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package Slic3r::GCode;
use Moo;
use List::Util qw(min max first);
use Slic3r::ExtrusionPath ':roles';
use Slic3r::Geometry qw(scale unscale scaled_epsilon points_coincide PI X Y B);
has 'multiple_extruders' => (is => 'ro', default => sub {0} );
has 'layer' => (is => 'rw');
has 'shift_x' => (is => 'rw', default => sub {0} );
has 'shift_y' => (is => 'rw', default => sub {0} );
has 'z' => (is => 'rw');
has 'speed' => (is => 'rw');
has 'extruder' => (is => 'rw');
has 'extrusion_distance' => (is => 'rw', default => sub {0} );
has 'elapsed_time' => (is => 'rw', default => sub {0} ); # seconds
has 'total_extrusion_length' => (is => 'rw', default => sub {0} );
has 'lifted' => (is => 'rw', default => sub {0} );
has 'last_pos' => (is => 'rw', default => sub { Slic3r::Point->new(0,0) } );
has 'last_speed' => (is => 'rw', default => sub {""});
has 'last_f' => (is => 'rw', default => sub {""});
has 'force_f' => (is => 'rw', default => sub {0});
has 'last_fan_speed' => (is => 'rw', default => sub {0});
has 'dec' => (is => 'ro', default => sub { 3 } );
# used for vibration limit:
has 'limit_frequency' => (is => 'rw', default => sub { 0 });
has 'last_dir' => (is => 'ro', default => sub { [0,0] });
has 'segment_time' => (is => 'ro', default => sub { [ [0,0,0], [0,0,0] ] });
# calculate speeds (mm/min)
has 'speeds' => (
is => 'ro',
default => sub {+{
map { $_ => 60 * $Slic3r::Config->get_value("${_}_speed") }
qw(travel perimeter small_perimeter external_perimeter infill
solid_infill top_solid_infill support_material bridge gap_fill),
}},
);
# assign speeds to roles
my %role_speeds = (
&EXTR_ROLE_PERIMETER => 'perimeter',
&EXTR_ROLE_EXTERNAL_PERIMETER => 'external_perimeter',
&EXTR_ROLE_CONTOUR_INTERNAL_PERIMETER => 'perimeter',
&EXTR_ROLE_FILL => 'infill',
&EXTR_ROLE_SOLIDFILL => 'solid_infill',
&EXTR_ROLE_TOPSOLIDFILL => 'top_solid_infill',
&EXTR_ROLE_BRIDGE => 'bridge',
&EXTR_ROLE_SKIRT => 'perimeter',
&EXTR_ROLE_SUPPORTMATERIAL => 'support_material',
&EXTR_ROLE_GAPFILL => 'gap_fill',
);
sub set_shift {
my $self = shift;
my @shift = @_;
$self->shift_x($shift[X]);
$self->shift_y($shift[Y]);
$self->last_pos->translate(map -(scale $_), @shift);
}
# this method accepts Z in scaled coordinates
sub move_z {
my $self = shift;
my ($z, $comment) = @_;
$z *= &Slic3r::SCALING_FACTOR;
$z += $Slic3r::Config->z_offset;
my $gcode = "";
my $current_z = $self->z;
if (!defined $current_z || $current_z != ($z + $self->lifted)) {
$gcode .= $self->retract(move_z => $z);
$self->speed('travel');
$gcode .= $self->G0(undef, $z, 0, $comment || ('move to next layer (' . $self->layer->id . ')'))
unless ($current_z // -1) != ($self->z // -1);
}
return $gcode;
}
sub extrude {
my $self = shift;
($_[0]->isa('Slic3r::ExtrusionLoop') || $_[0]->isa('Slic3r::ExtrusionLoop::Packed'))
? $self->extrude_loop(@_)
: $self->extrude_path(@_);
}
sub extrude_loop {
my $self = shift;
my ($loop, $description) = @_;
# extrude all loops ccw
$loop = $loop->unpack if $loop->isa('Slic3r::ExtrusionLoop::Packed');
my $was_clockwise = $loop->polygon->make_counter_clockwise;
# find the point of the loop that is closest to the current extruder position
# or randomize if requested
my $last_pos = $self->last_pos;
if ($Slic3r::Config->randomize_start && $loop->role == EXTR_ROLE_CONTOUR_INTERNAL_PERIMETER) {
$last_pos = Slic3r::Point->new(scale $Slic3r::Config->print_center->[X], scale $Slic3r::Config->bed_size->[Y]);
$last_pos->rotate(rand(2*PI), $Slic3r::Config->print_center);
}
my $start_index = $loop->nearest_point_index_to($last_pos);
# split the loop at the starting point and make a path
my $extrusion_path = $loop->split_at_index($start_index);
# clip the path to avoid the extruder to get exactly on the first point of the loop;
# if polyline was shorter than the clipping distance we'd get a null polyline, so
# we discard it in that case
$extrusion_path->clip_end(scale $extrusion_path->flow_spacing * &Slic3r::LOOP_CLIPPING_LENGTH_OVER_SPACING);
return '' if !@{$extrusion_path->polyline};
# extrude along the path
my $gcode = $self->extrude_path($extrusion_path, $description);
# make a little move inwards before leaving loop
if ($loop->role == EXTR_ROLE_EXTERNAL_PERIMETER) {
# detect angle between last and first segment
# the side depends on the original winding order of the polygon (left for contours, right for holes)
my @points = $was_clockwise ? (-2, 1) : (1, -2);
my $angle = Slic3r::Geometry::angle3points(@{$extrusion_path->polyline}[0, @points]) / 3;
$angle *= -1 if $was_clockwise;
# create the destination point along the first segment and rotate it
my $point = Slic3r::Geometry::point_along_segment(@{$extrusion_path->polyline}[0,1], scale $extrusion_path->flow_spacing);
bless $point, 'Slic3r::Point';
$point->rotate($angle, $extrusion_path->polyline->[0]);
# generate the travel move
$self->speed('travel');
$gcode .= $self->G0($point, undef, 0, "move inwards before travel");
}
return $gcode;
}
sub extrude_path {
my $self = shift;
my ($path, $description, $recursive) = @_;
$path = $path->unpack if $path->isa('Slic3r::ExtrusionPath::Packed');
$path->simplify(&Slic3r::SCALED_RESOLUTION);
# detect arcs
if ($Slic3r::Config->gcode_arcs && !$recursive) {
my $gcode = "";
foreach my $arc_path ($path->detect_arcs) {
$gcode .= $self->extrude_path($arc_path, $description, 1);
}
return $gcode;
}
my $gcode = "";
# skip retract for support material
if ($path->role != EXTR_ROLE_SUPPORTMATERIAL) {
# retract if distance from previous position is greater or equal to the one specified by the user
my $travel = Slic3r::Line->new($self->last_pos->clone, $path->points->[0]->clone);
if ($travel->length >= scale $self->extruder->retract_before_travel) {
# move travel back to original layer coordinates.
# note that we're only considering the current object's islands, while we should
# build a more complete configuration space
$travel->translate(-$self->shift_x, -$self->shift_y);
if (!$Slic3r::Config->only_retract_when_crossing_perimeters || $path->role != EXTR_ROLE_FILL || !first { $_->encloses_line($travel, scaled_epsilon) } @{$self->layer->slices}) {
$gcode .= $self->retract(travel_to => $path->points->[0]);
}
}
}
$self->limit_frequency($path->role != EXTR_ROLE_PERIMETER && $path->role != EXTR_ROLE_EXTERNAL_PERIMETER && $path->role != EXTR_ROLE_CONTOUR_INTERNAL_PERIMETER);
# go to first point of extrusion path
$self->speed('travel');
$gcode .= $self->G0($path->points->[0], undef, 0, "move to first $description point")
if !points_coincide($self->last_pos, $path->points->[0]);
# compensate retraction
$gcode .= $self->unretract if $self->extruder->retracted;
my $area; # mm^3 of extrudate per mm of tool movement
if ($path->role == EXTR_ROLE_BRIDGE) {
my $s = $path->flow_spacing;
$area = ($s**2) * PI/4;
} else {
my $s = $path->flow_spacing;
my $h = $path->height // $self->layer->height;
$area = $self->extruder->mm3_per_mm($s, $h);
}
# calculate extrusion length per distance unit
my $e = $self->extruder->e_per_mm3 * $area;
# set speed
$self->speed( $role_speeds{$path->role} || die "Unknown role: " . $path->role );
if ($path->role == EXTR_ROLE_PERIMETER || $path->role == EXTR_ROLE_EXTERNAL_PERIMETER || $path->role == EXTR_ROLE_CONTOUR_INTERNAL_PERIMETER) {
if (abs($path->length) <= &Slic3r::SMALL_PERIMETER_LENGTH) {
$self->speed('small_perimeter');
}
}
# extrude arc or line
my $path_length = 0;
if ($path->isa('Slic3r::ExtrusionPath::Arc')) {
$path_length = unscale $path->length;
$gcode .= $self->G2_G3($path->points->[-1], $path->orientation,
$path->center, $e * unscale $path_length, $description);
} else {
foreach my $line ($path->lines) {
my $line_length = unscale $line->length;
$path_length += $line_length;
$gcode .= $self->G1($line->[B], undef, $e * $line_length, $description);
}
}
if ($Slic3r::Config->cooling) {
my $path_time = $path_length / $self->speeds->{$self->last_speed} * 60;
if ($self->layer->id == 0) {
$path_time = $Slic3r::Config->first_layer_speed =~ /^(\d+(?:\.\d+)?)%$/
? $path_time / ($1/100)
: $path_length / $Slic3r::Config->first_layer_speed * 60;
}
$self->elapsed_time($self->elapsed_time + $path_time);
}
return $gcode;
}
sub retract {
my $self = shift;
my %params = @_;
# get the retraction length and abort if none
my ($length, $restart_extra, $comment) = $params{toolchange}
? ($self->extruder->retract_length_toolchange, $self->extruder->retract_restart_extra_toolchange, "retract for tool change")
: ($self->extruder->retract_length, $self->extruder->retract_restart_extra, "retract");
# if we already retracted, reduce the required amount of retraction
$length -= $self->extruder->retracted;
return "" unless $length > 0;
# prepare moves
$self->speed('retract');
my $retract = [undef, undef, -$length, $comment];
my $lift = ($self->extruder->retract_lift == 0 || defined $params{move_z})
? undef
: [undef, $self->z + $self->extruder->retract_lift, 0, 'lift plate during travel'];
my $gcode = "";
if (($Slic3r::Config->g0 || $Slic3r::Config->gcode_flavor eq 'mach3') && $params{travel_to}) {
if ($lift) {
# combine lift and retract
$lift->[2] = $retract->[2];
$gcode .= $self->G0(@$lift);
} else {
# combine travel and retract
my $travel = [$params{travel_to}, undef, $retract->[2], "travel and $comment"];
$gcode .= $self->G0(@$travel);
}
} elsif (($Slic3r::Config->g0 || $Slic3r::Config->gcode_flavor eq 'mach3') && defined $params{move_z}) {
# combine Z change and retraction
my $travel = [undef, $params{move_z}, $retract->[2], "change layer and $comment"];
$gcode .= $self->G0(@$travel);
} else {
$gcode .= $self->G1(@$retract);
if (defined $params{move_z} && $self->extruder->retract_lift > 0) {
my $travel = [undef, $params{move_z} + $self->extruder->retract_lift, 0, 'move to next layer (' . $self->layer->id . ') and lift'];
$gcode .= $self->G0(@$travel);
$self->lifted($self->extruder->retract_lift);
} elsif ($lift) {
$gcode .= $self->G1(@$lift);
}
}
$self->extruder->retracted($self->extruder->retracted + $length + $restart_extra);
$self->lifted($self->extruder->retract_lift) if $lift;
# reset extrusion distance during retracts
# this makes sure we leave sufficient precision in the firmware
$gcode .= $self->reset_e if $Slic3r::Config->gcode_flavor !~ /^(?:mach3|makerbot)$/;
return $gcode;
}
sub unretract {
my $self = shift;
my $gcode = "";
if ($self->lifted) {
$self->speed('travel');
$gcode .= $self->G0(undef, $self->z - $self->lifted, 0, 'restore layer Z');
$self->lifted(0);
}
$self->speed('retract');
$gcode .= $self->G0(undef, undef, $self->extruder->retracted, "compensate retraction");
$self->extruder->retracted(0);
return $gcode;
}
sub reset_e {
my $self = shift;
$self->extrusion_distance(0);
return sprintf "G92 %s0%s\n", $Slic3r::Config->extrusion_axis, ($Slic3r::Config->gcode_comments ? ' ; reset extrusion distance' : '')
if $Slic3r::Config->extrusion_axis && !$Slic3r::Config->use_relative_e_distances;
}
sub set_acceleration {
my $self = shift;
my ($acceleration) = @_;
return "" unless $Slic3r::Config->acceleration;
return sprintf "M201 E%s%s\n",
$acceleration, ($Slic3r::Config->gcode_comments ? ' ; adjust acceleration' : '');
}
sub G0 {
my $self = shift;
return $self->G1(@_) if !($Slic3r::Config->g0 || $Slic3r::Config->gcode_flavor eq 'mach3');
return $self->_G0_G1("G0", @_);
}
sub G1 {
my $self = shift;
return $self->_G0_G1("G1", @_);
}
sub _G0_G1 {
my $self = shift;
my ($gcode, $point, $z, $e, $comment) = @_;
my $dec = $self->dec;
my $speed_factor;
if ($point) {
$gcode .= sprintf " X%.${dec}f Y%.${dec}f",
($point->x * &Slic3r::SCALING_FACTOR) + $self->shift_x - $self->extruder->extruder_offset->[X],
($point->y * &Slic3r::SCALING_FACTOR) + $self->shift_y - $self->extruder->extruder_offset->[Y]; #**
if ($self->limit_frequency) {
$gcode = $self->_limit_frequency($point) . $gcode;
}
$self->last_pos($point->clone);
}
if (defined $z && (!defined $self->z || $z != $self->z)) {
$self->z($z);
$gcode .= sprintf " Z%.${dec}f", $z;
}
return $self->_Gx($gcode, $e, $speed_factor, $comment);
}
sub G2_G3 {
my $self = shift;
my ($point, $orientation, $center, $e, $comment) = @_;
my $dec = $self->dec;
my $gcode = $orientation eq 'cw' ? "G2" : "G3";
$gcode .= sprintf " X%.${dec}f Y%.${dec}f",
($point->x * &Slic3r::SCALING_FACTOR) + $self->shift_x - $self->extruder->extruder_offset->[X],
($point->y * &Slic3r::SCALING_FACTOR) + $self->shift_y - $self->extruder->extruder_offset->[Y]; #**
# XY distance of the center from the start position
$gcode .= sprintf " I%.${dec}f J%.${dec}f",
($center->[X] - $self->last_pos->[X]) * &Slic3r::SCALING_FACTOR,
($center->[Y] - $self->last_pos->[Y]) * &Slic3r::SCALING_FACTOR;
$self->last_pos($point);
return $self->_Gx($gcode, $e, undef, $comment);
}
sub _Gx {
my $self = shift;
my ($gcode, $e, $speed_factor, $comment) = @_;
my $dec = $self->dec;
# output speed if it's different from last one used
# (goal: reduce gcode size)
my $append_bridge_off = 0;
my $F;
if ($self->speed ne $self->last_speed) {
if ($self->speed eq 'bridge') {
$gcode = ";_BRIDGE_FAN_START\n$gcode";
} elsif ($self->last_speed eq 'bridge') {
$append_bridge_off = 1;
}
# apply the speed reduction for print moves on bottom layer
$F = $self->speed eq 'retract'
? ($self->extruder->retract_speed_mm_min)
: $self->speeds->{$self->speed} // $self->speed;
if ($e && $self->layer && $self->layer->id == 0 && $comment !~ /retract/) {
$F = $Slic3r::Config->first_layer_speed =~ /^(\d+(?:\.\d+)?)%$/
? ($F * $1/100)
: $Slic3r::Config->first_layer_speed * 60;
}
$self->last_speed($self->speed);
$self->last_f($F);
$F *= $speed_factor // 1;
} elsif (defined $speed_factor && $speed_factor != 1) {
$gcode .= sprintf " F%.${dec}f", ($self->last_f * $speed_factor);
$self->force_f(1); # next move will need explicit F
} elsif ($self->force_f) {
$gcode .= sprintf " F%.${dec}f", $self->last_f;
$self->force_f(0);
}
$gcode .= sprintf " F%.${dec}f", $F if defined $F;
# output extrusion distance
if ($e && $Slic3r::Config->extrusion_axis) {
$self->extrusion_distance(0) if $Slic3r::Config->use_relative_e_distances;
$self->extrusion_distance($self->extrusion_distance + $e);
$self->total_extrusion_length($self->total_extrusion_length + $e);
$gcode .= sprintf " %s%.5f", $Slic3r::Config->extrusion_axis, $self->extrusion_distance;
}
$gcode .= sprintf " ; %s", $comment if $comment && $Slic3r::Config->gcode_comments;
if ($append_bridge_off) {
$gcode .= "\n;_BRIDGE_FAN_END";
}
return "$gcode\n";
}
sub set_extruder {
my $self = shift;
my ($extruder) = @_;
# return nothing if this extruder was already selected
return "" if (defined $self->extruder) && ($self->extruder->id == $extruder->id);
# if we are running a single-extruder setup, just set the extruder and return nothing
if (!$self->multiple_extruders) {
$self->extruder($extruder);
return "";
}
# trigger retraction on the current extruder (if any)
my $gcode = "";
$gcode .= $self->retract(toolchange => 1) if defined $self->extruder;
# set the new extruder
$self->extruder($extruder);
$gcode .= sprintf "T%d%s\n", $extruder->id, ($Slic3r::Config->gcode_comments ? ' ; change extruder' : '');
$gcode .= $self->reset_e;
return $gcode;
}
sub set_fan {
my $self = shift;
my ($speed, $dont_save) = @_;
if ($self->last_fan_speed != $speed || $dont_save) {
$self->last_fan_speed($speed) if !$dont_save;
if ($speed == 0) {
my $code = $Slic3r::Config->gcode_flavor eq 'teacup'
? 'M106 S0'
: 'M107';
return sprintf "$code%s\n", ($Slic3r::Config->gcode_comments ? ' ; disable fan' : '');
} else {
return sprintf "M106 %s%d%s\n", ($Slic3r::Config->gcode_flavor eq 'mach3' ? 'P' : 'S'),
(255 * $speed / 100), ($Slic3r::Config->gcode_comments ? ' ; enable fan' : '');
}
}
return "";
}
sub set_temperature {
my $self = shift;
my ($temperature, $wait, $tool) = @_;
return "" if $wait && $Slic3r::Config->gcode_flavor eq 'makerbot';
my ($code, $comment) = ($wait && $Slic3r::Config->gcode_flavor ne 'teacup')
? ('M109', 'wait for temperature to be reached')
: ('M104', 'set temperature');
my $gcode = sprintf "$code %s%d %s; $comment\n",
($Slic3r::Config->gcode_flavor eq 'mach3' ? 'P' : 'S'), $temperature,
(defined $tool && $self->multiple_extruders) ? "T$tool " : "";
$gcode .= "M116 ; wait for temperature to be reached\n"
if $Slic3r::Config->gcode_flavor eq 'teacup' && $wait;
return $gcode;
}
sub set_bed_temperature {
my $self = shift;
my ($temperature, $wait) = @_;
my ($code, $comment) = ($wait && $Slic3r::Config->gcode_flavor ne 'teacup')
? (($Slic3r::Config->gcode_flavor eq 'makerbot' ? 'M109'
: 'M190'), 'wait for bed temperature to be reached')
: ('M140', 'set bed temperature');
my $gcode = sprintf "$code %s%d ; $comment\n",
($Slic3r::Config->gcode_flavor eq 'mach3' ? 'P' : 'S'), $temperature;
$gcode .= "M116 ; wait for bed temperature to be reached\n"
if $Slic3r::Config->gcode_flavor eq 'teacup' && $wait;
return $gcode;
}
# http://hydraraptor.blogspot.it/2010/12/frequency-limit.html
# the following implementation is inspired by Marlin code
sub _limit_frequency {
my $self = shift;
my ($point) = @_;
return '' if $Slic3r::Config->vibration_limit == 0;
my $min_time = 1 / ($Slic3r::Config->vibration_limit * 60); # in minutes
# calculate the move vector and move direction
my @move = map unscale $_, @{ Slic3r::Line->new($self->last_pos, $point)->vector->[B] };
my @dir = map { $move[$_] ? (($move[$_] > 0) ? 1 : -1) : 0 } X,Y;
my $segment_time = abs(max(@move)) / $self->speeds->{$self->speed}; # in minutes
if ($segment_time > 0) {
my @max_segment_time = ();
foreach my $axis (X,Y) {
if ($self->last_dir->[$axis] == $dir[$axis]) {
$self->segment_time->[$axis][0] += $segment_time;
} else {
@{ $self->segment_time->[$axis] } = ($segment_time, @{ $self->segment_time->[$axis] }[0,1]);
}
$max_segment_time[$axis] = max($self->segment_time->[$axis][0], max($self->segment_time->[$axis][1], $self->segment_time->[$axis][2]));
$self->last_dir->[$axis] = $dir[$axis] if $dir[$axis];
}
my $min_segment_time = min(@max_segment_time);
if ($min_segment_time < $min_time) {
return sprintf "G4 P%d\n", ($min_time - $min_segment_time) * 60 * 1000;
}
}
return '';
}
1;
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