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Debhelper executable file substition helpers
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Debhelper (in compat level 9 and above) allows its config files to be executable, and uses the output of such scripts as if it was the content of the config file.

This is a collection of scripts and programs to help creating such scripts in a standardised and easy to understand fashion.

This collection provides solutions for the following tasks:

  • Expanding variables in various debhelper files (either from the environment, or variables known to dpkg-architecture(1) - including multi-arch ones)
  • An extension to dh_install, that supports renaming files during the copy process, using an extended syntax.
  • Another extension to dh_install, allowing one to move a file to one package, and copy the rest to another.
  • Ability to filter files by architecture or build profile, within a single debhelper control file.


The recommended way to use dh-exec is through the dh-exec(1) wrapper, which will bind all the other tools together. That is, when adding a she-bang line to an executable debhelper config file, use /usr/bin/dh-exec.

Using dh-exec means one will need to use debhelper compat level 9 or above and executable debhelper config files: there is no extra support needed in debian/rules or elsewhere, just an executable file with an appropriate she-bang line.


One may of course question the existence of a seemingly complicated tool, all for achieving some variable substitution, something one could do with a here-doc and a shell script. However, one would be gravely mistaken thinking that it's all dh-exec does and what it is good for.

A few major advantages dh-exec has over custom here-doc or sed magic tricks:

  • A declarative syntax, familiar to everyone who used debhelper and other debian tools.

    One can employ architecture or build profile restrictions in executable scripts just as one does in debian/control.

  • A single tool that does the heavy lifting for you, just like debhelper does.

    Instead of repeating similar code across a number of packages, a simple build-dependency on a helper tool gets you a lot more, for a fraction of the price.

  • It is reliable, stable and in active use.

    As of this writing, there are over a hundred packages build-depending on dh-exec, and using parts of its feature sets, and the number keeps growing.


One of the most simple cases is expanding multi-arch variables in an install file:

#! /usr/bin/dh-exec
usr/lib/*.so.* /usr/lib/${DEB_HOST_MULTIARCH}/*

Of course, this has the disadvantage of running all dh-exec scripts, so it will also try to expand any environment variables too. For safety, one can turn that off, and explicitly request that only multi-arch expansion shall be done:

#! /usr/bin/dh-exec --with-scripts=subst-multiarch
usr/lib/*.so.* /usr/lib/${DEB_HOST_MULTIARCH}/*

In this second case, the ${HOME} variable will not be expanded, even if such an environment variable is present when dh-exec runs.

But variable expansion is not all that dh-exec is able to perform! Suppose we want to install a file, under a different name: with dh-exec, that is also possible:

#! /usr/bin/dh-exec --with=install
debian/default.conf => /etc/my-package/start.conf

These can, of course, be combined. One can even limit scripts to multiarch substitution and install-time renaming only, skipping everything else dh-exec might try:

#! /usr/bin/dh-exec --with-scripts=subst-multiarch,install-rename
cfgs/cfg-${DEB_HOST_GNU_TYPE}.h => /usr/include/${DEB_HOST_MULTIARCH}/package/config.h

Additionally, assuming we have two binary packages: foo-gtk and foo-utils, and we want to include /usr/bin/foo-gtk in the former package, the rest of /usr/bin in the latter. Our install files would look like these, for foo-gtk and foo-utils respectively:

#! /usr/bin/dh-exec
=> /usr/bin/foo-gtk

#! /usr/bin/dh-exec

But wait, there's more! You can restrict lines based on architecture, or build profile:

#! /usr/bin/dh-exec
[linux-any] usr/bin/linux-*
[!freebsd-any] lib/systemd/system/*
<stage1> usr/bin/compiler1

When not to use dh-exec

Do note that dh-exec is not required at all if all you want to do is mark a multi-arch path as belonging to a package: debhelper itself supports wildcards! So if your install script would look like the following:

#! /usr/bin/dh-exec

Then most likely, you do not need dh-exec, and you can replace the above with this simple line:


Similarly, all of the following can be simplified to using wildcards, unless there's another directory under /usr/lib which one doesn't want to install:

#! /usr/bin/dh-exec
usr/lib/${DEB_HOST_MULTIARCH}/pkgconfig/*.pc usr/lib/${DEB_HOST_MULTIARCH}/pkgconfig

-- Gergely Nagy

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