosome. The --randomize --seed=20130530 options tell the script to randomly round fragment centers to integers, using the given RNG seed. I recommend setting the seed explicitly to ensure that your processing is reproducible.

Estimation

With this data (and our config/example.yml file) in hand, we can move on to estimation. This needs to be done in a particular sequence, but everything uses the cplate package. The sequence is

  1. cplate_estimate_template : Estimate template

  2. cplate_segment_genome : Segment genome

  3. cplate_simulate_null : Simulate from permutation null

  4. cplate_deconvolve_mcmc : Run Bayesian deconvolution via distributed HMC on observed and null data.

  5. cplate_summarise_mcmc, cplate_summarise_clusers_mcmc, cplate_summarise_clusters_mcmc : Extract posterior summaries from MCMC draws

Each of these scripts takes one (or more, for some of them) YAML configuration files as inputs. So long as these configuration files are properly configured, everything gets pulled from and put to the right place without further tweaking and settings. Each script also has -h and --help options that provide descriptions of all options that may be needed.

To start, we estimate the template using

[user@system work]$ cplate_estimate_template config/example.yml

Then, we turn to the segmentation. This requires an additional file specifying the location of each ORF in the genome, as specified in the script's --help:

[user@system work]$ cplate_segment_genome --help

Usage: cplate_segment_genome [options] GENEINDEX CONFIG [CONFIG ...]

Options:
  -l/--minlength=       Minimum length of segments. Defaults to 800.
  -s/--sep=             Separator for GENEINDEX input. Defaults to \t.
  -v/--verbose=         Set verbosity of output. Defaults to 0.
  -h, --help            Show this help message and exit

Segments a genome using the hierarchical merging algorithm of Blocker and
Airoldi 2016.

GENEINDEX must be a path to a SEP-delimited file containing at least the
following fields with appropriate column labels:
  - chromosome : Integer (starting from 1) chromosome number
  - start : Beginning of each ORF (TSS, preferably)
  - stop : End of each TSS
Can have start > stop or stop > start depending on the orientation of each
gene along the chromosome.

Details of the required format for the YAML CONFIG files can be found it
further documentation.

So, to segment the genome for our example, we run:

[user@system work]$ cplate_segment_genome --minlength=800 \
    data/gene_index.txt config/example.yml

We can then simulate reads according to our permutation null with:

[user@system work]$ cplate_simulate_null config/example.yml

With those steps complete we can run the MCMC-based deconvolution algorithm on the observed and simulated data. This uses the cplate_deconvolve_mcmc script, which has the following --help:

Usage: cplate_deconvolve_mcmc [options] CONFIG [CONFIG ...]

Options:
  -h, --help            Show this help message and exit
  -c CHROM, --chrom=CHROM
                        Comma-separated indices of chromosomes to analyze;
                        defaults to 1
  --null                Run using null input from CONFIG
  --both                Run using both actual and null input from CONFIG
  --all                 Run all chromosomes

Details of the required format for the YAML CONFIG files can be found it
further documentation.

These options are used for cplate_deconvolve_mcmc and all of the cplate_summarise* scripts. By default, each script will run on chromosome 1 of a single file. cplate_deconvolve_mcmc is unique in that it must be called via mpirun or its specialized equivalent on a given cluster. So, to run MCMC-based deconvolution on our example, we could run the following from the command line:

[user@system work]$ mpirun -np 4 cplate_deconvolve_mcmc --all --both \
    config/example.yml

This would run the distributed MCMC-based deconvolution all chromosomes in our example (there's only 1) for both the observed and null datasets. The -np 4 option to mpirun tells MPI to use 4 processors.

For actual datasets, we often want far more than 4 processors. An example of doing so through a LSF cluster can be found in the scripts folder as mcmc_example.bsub:

#BSUB -J mcmcExample
#BSUB -q airoldi
#BSUB -n 120
#BSUB -a openmpi
#BSUB -oo logs/mcmc_example.log
#BSUB -eo logs/mcmc_example.err

# Run MCMC on observed data
mpirun.lsf -np $LSB_DJOB_NUMPROC cplate_deconvolve_mcmc \
    --all config/example.yml \
    1>logs/mcmc_example_obs.log \
    2>logs/mcmc_example_obs.err

# Run MCMC on simulated null data
mpirun.lsf -np $LSB_DJOB_NUMPROC cplate_deconvolve_mcmc \
    --all --null config/example.yml \
    1>logs/mcmc_example_null.log \
    2>logs/mcmc_example_null.err

This script requests 120 cores (not necessarily contiguous) from the airoldi queue, then uses all of these to run the distributed Bayesian deconvolution (HMC) algorithm. The stdout and stderr output from each MCMC run and the overall job are piped to appropriate files in the logs/ directory.

In some cases, it can be useful to call cplate_deconvolve_mcmc separately for each chromosome via a bash loop. This looks odd, but it may be needed due to inefficient or incomplete garbage collection in Python between chromosomes when multiple chromosomes are used in a single call to cplate_deconvolve_mcmc. An example for 16 chromosomes would be:

NCHROM=16

for (( CHROM=1; CHROM <= $NCHROM; CHROM++))
do
    # Run MCMC on observed data
    mpirun.lsf -np $LSB_DJOB_NUMPROC cplate_deconvolve_mcmc \
        --chrom=$CHROM config/example.yml \
        1>logs/mcmc_example_obs_chrom`printf '%02d' $CHROM`.log \
        2>logs/mcmc_example_obs_chrom`printf '%02d' $CHROM`.err

    # Run MCMC on simulated null data
    mpirun.lsf -np $LSB_DJOB_NUMPROC cplate_deconvolve_mcmc \
        --chrom=$CHROM --null config/example.yml \
        1>logs/mcmc_example_null_chrom`printf '%02d' $CHROM`.log \
        2>logs/mcmc_example_null_chrom`printf '%02d' $CHROM`.err
done

Once these MCMC runs are complete, the posterior summaries are straightforward to run. However, they do require a substantial amount of memory. An example bsub script for running the summaries is provided as scripts/summaries_example.bsub and reproduced below:

#BSUB -J summariesExample
#BSUB -q airoldi
#BSUB -n 12
#BSUB -R "span[ptile=12]"
#BSUB -a openmpi
#BSUB -oo logs/summaries_example.log
#BSUB -eo logs/summaries_example.err

# Iterate over null and nonnull cases
for NULL in "" --null
do
    # Run base pair level summaries
    cplate_summarise_mcmc --all --mmap $NULL config/example.yml

    # Run hyperparameter summaries
    cplate_summarise_params_mcmc --all $NULL config/example.yml

    # Run cluster level summaries
    cplate_summarise_clusters_mcmc --all $NULL config/example.yml
done

The --mmap option for cplate_summarise_mcmc is very important. It tells the script to access the MCMC draws iteratively without loading everything into memory at once. It's not very fast, but it has a huge effect on memory usage.

Once all of these summaries are complete, we need to calibrate our detections to a given FDR. This requires some manual input, but it's quite straightforward. First, we run the analyze_fdr.R script to obtain the thresholds corresponding to various FDRs:

[user@system work] Rscript analyze_fdr.R \
    config/example.yml results/fdr_example.txt

For further details on analyze_fdr.R, it has a thorough -h/--help message. Once this has been run, we inspect the results/fdr_example.txt file and select the appropriate threshold for the pm level and FDR of interest. Then, we edit the config/example.yml file to reflect this selection.

Then, we can run the detection algorithm again to reflect this selection with:

[user@system work] cplate_detect_mcmc --all config/example.yml

This is not the most elegant part of the workflow, and it can certainly be refined. In particular, it would be better for the configuration files to specify an FDR with the resulting threshold detection threshold extracted and stored automatically.

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Digestion template-based deconvolution for chromatin structure inference.

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