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Coop Manual

This short manual explains the syntax and the basic concepts of Coop.

Table of contents

Note: Coop recognizes UTF8 characters such as , and . Every such symbol also has an ASCII equivalent, e.g., ->, =>, ><. We use here the UTF8 characters. Please refer to the UTF & ASCII section for the mapping from UTF8 to ASCII equivalents.

Overview

Every expression in Coop is either a value (pure, inert piece of data), or an effectful computation which runs either in user mode or kernel mode. The user mode is used for "normal" effectful code that may call operations and raise exceptions. Kernel mode is used to implement resources. It too can call operations, raise and catch exceptions, but in addition has access to kernel state (hidden from the user mode) and the ability to send signals, which are unrecoverable exceptions that kill user code.

A central concept in Coop is a runner. It is a collection of co-operations which implement a resource, such as state or I/O. The co-operations run in kernel mode, have access to state (local to the runner), may raise exceptions and send signals. A runner R is used to "virtualize" user code M with a run statement

using R @ I
run
  M
finally {
  return x @ c → N,
  …
  !e x @ c → N_e,
  …
  ‼s x → N_s,
  …
}

The code I initalizes the runner state, after which M is executed. When M calls an operation op, the corresponding co-operations op in R is executed in kernel mode with access to the state (via the operations getenv and setenv). The co-operation may:

  1. return a value v to M, which proceeds with execution,
  2. raise an exception in M, at the call site of the operation, which may or may not be caught
  3. send a signal s, in which case M is dropped and execution proceeds to finalization code N_s.

Apart from intercepting signals, the finalization code also intercepts a result returned by M and any exception that percolates out of M. The return- and exception-handling code N and N_e have acces to the final runner state c, with the intent of cleaning up reasorces, e.g., closing files and releasing memory.

Thus, exceptions should be used for "checked" or "recoverable" exceptions that the user code can shoudl react to, while signals are sent when normal operation of the runner is not possible anymore (which is why signal handlers do not receive kernel state).

Running coop programs

Coop programs are saved in files with extension .coop. The command

coop ⟨file.coop⟩

runs the program in the given file. The file may load other files with the load directive.

To get the Coop REPL, run

coop

If you install the rlwrap or ledit command, coop will warp itself in it to give the REPL line-editing capabilities. You may also run the Coop REPL with a preloaded file

coop -l ⟨file.coop⟩

When you run coop it will look for the file pervasives.coop and load it if found. This behavior can be controled with the --no-pervasives and --pervasives ⟨file⟩ command-line options. For other command-line options, run coop --help.

Computational effects

Coop has user-definable computational effects, of which there are three kinds: operations, exceptions, and signals.

Operations

All computational effects (apart from exceptions and signals) are represented by operations. You can declare new operation op at the top level with the directive

operation op : τ → ρ {!exc₁, !exc₂, …}

This says that op is an operation which takes an argument of type τ and returns a result of type ρ, or raises one of the exceptions exc₁, exc₂, …. The shorthand operation op : τ → ρ is equivalent to operation op : τ → ρ {}.

An operation op with argument v is called with op v. Such calls are handled by runners, or by containers at the toplevel.

Example

The file pervasives.coop delcares the I/O operations

operation print_int : int → unit
operation print_string : string → unit
operation read_int : unit → int {!malformed_integer}
operation read_string : unit → string
operation flush : unit → unit

Notice that read_int may throw a malformed_integer exception. Coop keeps track of exceptions and issues a warning if the malformed_integer exception is not handled.

Exceptions

Exceptions are used to indicate a recoverable error that user code should react to. A new exception exc carrying data of type τ is declared at the top level with the directive

exception exc of τ

An exception exc with argument v is raised with !exc v. Exceptions may be caught with exception handlers.

Example

The file pervasives.coop declares the exceptions

exception division_by_zero of unit
exception malformed_integer of unit

Signals

Signals are used to indicate an unrecoverable error that prevents the user code from continuing. A new signal sig carrying data of type τ is declared at the top level with the directive

signal sig of τ

In kernel mode only, a signal sig with argument v is sent with ‼sig v. Signals cannot be caught, but they may be finalized.

Effect signatures

An effect signature is a set of operations, exceptions and signals:

{ op₁, op₂, …, !exc₁, !exc₂, …, ‼sig₁, ‼sig₂, … }

The operations, exceptions and signals may be listed in any order.

Effect signatures are used to annotate computations with effects that they may perform. The empty effect signature {} expresses the fact that a computation is pure, i.e., it performs no effects (but it may run forever).

An operation signature {op₁, op₂, …} is an effect signature which lists only operations. Similarly an exception signature {!exc₁, !exc₂, …} lists only exceptions.

Types

Coop has value, user and kernel types.

Value types

Value types classify pure data, i.e., innert expressions that are already "computed" to their final form, such as 42, ("foo", false), and fun (x : int) -> x + 3.

The value types are:

  • the ground types empty, unit, bool, int, string,
  • products τ₁ × ⋯ × τᵢ,
  • user function types τ → υ, where τ is a value type and υ a user type,
  • kernel function types τ → κ where τ is a value type and κ is a kernel type,
  • runner types Σ ⇒ Σ' @ τ where Σ, Σ' are operation signatures and τ is a value type,
  • container types, where Σ is an operation signature.

Runner types

A runner type has the form

{op₁, op₂, …} ⇒ {op₁', op₂', …} @ ρ

It classifies runners which implement co-operations op₁, op₂, …, use state of type ρ and call operations op₁', op₂', …

Container types

A container type has the form

{op₁, op₂, …}

It classifies containers which provide the given operations.

User and kernel types

User and kernel types classify possibly effectful computations, i.e., expressiosn that need to be computed to give a result, and that may perform computational effects, such as 3 + 2 and print_string "Hello, world!".

A user type has the form

τ {op₁, op₂, …, !exc₁, !exc₂, …}

where τ is a value type. Note that no signals are allowed in the effect signature of a user type. An expression of this type computes a value of type τ. It may call the listed operations and raised the listed exceptions (and no others).

A kernel type has the form

τ {op₁, op₂, …, !exc₁, !exc₂, …, ‼sig₁, ‼sig₂, …} @ ρ

where τ and ρ are value types. An expression of this type computes a value of type τ in kernel mode, where the kernel state has type ρ. It may call the listed operations, raise the listed exceptions, and send the listed signals (and no others).

Let us note that there is a difference between a value type and a corresponding user type with empty effect signature:

  • 4 is a value whose type is int,
  • 2 + 2 is a user computation whose type is int {}.

These are not equivalent! In the second case, the interpreter has to do some work to get the result, whereas in the first case the final value is already given.

Example

Executing a kernel comptuations of type

int ! {print, fopen, !permission_denied, ‼device_error}

results in one of the following:

  • an integer return value
  • an operation call print or fopen
  • the exception permision_denied
  • the signal device_error

Type definitions

At the top level a type alias t may be introduced with

type t = ⋯

Type aliases are transparent, i.e., they are unfolded automatically.

An algebraic datatype t may be defined with

type t = C₁ of τ₁ | C₂ of τ₂ | ⋯

The constructors C₁, C₂, ... must be capitalized words. Mutually recursive algebraic datatype definitions are supported as

type t₁ = ...
and  t₂ = ...
...

An abstract type t is declared as

type t

Such a type has no values. (Exercise: what's it good for?)

Example

The type of integer lists may be defined as

type int_list = Nil | Cons of int * int_list

Type ascription

You can explicitly state the type of an expression or computation with type ascription

⟨expr⟩ : ⟨type⟩

This may help with finding sources of type errors. As a special case, you can write

let ⟨pattern⟩ : ⟨type⟩ = ⟨expr⟩

instead of let ⟨pattern⟩ = ⟨expr⟩ : ⟨type⟩.

Values

Values are pure data, i.e., they perform no effects and need not be evaluated any furhter. They are:

  • variables
  • boolean values false and true
  • algebraic type constructor C ...
  • numerals …, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, …
  • string literal "..."
  • tuple (⟨value₁⟩, …, ⟨valueᵤ⟩)
  • user function abstraction fun (p : τ) → ⟨user-comp⟩
  • kernel function abstraction fun (p : τ) @ ρ → ⟨kernel-comp⟩, where ρ is the type of the kernel state
  • runner { op₁ p₁ → ⟨kernel-comp₁⟩| op₂ p₂ → ⟨kernel-comp₂⟩ | ⋯ } @ ρ
  • runner renaming ⟨value⟩ as {op₁=op₁', op₂=op₂', …}
  • runner pairing ⟨value₁⟩ ⋈ ⟨value₂⟩

Values can be deconstructed with patterns in let-binding and match-statements.

Functions

Because Coop does not have polymorphic types, all function arguments must be explicitly typed. That is, fun x → x is not a valid expression, you have to write fun (x : τ) → x for some value type τ.

Iterated user functions fun (x : τ) → fun (y : σ) → ⟨user-comp⟩ can be abbreviated to fun (x : τ) (y : σ) -> ⟨user-comp⟩, and similarly for more argment.

Likewise, you may iterate arguments for a kernel function: fun (x : τ) (y : σ) @ ρ → ⟨kernel-comp⟩ is equivalent to fun (x₁ : τ₁) @ ρ → fun (y : σ) @ ρ → ⟨kernel-comp⟩.

The syntax

let f (x : τ) (y : σ) = ⟨user-comp⟩

is equivalent to fun (x : τ) (y : σ) -> ⟨user-comp⟩. You may also specify the type of the result υ:

let f (x : τ) (y : σ) : υ = ⟨user-comp⟩

For kernel functions the corresponding notation is

let f (x : τ) (y : σ) @ ρ = ⟨kernel-comp⟩

Caveat: you cannot apply a user function in kernel mode. For instance, writing 3 + 4 in the definition of a runner co-operation is a type error because + is a user function. You have to wrap the user computation in a user context switch user 3 + 4 with {}. (Yes, there could be syntactic sugar for this sort of thing, and there could be promotion of pure computations to either mode. It's a prototype language!)

Runners

A runner

{ op₁ p₁ → ⟨kernel-comp₁⟩ | op₂ p₂ → ⟨kernel-comp₂⟩ | ⋯ } @ ρ

implements operations op₁, op₂, … as the given kernel computations with kernel state of type ρ. To distinguish operations from their implementations, we call the latter co-operations. (The name comes from the duality between algebraic operations and runner co-operations.)

Runner renaming

Sometimes we want to create another copy of a runner, with different operation names, for instance, when we want to pair two copies of the same runner. This is accomplished with a runner renaming ⟨runner⟩ as {op₁=op₁', op₂=op₂', …} which takes a runner ⟨runner⟩ and renames some or all of its operations op₁', op₂', … to op₁, op₂, ….

Runner pairing

Given runners

  • ⟨runner₁⟩ with co-operations op₁, op₂, … and state ρ₁, and
  • ⟨runner2⟩ with co-operations op₁', op₂', … and state ρ₂

the runer pairing ⟨runner₁⟩ ⋈ ⟨runner₂⟩ combines them to give a runner with co-operations op₁, op₂, …, op₁', op₂', … and state ρ₁ × ρ₂. Each component of the paired runner has access to its own componetn of the state. The opertion names must be disjoint, which can always be achieved with a runner renaming.

Patterns

Values can be deconstructed using patterns, as is customary in functional languages. A pattern p may appear anywhere a value is bound:

  • argument of a function: fun (p : τ) → ⋯ and fun (p : τ) @ ρ → ⋯
  • argumetn of a return: return p → ⋯
  • argument of a co-operation: op p → ⋯
  • argument of an exception: !exc p → ⋯ and !exc p₁ @ p₂ → ⋯
  • argument of a signal: ‼sig p → ⋯
  • in let-binding
  • in match-statements
  • in recursive functions

Coop does not perform pattern exhaustiveness checks. A runtime error occurs if a value is unsuccessfully matched.

The following patterns are supported:

  • anonymous pattern _ matches everything
  • variable bindind x matches everything and binds to x
  • primitive constants: numerals, booleans and string literals
  • tuple pattern (p₁, …, pᵢ)
  • datatype constructor pattern C p

User and kernel computations

Effectful source code running inside a runtime environment is just one example of a more general phenomenon in which effectful computations are enveloped by a layer that provides a supervised access to external resources: a user process is controlled by a kernel, a web page by a browser, an operating system by hardware, or a virtual machine, etc. We adopt the parlance of software systems, and refer to the two layers generically as the user and kernel computations.

Common computations

Many constructs are common both modes.

Pure computations

A value is considered to be a computation and is automatically promoted to one.

In fact, Coop allows the programmer to freely mix values and computations. For example you can write (3 + 4, 8) even though, strictly speaking the subcomputation 3 + 4 should be hoisted: let x = 3 + 4 in (x, 8). Coop performs such hoisting automatically, as it would be quite annoying to have to write let x' = f x in g y instead of f x y.

You may write return ⟨expr⟩ instead of ⟨expr⟩ if it makes you feel better, but the two are equivalent.

let binding

An ML-style let-binding has the form

let ⟨pattern⟩ = ⟨computation₁⟩ in ⟨computation₂⟩

There is also the parallel let-binding

let ⟨pattern₁⟩ = ⋯
and ⟨pattern₂⟩ = ⋯
⋯
in ⟨computation⟩

At the top level a value can be bound globally with

let ⟨pattern⟩ = ⟨computation⟩ ;;

and similarly for parallel let-binding.

match statement

An ML-style match statement (known as case in Haskell) has the form

match ⟨value⟩ with {
| ⟨pattern₁⟩ →  ⟨computation₁⟩
| ⟨pattern₂⟩ →  ⟨computation₂⟩
  ⋯
}

As an extreme case, match ⟨value⟩ with { } eliminates a value of type empty. (Exercise: why is thus useful?)

Conditional statement

A conditional statement is written as

if ⟨boolean-value⟩ then ⟨computation₁⟩ else ⟨computation₂⟩

and it has the usual meaning.

Recursive functions

The definition of a recursive function f of type τ → σ is written as

let rec f (p : τ) : σ = ⟨computation⟩
in ⋯

Whether this defines a user or a kernel function depends on σ being a user or a kernel type. Mutual recursive definition are supported:

let rec f₁ (p₁ : τ₁) : σ₁ = ⟨computation₁⟩
    and f₂ (p₂ : τ₂) : σ₂ = ⟨computation₂⟩
    ...
in ⋯

At the top level a global recursive function definition can be given, analogously to a global let-binding.

Caveat: To define a recursive function of several arguments, say f : τ₁ → τ₂ → σ you have to write

let f (x₁ : τ₁) : τ₂ → σ = fun (x₂ : τ_2) → ⋯

The following is not supported:

let f (x₁ : τ₁) (x₂ : τ₂) : σ = ⋯

Raising an exception

An exception exc is raised by

!exc ⟨value⟩

Exception handling

Exception handling takes the form

try
  ⟨computation⟩
with {
| return p → ⋯
| !exc₁ p₁ → ⋯
| !exc₂ p₂ → ⋯
}

The optional return clause handles the value returned by the enveloped ⟨computation⟩. Any exception that is not listed in the with block will pass through it.

User mode

The following computations are specific to user mode:

  • run a computation using a runner
  • kernel context switch

run statement

The comptuation

using ⟨runner⟩ @ ⟨value⟩ run
  ⟨user-comp⟩
finally {
| return p @ p' → ⟨user-comp⟩
| !exc₁ p₁ @ p' → ⟨user-comp₁⟩
| !exc₂ p₂ @ p' → ⟨user-comp₂⟩
  ⋯
| ‼sig₃ p₃ → ⟨user-comp₃⟩
| ‼sig₄ p₄ → ⟨user-comp₄⟩
  ⋯ }

runs a user ⟨user-comp⟩ using the co-operations implemented by the ⟨runner⟩ with initial state ⟨value⟩. The finally clasues handle any exceptions and signals that may occur during the computation, as well as the returned value. Note that the return and exception clasues also get access to the final state, bound by the pattern p'.

Note: The return clause in finally is mandatory, and it must finalize all exceptions and signals that may occur.

It is useful to think of the run statement as a "virtual machine". The inner computation ⟨user-comp⟩ can access external resources only through the co-operations provided by the runner.

The finalization code is guaranteed to execute, unless a co-operation in the ⟨runner⟩ calls an outer operation that is handled by an outer run statement which then send a signal. That is, suppose we have:

using { op₁ x → ⟨kernel-comp₁⟩ } @ v₁ run
  using { op₂ x → ⟨kernel-comp₂⟩ } @ v₂ run
     ⟨user-comp⟩
  finally {
  | return x₁ @ c₁ → ⋯
  | ‼sig₁ y₁ → ⟨user-comp₁⟩ }
finally {
  | return x₂ @ c₂ → ⋯
  | ‼sig₁ y₂ → ⟨user-comp₂⟩ }

The inner finally will be executed unless ⟨kernel-comp₂⟩ calls the operation op₁ upon which ⟨kernel-comp₁⟩ sends a signal. In this case the control will be passed directly to the outer finally.

If you think that an inner finally should get a chance, then you should not be raising a signal but rather throwing an exception.

kernel context switch

It is sometimes necessary to run kernel code inside user mode. The user comptuation

kernel
  ⟨kernel-comp⟩ @ ⟨value⟩
finally { ⋯ }

runs kernel code ⟨kernel-comp⟩ at initial state ⟨value⟩. Any results, exceptions, or signals are finalized using the finally clauses, as in the run statement. The computation ⟨kernel-comp⟩ may call operations. These will propagate outwards through the kernel switch to the closes enveloping run statement.

Kernel mode

The following computations are specific to kernel mode:

  • kill s sends a signal
  • getenv reads the current kernel state
  • setenv ⟨expr⟩ sets the state to ⟨expr⟩
  • user context switch

Kernel state

A kernel computation has access to state with operations getenv and setenv ⟨value⟩, which read and write the state. In a runner the state is shared among the co-operations and initialized in the run statement. The kernel state is also initialized when a kernel computation is executed with thea kernel context switch

The final kernel state is available during finalization in finally clasues for return and excepptions (but not signals) of a run or kernel computation.

Sending a signal

In kernel mode a signal sig is sent with

‼sig ⟨value⟩

Such a signal cannot be caught, but it can be finalized by kernel or run.

user context switch

It is sometimes necessary to run user code inside kernel mode. The kernel computation

user
  ⟨user-comp⟩
with { ⋯ }
| return p → ⋯
| !exc₁ p₁ → ⋯
| !exc₂ p₂ → ⋯
}

The with clauses work the same way as in exception handling. In particular, and non-handled exception will pass through it.

Top-level directives

At the top level the following directives are available:

At the top level, the directives are separated with ;;. The separator may be omitted when the next directive starts with a keyword that allows the parser to tell that a new directive has started.

External values

The top level directive

external x : τ = "⟨name⟩"

binds the variable x to an external value ⟨name⟩ of type τ. The available external values are defined in external.ml.

Containers

A container is a "top level runner" which gives the computations access to actual computational effects. From the point of view of Coop code, containers provide co-operations that return values and raise exceptions, but is unware of any signals that co-operations may send. This is so because an external (OCaml-level) co-operation runs in the "external OCaml monad" where such signals live.

Currently Coop provides three containers, defined in OCaml and bound as external values:

  • pure implements no operations
  • stdio implements basic I/O operations
  • file implements basic file operations

Please consult pervasives.coop for details on the stdio and file containers, as well as the file_operations.coop example.

At the top level you can set the current containers with the directive

container ⟨container₁⟩, …, ⟨containerᵢ⟩

You may use any combination of containers, as long as they have disjoint sets of co-operations.

The initial container is pure, which forces Coop programs to be pure. If you want to use I/O you must first set the stdio container.

Syntax

Coop source code should be saved in files with extension .coop.

The following lexical conventions are in place:

  • Variable names start with lower-case letters.
  • Datatype constructors start with upper-case letters.
  • Coop is case-sensitive.
  • Code need not be properly indented, which is not to say that it should not be.

UTF and ASCII

Source code should be UTF8 encoded. If you do not have convenient ways of entering UTF8 (isn't it kind of said that this is a problem in the 3rd millenium?) then you may use the following ASCII equivalents:

Operator UTF8 ASCII
function type ->
product type × *
runner type =>
signal !!
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