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Emulates CGI::header()

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    CGI::Header - Handle HTTP header properties

      use CGI;
      use CGI::Header;

      my $query = CGI->new;

      # HTTP header properties
      my $header = {
          attachment => 'foo.gif',
          charset    => 'utf-7',
          cookie     => [ $cookie1, $cookie2 ], # CGI::Cookie objects
          expires    => '+3d',
          nph        => 1,
          p3p        => [qw/CAO DSP LAW CURa/],
          target     => 'ResultsWindow',
          type       => 'image/gif'

      # create a CGI::Header object
      my $h = CGI::Header->new(
          header => $header,
          query  => $query

      # update $header
      $h->set( 'Content-Length' => 3002 ); # overwrite
      $h->delete('Content-Disposition'); # => 3002
      $h->clear; # => $self

      $h->header; # same reference as $header

    This document refers to CGI::Header version 0.45.

    This module is compatible with 3.51 or higher.

    This module is a utility class to manipulate a hash reference received
    by's "header()" method.

    This module isn't the replacement of the "CGI::header()" function, but

    This module can be used in the following situation:

    1. $header is a hash reference which represents CGI response headers
        For example, CGI::Application implements "header_add()" method which
        can be used to add HTTP header properties.
        Instances of CGI applications often hold those properties.

          my $header = { type => 'text/plain' };

    2. Manipulates $header using CGI::Header
        Since property names are case-insensitive, application developers
        have to normalize them manually when they specify header properties.
        CGI::Header normalizes them automatically.

          use CGI::Header;

          my $h = CGI::Header->new( header => $header );
          $h->set( 'Content-Length' => 3002 ); # add Content-Length header

          # => {
          #     'type' => 'text/plain',
          #     'content-length' => '3002',
          # }

    3. Passes $header to CGI::header() to stringify the variable
          use CGI;

          print CGI::header( $header );
          # Content-length: 3002
          # Content-Type: text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1

        "header()" function just stringifies given header properties. This
        module can be used to generate PSGI-compatible header array
        references. See CGI::Header::PSGI.

    $query = $header->query
        Returns your current query object. This attribute defaults to the
        Singleton instance of ($CGI::Q) which is shared by functions
        exported by the module.

    $self = $header->handler('redirect')
        Works like "CGI::Application"'s "header_type" method. This method
        can be used to declare that you are setting a redirection header.
        This attribute defaults to "header".

          $header->handler('redirect')->as_string; # invokes $header->query->redirect

    $hashref = $header->header
        Returns the header hash reference associated with this CGI::Header
        object. This attribute defaults to a reference to an empty hash. You
        can always pass the header hash to "CGI::header()" function to
        generate CGI response headers:

          print CGI::header( $header->header );

    $self = $header->rehash
        Rebuilds the header hash to normalize parameter names without
        changing the reference. Returns this object itself. If parameter
        names aren't normalized, the methods listed below won't work as you

          my $h1 = $header->header;
          # => {
          #     '-content_type'   => 'text/plain',
          #     'Set-Cookie'      => 'ID=123456; path=/',
          #     'expires'         => '+3d',
          #     '-target'         => 'ResultsWindow',
          #     '-content-length' => '3002'
          # }


          my $h2 = $header->header; # same reference as $h1
          # => {
          #     'type'           => 'text/plain',
          #     'cookie'         => 'ID=123456; path=/',
          #     'expires'        => '+3d',
          #     'target'         => 'ResultsWindow',
          #     'content-length' => '3002'
          # }

        Normalized property names are:

        1. lowercased
              'Content-Length' -> 'content-length'

        2. use dashes instead of underscores in property name
              'content_length' -> 'content-length'

        "CGI::header()" also accepts aliases of parameter names. This module
        converts them as follows:

         'content-type'  -> 'type'
         'cookies'       -> 'cookie'
         'set-cookie'    -> 'cookie'
         'uri'           -> 'location'
         'url'           -> 'location'
         'window-target' -> 'target'

        If a property name is duplicated, throws an exception:

          # => {
          #     -Type        => 'text/plain',
          #     Content_Type => 'text/html',
          # }

          $header->rehash; # die "Property '-type' already exists"

    $value = $header->get( $field )
    $value = $header->set( $field => $value )
        Get or set the value of the header field. The header field name
        ($field) is not case sensitive.

          # field names are case-insensitive

        The $value argument must be a plain string:

          $header->set( 'Content-Length' => 3002 );
          my $length = $header->get('Content-Length'); # => 3002

    $bool = $header->exists( $field )
        Returns a Boolean value telling whether the specified field exists.

          if ( $header->exists('ETag') ) {

    $value = $header->delete( $field )
        Deletes the specified field form CGI response headers. Returns the
        value of the deleted field.

          my $value = $header->delete('Content-Disposition'); # => 'inline'

    $self = $header->clear
        This will remove all header fields.

        If "$header->handler" is set to "header", it's identical to:

          $header->query->header( $header->header );

        If "$header->handler" is set to "redirect", it's identical to:

          $header->query->redirect( $header->header );

    The following methods were named after property names recognized by's "header" method. Most of these methods can both be used to read
    and to set the value of a property.

    If you pass an argument to the method, the property value will be set,
    and also the current object itself will be returned; therefore you can
    chain methods as follows:


    If no argument is supplied, the property value will returned. If the
    given property doesn't exist, "undef" will be returned.

    $self = $header->attachment( $filename )
    $filename = $header->attachment
        Get or set the "attachment" property. Can be used to turn the page
        into an attachment. Represents suggested name for the saved file.


        In this case, the outgoing header will be formatted as:

          Content-Disposition: attachment; filename="genome.jpg"

    $self = $header->charset( $character_set )
    $character_set = $header->charset
        Get or set the "charset" property. Represents the character set sent
        to the browser.

    $self = $header->cookie( @cookies )
    @cookies = $header->cookie
        Get or set the "cookie" property. The parameter can be a list of
        CGI::Cookie objects.

    $header->push_cookie( @cookie )
        Given a list of CGI::Cookie objects, appends them to the "cookie"

    $self = $header->expires
    $header->expires( $format )
        Get or set the "expires" property. The Expires header gives the date
        and time after which the entity should be considered stale. You can
        specify an absolute or relative expiration interval. The following
        forms are all valid for this field:

          $header->expires( '+30s' ); # 30 seconds from now
          $header->expires( '+10m' ); # ten minutes from now
          $header->expires( '+1h'  ); # one hour from now
          $header->expires( 'now'  ); # immediately
          $header->expires( '+3M'  ); # in three months
          $header->expires( '+10y' ); # in ten years time

          # at the indicated time & date
          $header->expires( 'Thu, 25 Apr 1999 00:40:33 GMT' );

    $self = $header->location( $url )
    $url = $header->location
        Get or set the Location header.


    $self = $header->nph( $bool )
    $bool = $header->nph
        Get or set the "nph" property. If set to a true value, will issue
        the correct headers to work with a NPH (no-parse-header) script.


    @tags = $header->p3p
    $self = $header->p3p( @tags )
        Get or set the "p3p" property. The parameter can be an array or a
        space-delimited string. Returns a list of P3P tags. (In scalar
        context, returns the number of P3P tags.)

          $header->p3p(qw/CAO DSP LAW CURa/);
          # or
          $header->p3p( 'CAO DSP LAW CURa' );

          my @tags = $header->p3p; # => ("CAO", "DSP", "LAW", "CURa")
          my $size = $header->p3p; # => 4

        In this case, the outgoing header will be formatted as:

          P3P: policyref="/w3c/p3p.xml", CP="CAO DSP LAW CURa"

    $self = $header->status( $status )
    $status = $header->status
        Get or set the Status header.

          $header->status('304 Not Modified');

    $self = $header->target( $window_target )
    $window_target = $header->target
        Get or set the Window-Target header.


    $self = $header->type( $media_type )
    $media_type = $header->type
        Get or set the "type" property. Represents the media type of the
        message content.


    The following plugin just adds the Content-Length header to CGI response
    headers sent by blosxom.cgi:

      package content_length;
      use CGI::Header;

      sub start {

      sub last {
          my $h = CGI::Header->new( $blosxom::header )->rehash;
          $h->set( 'Content-Length' => length $blosxom::output );


    Since Blosxom <> depends on the
    procedural interface of, you don't have to pass $query to "new()"
    in this case.

      use CGI::Header;
      use HTTP::Headers;

      my @header_props = ( type => 'text/plain', ... );
      my $h = HTTP::Headers->new( CGI::Header->new(@header_props)->flatten );
      $h->header( 'Content-Type' ); # => "text/plain"

    Since the following strings conflict with property names, you can't use
    them as field names ($field):


        You can set the Content-Type header to neither undef nor an empty:

          # wrong
          $header->set( 'Content-Type' => undef );
          $header->set( 'Content-Type' => q{} );

        Set "type" property to an empty string:


        If one of the following conditions is met, the Date header will be
        set automatically, and also the header field will become read-only:

          if ( $header->nph or $header->cookie or $header->expires ) {
              my $date = $header->as_hashref->{'Date'}; # => HTTP-Date (current time)
              $header->set( 'Date' => 'Thu, 25 Apr 1999 00:40:33 GMT' ); # wrong
              $header->delete('Date'); # wrong

        You shouldn't assign to the Expires header directly because the
        following behavior will surprise us:

          # confusing
          $header->set( 'Expires' => '+3d' );

          my $value = $header->get('Expires');
          # => "+3d" (not "Thu, 25 Apr 1999 00:40:33 GMT")

        Use expires() instead:


    P3P You can't assign to the P3P header directly:

          # wrong
          $header->set( 'P3P' => '/path/to/p3p.xml' );

        "CGI::header()" restricts where the policy-reference file is
        located, and so you can't modify the location ("/w3c/p3p.xml").
        You're allowed to set P3P tags using "p3p()".

        If the following condition is met, the Pragma header will be set
        automatically, and also the header field will become read-only:

          if ( $header->query->cache ) {
              my $pragma = $header->as_hashref->{'Pragma'}; # => 'no-cache'
              $header->set( 'Pragma' => 'no-cache' ); # wrong
              $header->delete('Pragma'); # wrong

        If the following condition is met, the Server header will be set
        automatically, and also the header field will become read-only:

          if ( $header->nph ) {
              my $server = $header->as_hashref->{'Server'};
              # => $header->query->server_software

              $header->set( 'Server' => 'Apache/1.3.27 (Unix)' ); # wrong
              $header->delete('Server'); # wrong

    CGI, Plack::Util::headers(), HTTP::Headers

    There are no known bugs in this module. Please report problems to
    ANAZAWA ( Patches are welcome.

    Ryo Anazawa (

    This module is free software; you can redistibute it and/or modify it
    under the same terms as Perl itself. See perlartistic.

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