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Skel.scss

Skel.scss is a Sass-based implementation of Skel. Designed to work independently or in conjunction with Skel, it merges certain aspects of both Skel and its Layout module while adding a handful of incredibly useful mixins. Features include:

  • Simplified management of breakpoint media queries.
  • A Sass implementation of Skel's Layout module, which includes:
    • A powerful, fully responsive CSS grid system.
    • Built-in browser resets (using either Normalize.css or Eric Meyer's resets).
    • Handy utility classes (like container).
  • Useful mixins (like vendor) to make life easier.

Note: Skel.scss requires Sass 3.4+

Usage

Simply import _skel.scss to get the ball rolling:

@import "skel";

Skel.scss can then be configured in a manner very similar to Skel itself. For instance, the skel-breakpoints mixin can be used to define your breakpoints (each consisting of a name and a media query):

@include skel-breakpoints((
	xlarge: "(max-width: 1680px)",
	large:  "(max-width: 1280px)",
	medium: "(max-width: 980px)",
	small:  "(max-width: 736px)",
	xsmall: "(max-width: 480px)"
));

Which lets you do stuff like:

body {
	font-size: 12pt;

	@include vendor("background-image", "linear-gradient(45deg, red, green)");

	@include breakpoint(medium) {
		font-size: 14pt;
	}

	@include breakpoint(xlarge) {
		font-size: 16pt;
	}
}

.items {
	border: solid 1px black;
	background: white;
	font-size: 1.25em;

	@include vendor("display", "flex");

	@include vendor("align-items", "center");

	@include breakpoint(medium) {
		font-size: 1.5em;
	}

	.item {
		width: 100%;

		@include breakpoint(medium) {
			width: 50%;
		}

		@include breakpoint(large) {
			width: 33%;
		}

		@include breakpoint(xlarge) {
			width: 25%;
		}
	}
}

Breakpoints

Skel.scss makes breakpoint media queries easier to work with by simply letting you reference them by name. To set this up, include the skel-breakpoints() mixin and give it a map of your media queries in the following format:

@include skel-breakpoints((
	name: "media query",
	name: "media query",
	name: "media query",
	...
));

Where name is a unique identifier for each breakpoint (eg. medium). For example, the following defines 5 breakpoints (xlarge, large, medium, small, and xsmall):

@include skel-breakpoints((
	xlarge: "(max-width: 1680px)",
	large:  "(max-width: 1280px)",
	medium: "(max-width: 980px)",
	small:  "(max-width: 736px)",
	xsmall: "(max-width: 480px)"
));

With these in place, you can now use the breakpoint() mixin to generate a @media block using just the breakpoint's name. For example:

body {
	font-size: 12pt;

	@include breakpoint(medium) {
		// Increase font size to 14pt when "medium" is active
		font-size: 14pt;
	}

	@include breakpoint(xlarge) {
		// Increase font size to 16pt when "xlarge" is active
		font-size: 16pt;
	}
}

Which will compile to the following CSS:

body {
	font-size: 12pt;
}

@media screen and (max-width: 980px) {
	body {
		font-size: 14pt;
	}
}

@media screen and (max-width: 1680px) {
	body {
		font-size: 16pt;
	}
}

Layout

The Layout component of Skel.scss is a pure Sass implementation of Skel's Layout module. To enable it, simply use the skel-layout() mixin to turn on the features you want to use. For example, these options:

@include skel-layout((
	reset: "normalize",
	grid: true,
	containers: true
));

Enable the following features:

  • Resets (using Normalize.css)
  • Grid system (with the default 40px column gutters)
  • Containers (at the default 960px)

You can also override your default grid and containers options at a breakpoint level, which allows you to, for example, set containers to one value at your medium breakpoint, and another at your small breakpoint. To do this, first define your breakpoints with skel.breakpoints():

@include skel-breakpoints((
	xlarge: "(max-width: 1680px)",
	large:  "(max-width: 1280px)",
	medium: "(max-width: 980px)",
	small:  "(max-width: 736px)",
	xsmall: "(max-width: 480px)"
});

Then use skel-layout() to turn on your features, only this time with the breakpoints option to set overrides at certain breakpoints:

@include skel-layout((
	reset: "normalize",
	containers: true,
	grid: true,
	breakpoints: (
		medium: (
			containers: 90%
		),
		small: (
			containers: 95%,
			grid: ( gutters: 20px )
		),
		xsmall: (
			grid: ( gutters: 10px )
		)
	)
));

This, like before, results in the following by default:

  • Resets (using Normalize.css)
  • Grid system (with the default 40px column gutters)
  • Containers (at the default 960px)

But since there are now breakpoint-level overrides set for grid and containers, when medium is active you get:

  • Grid system (with the default 40px column gutters)
  • Containers (at 90%)

... when small is active you get:

  • Grid system (with 20px column gutters)
  • Containers (at 95%)

... and, finally, when xsmall is active you get:

  • Grid system (with 10px column gutters)
  • Containers (at 95%)

Note that overrides can "stack" if more than one breakpoint is active. For example, in this case small will always be active when xsmall is active, so the latter will end up inheriting the former's overrides (containers) as its defaults.

Resets

All browsers apply a default stylesheet to pages to ensure common elements (like <h1> and <p>) have at least some basic styling going in. Since these defaults can vary from browser to browser (resulting in unpredictable effects on your own styling), resetting them to a predictable state is generally a good idea. Layout can do this for you by setting its reset option to one of the following values:

  • "normalize"

    Reset browser styles with Normalize.css, which will iron out browser inconsistencies while leaving some basic styling intact.

  • "full"

    Completely nuke all browser styles with Eric Meyer's CSS resets. Useful if you're planning to style everything from scratch yourself and don't want any defaults getting in the way.

For example, the following resets your browser styles with Normalize.css:

@include skel-layout((
	reset: "normalize"
));

Containers

Normally, content will fill the width of the browser window and only wrap to a new line once it hits a side:

+-----------------------------------------------------+
| Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing  |
| elit. Aenean pharetra vel odio venenatis dignissim. |
| Integer nibh enim, tincidunt fringilla lacinia eu,  |
| feugiat tempor mi. Proin hendrerit, nisl a pretium, |
| nisi erat varius risus, sit feugiat.                |
+-----------------------------------------------------+

Which is fine on smaller screens, but on larger ones it makes lines of text so long the readability of the page suffers. Containers address this by "wrapping" content in elements of a defined (and usually fixed) width, resulting in a much more readable page:

+-----------------------------------------------------+
|             Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet,             |
|             consectetur adipiscing elit.            |
|             Aenean pharetra vel odio                |
|             venenatis dignissim. Integer            |
|             nibh enim, tincidunt fringilla          |
|             lacinia eu, feugiat tempor mi           |
|             Proin hendrerit, nisl pretium,          |
|             nisi varius risus feugiat.              |
+-----------------------------------------------------+

Layout will automatically generate a container class when its containers option* is set to true (which uses the default size of 960px), or a valid CSS measurement value (eg. 960, "960px", "60em", "75%", "30vw"). For example, the following sets up the container class at 1140px:

@include skel-layout((
	containers: 1140px
));

Which can then be used like this:

<div class="container">
	<h2>A Container</h2>
	<p>This is a container. It's typically used to give content
	fixed boundaries so it doesn't look all weird and unreadable
	on larger screens.</p>
</div>

* = Can be overridden at a breakpoint level.

Modifiers

Individual containers can also be given a modifier class to make minor on-the-fly size adjustments. For example, assuming your container size is 960px:

<div class="container">
	This is 960px.
</div>
<div class="container 75%">
	... this is 720px (75% of 960px).
</div>
<div class="container 125%">
	... and this is 1200px (125% of 960px).
</div>

The following modifiers are supported:

  • 25%

    Narrows this container to 25% normal container width.

  • 50%

    Narrows this container to 50% normal container width.

  • 75%

    Narrows this container to 75% normal container width.

  • 125%

    Widens this container to 125% normal container width.

Locking

Locking forces all containers to a specific size regardless of any modifiers they're using. To turn this on, simply set your containers value to a two-item list consisting of a size and the value true (in that order). For example, this locks all containers to 95%:

@include skel-layout((
	containers: (95%, true)
));

While seemingly useless on the surface, this feature really comes in handy when working with breakpoints. For example, given the following:

@include skel-breakpoints((
	xlarge: "(max-width: 1680px)",
	large:  "(max-width: 1280px)",
	medium: "(max-width: 980px)",
	small:  "(max-width: 736px)",
	xsmall: "(max-width: 480px)"
));

And this Layout configuration:

@include skel-layout((
	containers: 960px,
	breakpoints: (
		medium: (
			containers: 90%
		),
		small: (
			containers: 95%,
		)
	)
));

Any container using a "narrowing" modifier (like 25% or 50%) will end up looking incredibly cramped when small is active. However, thanks to locking this isn't a problem; simply force all of your containers to 95% when that's the case:

@include skel-layout((
	containers: 960px,
	breakpoints: (
		medium: (
			containers: 90%
		),
		small: (
			containers: (95%, true)
		)
	)
));

Grid

Layout's grid system provides a simple, structured way to quickly build out complex yet fully responsive page layouts. To enable this feature, set the grid option* to true:

@include skel-layout((
	grid: true
));

* = Can be overridden at a breakpoint level.

Usage

Grids are made up of two components:

  • Cells

    • Where content lives.
    • Assigned a unit width (by way of a class) to indicate how much space it takes up when placed in a row (see below).
    • Can be anywhere from 1 unit wide (1u) to 12 units wide (12u).
    • Here's what 6 unit-wide (6u) cell looks like:
     <div class="6u">
     	<h2>Hi!</h2>
     	<p>I'm a 6 unit-wide cell.</p>
     </div>
  • Rows

    • Where cells live.
    • Can hold any number of cells in any order.
    • Contained cells automatically wrap to new lines every 12 units or immediately following a cell that includes a terminator ($) with its unit width (eg. 6u$).
    • Contained cells are spaced out with column gutters.
    • Adjacent rows and lines within rows can be (optionally) spaced out with row gutters.
    • Fluid, so they'll expand or contract to fill whatever space is available (proportionally resizing all contained cells in the process).
    • Here's what a row with three cells (a 2u, a 4u, and a 6u) looks like:
     <div class="row">
     	<div class="2u">Two</div>
     	<div class="4u">Four</div>
     	<div class="6u">Six</div>
     </div>

You only need a single row to create a grid, but you can combine them to create more complex layouts. For example:

<div class="row">
	<div class="12u">Twelve</div>
</div>
<div class="row">
	<div class="8u">Eight</div>
	<div class="4u">Four</div>
</div>
<div class="row">
	<div class="4u">Four</div>
	<div class="4u">Four</div>
	<div class="4u">Four</div>
</div>

You can also create the same layout as above using just a single row and terminators (placed every 12 units):

<div class="row">
	<div class="12u$">Twelve</div>
	<div class="8u">Eight</div>
	<div class="4u$">Four</div>
	<div class="4u">Four</div>
	<div class="4u">Four</div>
	<div class="4u$">Four</div>
</div>

You can even nest rows inside cells:

<div class="row">
	<div class="12u">Twelve</div>
</div>
<div class="row">
	<div class="8u">
		<div class="row">
			<div class="12u">Twelve</div>
		</div>
		<div class="row">
			<div class="8u">Eight</div>
			<div class="4u">Four</div>
		</div>
		<div class="row">
			<div class="4u">Four</div>
			<div class="4u">Four</div>
			<div class="4u">Four</div>
		</div>
	</div>
	<div class="4u">Four</div>
</div>
<div class="row">
	<div class="4u">Four</div>
	<div class="4u">Four</div>
	<div class="4u">Four</div>
</div>

Which works just as well when using terminators:

<div class="row">
	<div class="12u$">Twelve</div>
	<div class="8u">
		<div class="row">
			<div class="12u$">Twelve</div>
			<div class="8u">Eight</div>
			<div class="4u$">Four</div>
			<div class="4u">Four</div>
			<div class="4u">Four</div>
			<div class="4u$">Four</div>
		</div>
	</div>
	<div class="4u$">Four</div>
	<div class="4u">Four</div>
	<div class="4u">Four</div>
	<div class="4u$">Four</div>
</div>

Gutters

Gutters are the gaps placed between cells and (optionally) rows. Column gutters (which space out cells) are set to 40px by default, but can be changed by passing a CSS measurement value to the grid sub-option gutters. For example, this sets column gutters to 1.5em:

@include skel-layout((
	grid: (
		gutters: 1.5em
	)
));

Optional row gutters can also be used to space out adajcent rows (as well as lines of cells within rows). To use these, simply pass a two-item list to gutters to set values for both your column and row gutters (in that order). For example, this sets column gutters to 1.5em and row gutters to 2em:

@include skel-layout((
	grid: (
		gutters: (1.5em, 2em)
	)
));

Row Modifiers

Individual rows can also be given one of the following modifier classes to make minor on-the-fly adjustments to their gutter sizes:

  • 0%

    Removes gutters from this row's cells.

  • 25%

    Decreases gutters for this row's cells to 25% normal size.

  • 50%

    Decreases gutters for this row's cells to 50% normal size.

  • 150%

    Increases gutters for this row's cells to 150% normal size.

  • 200%

    Increases gutters for this row's cells to 200% normal size.

  • uniform

    Applies row gutters to this row's cells that are equal to its column gutters.

Offsetting

Cells can be offset (or "nudged") by a number of units using an offset class. Offset classes take the form of -Nu (where N is the number of units to offset). For example:

<div class="row">
	<div class"8u">
		Eight (not offset)
	</div>
</div>
<div class="row">
	<div class="8u -4u">
		Eight (offset by four)
	</div>
</div>

You can also offset multiple cells within a row:

<div class="row">
	<div class="5u">
		Five
	</div>
	<div class="5u -2u">
		Five
	</div>
</div>
<div class="row">
	<div class="6u -3u">
		Six
	</div>
</div>
<div class="row">
	<div class="3u">
		Three
	</div>
	<div class="3u -6u">
		Three
	</div>
</div>

Note: Offsets take up row space just like any other cell. They can also be used responsively (for example, 4u -4u 5u(medium) -1u(medium)).

Responsiveness

Occasionally, you may run into a situation where a grid layout doesn't really play well across all screen sizes. For example, this grid works fine on a larger screens:

+-----------------------+------------+------------+
|        Content        |  Sidebar1  |  Sidebar2  |
+-----------------------+------------+------------+

But not so well on smaller ones:

+------------------+--------+--------+
|      Content     |  Sbr1  |  Sbr2  |
+------------------+--------+--------+

+--------+----+----+
|Content |Sb1 |Sb2 |
+--------+----+----+

In which case, it'd be great if you could dynamically rearrange it into something a bit more optimal:

+-------------------------------------+
|               Content               |
+------------------+------------------+
|     Sidebar1     |     Sidebar2     |
+------------------+------------------+

+------------------+
|     Content      |
+------------------+
|     Sidebar1     |
+------------------+
|     Sidebar2     |
+------------------+

The grid system's responsive capabilities enable you to do just that.

How it works

First, define your breakpoints with skel-breakpoints() (before you include skel-layout()):

@include skel-breakpoints((
	medium: "(min-width: 769px) and (max-width: 1024px)",
	small:  "(max-width: 768px)",
	xsmall: "(max-width: 480px)"
));

Now, simply give your cells one or more alternate unit widths in the format of Nu(breakpointName) (or Nu$(breakpointName) when using a terminator) where N is the width and breakpointName is the breakpoint where it kicks in. For example:

<div class="3u 6u(small) 12u(xsmall)">
	Sidebar1
</div>

This cell will now automatically switch between three different widths (3u, 6u, or 12u) depending on which breakpoints are active, specifically:

  • 3u when neither small nor xsmall are active.
  • 6u when small is active.
  • 12u when xsmall is active.

Note: Precedence is determined by the order in which you defined your breakpoints (lower in the list = higher in precedence). In this case, if medium, small, and xsmall are active at the same time, xsmall takes precedence along with its alternate width (12u) because it's defined after both medium and small.

Examples

With alternate unit widths assigned to multiple cells, a grid can very easily rearrange itself into a number of different layouts. For example, here's the responsive version of that grid from earlier:

<div class="row">
	<div class="6u 12u$(small)">
		Content
	</div>
	<div class="3u 6u(small) 12u$(xsmall)">
		Sidebar1
	</div>
	<div class="3u$ 6u$(small) 12u$(xsmall)">
		Sidebar2
	</div>
</div>

Of course, this feature really shines when it's used with more complex layouts, for instance:

<div class="row">
	<div class="6u 12u$(medium)">
		<h3>Welcome!</h3>
		<p>Nunc lacinia ante nunc ac lobortis. Interdum adipiscing gravida odio porttitor sem non mi integer non faucibus ornare mi ut ante amet placerat aliquet.</p>
	</div>
	<div class="3u 6u(medium) 12u$(xsmall)">
		<h3>Info 1</h3>
		<p>Nunc lacinia ante nunc ac lobortis. Interdum adipiscing aliquet. Volutpat eu sed ante.</p>
	</div>
	<div class="3u 6u$(medium) 12u$(xsmall)">
		<h3>Info 2</h3>
		<p>Nunc lacinia ante nunc ac lobortis. Interdum adipiscing aliquet. Volutpat eu sed ante.</p>
	</div>
</div>
<div class="row">
	<div class="3u 6u(medium) 12u$(xsmall)">
		<h3>Feature 1</h3>
		<p>Nunc lacinia ante nunc ac lobortis. Interdum adipiscing aliquet
		viverra nibh in adipiscing blandit tempus accumsan.</p>
	</div>
	<div class="3u 6u$(medium) 12u$(xsmall)">
		<h3>Feature 2</h3>
		<p>Nunc lacinia ante nunc ac lobortis. Interdum adipiscing aliquet
		viverra nibh in adipiscing blandit tempus accumsan.</p>
	</div>
	<div class="3u 6u(medium) 12u$(xsmall)">
		<h3>Feature 3</h3>
		<p>Nunc lacinia ante nunc ac lobortis. Interdum adipiscing aliquet
		viverra nibh in adipiscing blandit tempus accumsan.</p>
	</div>
	<div class="3u$ 6u$(medium) 12u$(xsmall)">
		<h3>Feature 4</h3>
		<p>Nunc lacinia ante nunc ac lobortis. Interdum adipiscing aliquet
		viverra nibh in adipiscing blandit tempus accumsan.</p>
	</div>
</div>
<div class="row uniform 50%">
	<div class="2u 3u(medium) 4u(small) 6u(xxsmall)"><span class="thumbnail">1</span></div>
	<div class="2u 3u(medium) 4u(small) 6u(xxsmall)"><span class="thumbnail">2</span></div>
	<div class="2u 3u(medium) 4u(small) 6u(xxsmall)"><span class="thumbnail">3</span></div>
	<div class="2u 3u(medium) 4u(small) 6u(xxsmall)"><span class="thumbnail">4</span></div>
	<div class="2u 3u(medium) 4u(small) 6u(xxsmall)"><span class="thumbnail">5</span></div>
	<div class="2u 3u(medium) 4u(small) 6u(xxsmall)"><span class="thumbnail">6</span></div>
</div>

Mixins

Skel.scss also includes a handful of mixins to make life just a bit easier:

  • vendor(string $property, string $value)

    Automagically applies vendor prefixes to properties and values that need them. For example, this:

     .foobar {
     	@include vendor("background-image", "linear-gradient(45deg, red, green)");
     	@include vendor("transform", "rotate(-45deg)");
     	@include vendor("transition", "transform 1s ease");
     	@include vendor("display", "flex");
     	@include vendor("flex-wrap", "wrap");
     	@include vendor("background-color", "black");
     }

    Compiles to the following CSS:

     .foobar {
     	background-image: -moz-linear-gradient(45deg, red, green);
     	background-image: -webkit-linear-gradient(45deg, red, green);
     	background-image: -ms-linear-gradient(45deg, red, green);
     	background-image: linear-gradient(45deg, red, green);
    
     	-moz-transform: rotate(-45deg);
     	-webkit-transform: rotate(-45deg);
     	-ms-transform: rotate(-45deg);
     	transform: rotate(-45deg);
    
     	-moz-transition: -moz-transform 1s ease;
     	-webkit-transition: -webkit-transform 1s ease;
     	-ms-transition: -ms-transform 1s ease;
     	transition: transform 1s ease;
    
     	display: -moz-flex;
     	display: -webkit-flex;
     	display: -ms-flex;
     	display: flex;
    
     	-moz-flex-wrap: wrap;
     	-webkit-flex-wrap: wrap;
     	-ms-flex-wrap: wrap;
     	flex-wrap: wrap;
    
     	background-color: black;
     }

    It'll also work with multiple values passed as a Sass list. For example this:

     .foobar {
     	@include vendor("transition", ("opacity 0.5s ease", "transform 1s ease"));
     	@include vendor("background-image", ("linear-gradient(top, rgba(0,0,0,0.5), rgba(0,0,0,0.5))", "url(../images/banner.jpg)"));
     }

    Compiles to the following CSS:

     .foobar {
     	-moz-transition: opacity 0.5s ease, -moz-transform 1s ease;
     	-webkit-transition: opacity 0.5s ease, -webkit-transform 1s ease;
     	-ms-transition: opacity 0.5s ease, -ms-transform 1s ease;
     	transition: opacity 0.5s ease, transform 1s ease;
    
     	background-image: -moz-linear-gradient(top, rgba(0,0,0,0.5), rgba(0,0,0,0.5)), url(../images/banner.jpg);
     	background-image: -webkit-linear-gradient(top, rgba(0,0,0,0.5), rgba(0,0,0,0.5)), url(../images/banner.jpg);
     	background-image: -ms-linear-gradient(top, rgba(0,0,0,0.5), rgba(0,0,0,0.5)), url(../images/banner.jpg);
     	background-image: linear-gradient(top, rgba(0,0,0,0.5), rgba(0,0,0,0.5)), url(../images/banner.jpg);
     }
  • keyframes(string $name)

    Wraps a keyframe list in a vendor-prefixed block. For example, this:

     @include keyframes(fade-in) {
     	0% { opacity: 0; }
     	100% { opacity: 1; }
     }

    Compiles to the following CSS:

     @-moz-keyframes(fade-in) {
     	0% { opacity: 0; }
     	100% { opacity: 1; }
     }
    
     @-webkit-keyframes(fade-in) {
     	0% { opacity: 0; }
     	100% { opacity: 1; }
     }
    
     @-ms-keyframes(fade-in) {
     	0% { opacity: 0; }
     	100% { opacity: 1; }
     }
    
     @keyframes(fade-in) {
     	0% { opacity: 0; }
     	100% { opacity: 1; }
     }
  • orientation(string $orientation)

    Generates a @media block targeting a specific device orientation (portrait or landscape). For example this:

     @include orientation(portrait) {
     	/* styles for portrait */
     }

    Compiles to the following CSS:

     @media screen and (orientation: portrait) {
     	/* styles for portrait */
     }

    You can also nest the orientation() mixin with a breakpoint() mixin. For example, this):

     @include skel-breakpoints((
     	xlarge: "(max-width: 1680px)",
     	large:  "(max-width: 1280px)",
     	medium: "(max-width: 980px)",
     	small:  "(max-width: 736px)",
     	xsmall: "(max-width: 480px)"
     ));
    
     @include breakpoint(small) {
     	/* styles for "small" */
    
     	@include orientation(portrait) {
     		/* styles for portrait */
     	}
     }

    Compiles to the following CSS:

     @media screen (max-width: 736px) {
     	/* styles for "small" */
     }
    
     @media screen (max-width: 736px) and (orientation: portrait) {
     	/* styles for "small" + portrait */
     }

Credits

License

Skel.scss is released under the MIT license.

Copyright (c) skel.io

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.