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srsly is a milter-based daemon for Postfix that does SPF verification and supports SRS address rewriting in redirects.


To build srsly you need to install its dependencies:

Having those installed, simply run the following commands.

$ make
# make install

It is also possible to build a Debian package with the command

$ debuild -uc -us


srsly runs in a 2-process configuration: a master process (srslyd) and an unprivileged chrooted slave process (srsly-milter). There is also a control command, the srsly executable.

The master process is responsible for starting srsly-milter and handling requests from the control command. It also works as a proxy for the slave process, performing actions that can't be done from inside a chroot jail and sending their results to the slave.

Running srsly

Before running srsly, you need to prepare its chroot area. The chroot directory is the home directory of the unprivileged user srsly-milter runs as. By default this is the srsly user.

On Linux, srsly-milter requires the following files under the chroot directory, here referred to as $CHROOT. For other operating systems, those requirements will likely be different.

  • $CHROOT/dev/log
  • $CHROOT/etc/hosts
  • $CHROOT/etc/resolv.conf
  • $CHROOT/lib/
  • $CHROOT/lib/libnss_dns*.so
  • $CHROOT/lib/libresolv*.so

You must create the directory structure and copy the above files into their correct location, or use bind-mounts to mirror the system files into the chroot area.

Once the chroot environment is ready, you must configure srsly. Please refer to the srslyd(8), srslyd.conf(5) and srsly(1) manual pages. Afterwards, simply run

# srsly start [/path/to/configuration/file]

to start srsly. If you don't pass a configuration file on the command line, /etc/srsly/srslyd.conf will be assumed.

The Debian package comes with an upstart script which automatically sets up the chroot environment on startup and cleans it up on service shutdown, so the above steps are unneeded. However, for that to work you need to start srsly using the start command from upstart:

# start srsly

To enable srsly in Postfix, add srsly's listen address to the smtpd_milters directive in or in a specific smtpd instance in By default, srsly listens on an IPv4 socket on localhost, port 8387:

smtpd_milters = inet:localhost:8387

Communication with Postfix

In order to decide if a MAIL FROM address needs to be rewritten, srsly needs to determine if the message is a redirect. There is a simple criteria that can be used in that decision: a redirect message is one in which both the envelope sender and envelope recipient are not local to the SMTP server.

While this is a simple decision in principle, things are not that easy in practice. One of the difficulties of testing whether a given address is local or remote from the point of view of the SMTP server is that Postfix supports a large number of different databases that can be queried in order to perform address translations, including text files, regular expression tables, SQL and LDAP queries, among others. Therefore, in order to provide a solution that works on every possible Postfix configuration, one would be forced to implement different connectors for each of the databases supported by Postfix.

The approach taken by srsly is more pragmatic, if not officially supported by Postfix. In order to allow its multiple processes to communicate, Postfix creates a number of UNIX sockets in the private directory located in its own chroot area. One of these sockets, proxymap, can be used for querying any of the multiple database types supported by Postfix, using a protocol that is well documented in the Postfix source code.

Therefore, in order to test if an email address is local, srsly will recursively query Postfix via the proxymap socket until a final destination is reached. If that final destination matches a regular expression configured in srsly's configuration file, the address will be considered to be local.

Ideally, a "libpostmap" library would allow an application to perform the same queries done by the postmap command from Postfix without having to provide specific support for multiple databases. Until such a library is available, srsly will use the approach described above.

While the proxymap query protocol is well documented, srsly provides a number of directives in the proxymap section of its configuration file (query_format, query_flags, query_socket, result_format and result_value_separator) that allow one to change the way queries are made and results are parsed. This provides some flexibility against possible changes in the Postfix query protocol without the need of recompiling srsly. Please see srslyd.conf(5) for more details on the above configuration directives.

SRS edge cases

The use of SRS results in a number of edge cases which arise in the case of a message with multiple recipients. Those edge cases are illustrated in a generic example below. Similar situations that occur in different setups can be considered variations of this example.

In this example, the local*.com domains are local to the SMTP server, while any other domain is remote.

Consider an email sent from to and Assume that the following redirect table is configured in Postfix:

  • translates to and to a local mail box;
  • translates to and to

The final result of the translations performed by Postfix will result in the following deliveries (without considering SRS for now):

  1. A message from to (local delivery);
  2. A message from to and;
  3. A message from to

With regards to SRS, two issues can be identified from the situation described above. Case 1 doesn't need SRS because it's not a redirect, but there's no way a milter application can force delivery to be split in order to avoid performing address rewrites in some of them. Case 2 results in a single message sent in one SMTP session, but this message is the result of redirections performed by two different domains. Which of the domains should be used by SRS to rewrite the sender address,

One possibility is to dumb down Postfix, forcing it to perform delivery to at most one destination at a time. There are a number of issues with this approach, the most important of them being the creation of a delivery bottleneck. Thus this approach cannot be recommended.

The issue of choosing the correct forward domain for SRS is usually solved in other implementations in a trivial way: a single forward domain is configured and used for rewriting on every redirection. While this works, it makes a server that hosts multiple domains vulnerable: if one of those domains uses the service to send spam, the SRS forward domain could end up in a blacklist that would affect every other domain performing redirections in this server.

It becomes clear then that there's no perfect solution for these SRS edge cases. Here's the approach taken by srsly.

With regards to case 1 above, srsly will apply SRS even to the local delivery. While this is not necessary, it should cause no issues either. The more complicated scenario is the one of choosing a forward domain. In the example above, we can observe the following:

  • translates to one remote address and to one local address;
  • translates to two remote addresses.

In order to decide which forward domain to use, srsly will take a probabilistic decision, choosing either or randomly. This decision is weighted by the number of unique remote destinations that result from the address translations performed on the original recipients of the message. As noted above, translates to one remote address while ``y@local2.comtranslates to two remote addresses. This means` will be the forward domain with probability 1/3, while `` will be chosen with probability 2/3.

While the probabilistic decision can result in "weird" rewrites (for example, the message from to could have its MAIL FROM address rewritten by SRS using the domain, which was never involved in sending any messages to in the first place), these rewrites are correct from the point of view of SPF, which will see in the return-path a domain that has lists the MTA as an allowed server. They are, in fact, no different in this regard than the usual scheme of using a single forward domain for every redirect, with the added benefit of making it less likely that a domain will end up in a blacklist due to misuse by malicious forwarders, because it will not be chosen for rewriting on every redirection.