Emulates CGI::header()
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    CGI::Header - Handle CGI.pm-compatible HTTP header properties

      use CGI;
      use CGI::Header;

      my $query = CGI->new;

      # CGI.pm-compatible HTTP header properties
      my $header = CGI::Header->new(
          query => $query,
          header => {
              attachment => 'foo.gif',
              charset    => 'utf-7',
              cookies    => [ $cookie1, $cookie2 ], # CGI::Cookie objects
              expires    => '+3d',
              nph        => 1,
              p3p        => [qw/CAO DSP LAW CURa/],
              target     => 'ResultsWindow',
              type       => 'image/gif'

      # update $header
      $header->set( 'Content-Length' => 3002 ); # overwrite
      $header->delete('Content-Disposition'); # => 3002
      $header->clear; # => $self


    This document refers to CGI::Header version 0.63.

    This module is compatible with CGI.pm 3.51 or higher.

    This module is a utility class to manipulate a hash reference received
    by CGI.pm's "header()" method.

    This module isn't the replacement of the "header()" method, but
    complements CGI.pm.

    This module can be used in the following situation:

    1. $header is a hash reference which represents CGI response headers
        For example, CGI::Application implements "header_add()" method which
        can be used to add CGI.pm-compatible HTTP header properties.
        Instances of CGI.pm-based applications often hold those properties.

          my $header = { type => 'text/plain' };

    2. Manipulates $header using CGI::Header
        Since property names are case-insensitive, application developers
        have to normalize them manually when they specify header properties.
        CGI::Header normalizes them automatically.

          use CGI::Header;

          my $h = CGI::Header->new( header => $header );
          $h->set( 'Content-Length' => 3002 ); # add Content-Length header

          # => {
          #     'type' => 'text/plain',
          #     'content-length' => '3002',
          # }

    3. Passes $header to CGI::header() to stringify the variable
          use CGI;

          print CGI::header( $header );
          # Content-length: 3002
          # Content-Type: text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1

        "header()" function just stringifies given header properties. This
        module can be used to generate PSGI-compatible response header array
        references. See CGI::Header::PSGI.

        Returns your current query object. This attribute defaults to the
        Singleton instance of CGI.pm ($CGI::Q), which is shared by functions
        exported by the module.

    $hashref = $header->header
        Returns the header hash reference associated with this CGI::Header
        object. This attribute defaults to a reference to an empty hash.

    $value = $header->get( $field )
    ( $v1, $v2, ... ) = $header->get( $f1, $f2, ... )
    $value = $header->set( $field => $value )
    ( $v1, $v2, ... ) = $header->set( $f1 => $v1, $f2 => $v2, ... )
        Get or set the value of the header field. The header field name
        ($field) is not case sensitive.

          # field names are case-insensitive

        The $value argument must be a plain string:

          $header->set( 'Content-Length' => 3002 );
          my $length = $header->get('Content-Length'); # => 3002

    $bool = $header->exists( $field )
        Returns a Boolean value telling whether the specified field exists.

          if ( $header->exists('ETag') ) {

    $value = $header->delete( $field )
    @values = $header->delete( $f1, $f2, ... )
        Deletes the specified fields form CGI response headers. In list
        context it returns the values of the deleted fields. In scalar
        context it returns the value for the last field specified.

          my $value = $header->delete('Content-Disposition'); # => 'inline'

    $self = $header->clear
        This will remove all header properties.

        Sends the response headers to the browser.

        Valid multi-line header input is accepted when each line is
        separated with a CRLF value ("\r\n" on most platforms) followed by
        at least one space. For example:

          $header->set( Ingredients => "ham\r\n\seggs\r\n\sbacon" );

        Invalid multi-line header input will trigger in an exception. When
        multi-line headers are received, this method will always output them
        back as a single line, according to the folding rules of RFC 2616:
        the newlines will be removed, while white space remains.

        It's identical to:

          print STDOUT $query->header( $header->header );

        Returns a copy of this "CGI::Header" object. The "query" object is
        shared. The "header" hashref is copied shallowly. It's identical to:

          # surface copy
          my %header = %{ $original->header };

          my $clone = CGI::Header->new(
              query  => $original->query, # shares query object
              header => \%header

    The following methods were named after property names recognized by
    CGI.pm's "header" method. Most of these methods can both be used to read
    and to set the value of a property.

    If you pass an argument to the method, the property value will be set,
    and also the current object itself will be returned; therefore you can
    chain methods as follows:


    If no argument is supplied, the property value will be returned. If the
    given property doesn't exist, "undef" will be returned.

    $self = $header->attachment( $filename )
    $filename = $header->attachment
        Get or set the "attachment" property. Can be used to turn the page
        into an attachment. Represents suggested name for the saved file.


        In this case, the outgoing header will be formatted as:

          Content-Disposition: attachment; filename="genome.jpg"

    $self = $header->charset( $character_set )
    $character_set = $header->charset
        Get or set the "charset" property. Represents the character set sent
        to the browser.

    $self = $header->cookies( $cookie )
    $self = $header->cookies([ $cookie1, $cookie2, ... ])
    $cookies = $header->cookies
        Get or set the "cookies" property. The parameter can be a
        CGI::Cookie object or an arrayref which consists of CGI::Cookie

    $self = $header->expires( $format )
    $format = $header->expires
        Get or set the "expires" property. The Expires header gives the date
        and time after which the entity should be considered stale. You can
        specify an absolute or relative expiration interval. The following
        forms are all valid for this field:

          $header->expires( '+30s' ); # 30 seconds from now
          $header->expires( '+10m' ); # ten minutes from now
          $header->expires( '+1h'  ); # one hour from now
          $header->expires( 'now'  ); # immediately
          $header->expires( '+3M'  ); # in three months
          $header->expires( '+10y' ); # in ten years time

          # at the indicated time & date
          $header->expires( 'Thu, 25 Apr 1999 00:40:33 GMT' );

    $self = $header->nph( $bool )
    $bool = $header->nph
        Get or set the "nph" property. If set to a true value, will issue
        the correct headers to work with a NPH (no-parse-header) script.


    $tags = $header->p3p
    $self = $header->p3p( $tags )
        Get or set the "p3p" property. The parameter can be an arrayref or a
        space-delimited string.

          $header->p3p([qw/CAO DSP LAW CURa/]);
          # or
          $header->p3p('CAO DSP LAW CURa');

        In this case, the outgoing header will be formatted as:

          P3P: policyref="/w3c/p3p.xml", CP="CAO DSP LAW CURa"

    $self = $header->status( $status )
    $status = $header->status
        Get or set the Status header.

          $header->status('304 Not Modified');

    $self = $header->target( $window_target )
    $window_target = $header->target
        Get or set the Window-Target header.


    $self = $header->type( $media_type )
    $media_type = $header->type
        Get or set the "type" property. Represents the media type of the
        message content.


    Normalized property names are:

    1. lowercased
          'Content-Length' -> 'content-length'

    2. use dashes instead of underscores in property name
          'content_length' -> 'content-length'

    CGI.pm's "header" method also accepts aliases of property names. This
    module converts them as follows:

     'content-type' -> 'type'
     'cookie'       -> 'cookies'

    If a property name is duplicated, throws an exception:

      my $header = CGI::Header->new(
          header => {
              -Type        => 'text/plain',
              Content_Type => 'text/html',
      # die "Property 'type' already exists"

    The following plugin just adds the Content-Length header to CGI response
    headers sent by blosxom.cgi:

      package content_length;
      use Blosxom::Header;

      sub start {

      sub last {
          my $h = Blosxom::Header->instance;
          $h->set( 'Content-Length' => length $blosxom::output );

    "Blosxom::Header" is defined as follows:

      package Blosxom::Header;
      use parent 'CGI::Header';
      use Carp qw/croak/;

      our $INSTANCE;

      sub new {
          my $class = shift;
          croak "Private method 'new' called for $class";

      sub instance {
          my $class = shift;
          $INSTANCE ||= $class->SUPER::new( header => $blosxom::header );

      sub has_instance {

    Since Blosxom <http://blosxom.sourceforge.net/> depends on the
    procedural interface of CGI.pm, you don't have to pass $query to "new()"
    in this case.

    It's up to you to decide how to manage HTTP cookies. The following
    method behaves like Mojo::Message::Response's "cookies" method:

      use parent 'CGI::Header';
      use CGI::Cookie;

      sub cookies {
          my $self    = shift;
          my $cookies = $self->header->{cookies} ||= [];

          return $cookies unless @_;

          if ( ref $_[0] eq 'HASH' ) {
              push @$cookies, map { CGI::Cookie->new($_) } @_;
          else {
              push @$cookies, CGI::Cookie->new( @_ );


    You can use the "cookies" method as follows:

      # get an arrayref which consists of CGI::Cookie objects
      my $cookies = $header->cookies;

      # push a CGI::Cookie object onto the "cookies" property
      $header->cookies( ID => 123456 );
      $header->cookies({ name => 'ID', value => 123456 });

    Since CGI::Simple is "a relatively lightweight drop in replacement for
    CGI.pm", this module is compatible with the module. If you're using the
    procedural interface of the module (CGI::Simple::Standard), you need to
    override the "_build_query" method as follows:

      use parent 'CGI::Header';
      use CGI::Simple::Standard;

      sub _build_query {
          # NOTE: loader() is designed for debugging

    Since the following strings conflict with property names, you can't use
    them as field names ($field):


        If you don't want to send the Content-Type header, set the "type"
        property to an empty string, though it's far from intuitive


          # doesn't work as you expect

        If one of the following conditions is met, the Date header will be
        set automatically, and also the header field will become read-only:

          if ( $header->nph or $header->cookie or $header->expires ) {
              $header->set( 'Date' => 'Thu, 25 Apr 1999 00:40:33 GMT' ); # wrong
              $header->delete('Date'); # wrong

    P3P You can't assign to the P3P header directly:

          # wrong
          $header->set( 'P3P' => '/path/to/p3p.xml' );

        "CGI::header()" restricts where the policy-reference file is
        located, and so you can't modify the location ("/w3c/p3p.xml").
        You're allowed to set P3P tags using "p3p()".

        If the following condition is met, the Pragma header will be set
        automatically, and also the header field will become read-only:

          if ( $header->query->cache ) {
              $header->set( 'Pragma' => 'no-cache' ); # wrong
              $header->delete('Pragma'); # wrong

        If the following condition is met, the Server header will be set
        automatically, and also the header field will become read-only:

          if ( $header->nph ) {
              $header->set( 'Server' => 'Apache/1.3.27 (Unix)' ); # wrong
              $header->delete('Server'); # wrong

    CGI, HTTP::Headers

    There are no known bugs in this module. Please report problems to
    ANAZAWA (anazawa@cpan.org). Patches are welcome.

    Ryo Anazawa (anazawa@cpan.org)

    This module is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
    under the same terms as Perl itself. See perlartistic.