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/*
* Copyright (C) 2008 The Android Open Source Project
*
* Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
* you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
* You may obtain a copy of the License at
*
* http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
*
* Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
* distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
* WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
* See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
* limitations under the License.
*/
/*
* Miscellaneous utility functions.
*/
#include "Dalvik.h"
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stddef.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <strings.h>
#include <ctype.h>
#include <time.h>
#include <sys/time.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <cutils/ashmem.h>
#include <sys/mman.h>
/*
* Print a hex dump in this format:
*
01234567: 00 11 22 33 44 55 66 77 88 99 aa bb cc dd ee ff 0123456789abcdef\n
*
* If "mode" is kHexDumpLocal, we start at offset zero, and show a full
* 16 bytes on the first line. If it's kHexDumpMem, we make this look
* like a memory dump, using the actual address, outputting a partial line
* if "vaddr" isn't aligned on a 16-byte boundary.
*
* "priority" and "tag" determine the values passed to the log calls.
*
* Does not use printf() or other string-formatting calls.
*/
void dvmPrintHexDumpEx(int priority, const char* tag, const void* vaddr,
size_t length, HexDumpMode mode)
{
static const char gHexDigit[] = "0123456789abcdef";
const unsigned char* addr = (const unsigned char*)vaddr;
char out[77]; /* exact fit */
unsigned int offset; /* offset to show while printing */
char* hex;
char* asc;
int gap;
//int trickle = 0;
if (mode == kHexDumpLocal)
offset = 0;
else
offset = (int) addr;
memset(out, ' ', sizeof(out)-1);
out[8] = ':';
out[sizeof(out)-2] = '\n';
out[sizeof(out)-1] = '\0';
gap = (int) offset & 0x0f;
while (length) {
unsigned int lineOffset = offset & ~0x0f;
int i, count;
hex = out;
asc = out + 59;
for (i = 0; i < 8; i++) {
*hex++ = gHexDigit[lineOffset >> 28];
lineOffset <<= 4;
}
hex++;
hex++;
count = ((int)length > 16-gap) ? 16-gap : (int)length; /* cap length */
assert(count != 0);
assert(count+gap <= 16);
if (gap) {
/* only on first line */
hex += gap * 3;
asc += gap;
}
for (i = gap ; i < count+gap; i++) {
*hex++ = gHexDigit[*addr >> 4];
*hex++ = gHexDigit[*addr & 0x0f];
hex++;
if (*addr >= 0x20 && *addr < 0x7f /*isprint(*addr)*/)
*asc++ = *addr;
else
*asc++ = '.';
addr++;
}
for ( ; i < 16; i++) {
/* erase extra stuff; only happens on last line */
*hex++ = ' ';
*hex++ = ' ';
hex++;
*asc++ = ' ';
}
LOG_PRI(priority, tag, "%s", out);
#if 0 //def HAVE_ANDROID_OS
/*
* We can overrun logcat easily by writing at full speed. On the
* other hand, we can make Eclipse time out if we're showing
* packet dumps while debugging JDWP.
*/
{
if (trickle++ == 8) {
trickle = 0;
usleep(20000);
}
}
#endif
gap = 0;
length -= count;
offset += count;
}
}
/*
* Fill out a DebugOutputTarget, suitable for printing to the log.
*/
void dvmCreateLogOutputTarget(DebugOutputTarget* target, int priority,
const char* tag)
{
assert(target != NULL);
assert(tag != NULL);
target->which = kDebugTargetLog;
target->data.log.priority = priority;
target->data.log.tag = tag;
}
/*
* Fill out a DebugOutputTarget suitable for printing to a file pointer.
*/
void dvmCreateFileOutputTarget(DebugOutputTarget* target, FILE* fp)
{
assert(target != NULL);
assert(fp != NULL);
target->which = kDebugTargetFile;
target->data.file.fp = fp;
}
/*
* Free "target" and any associated data.
*/
void dvmFreeOutputTarget(DebugOutputTarget* target)
{
free(target);
}
/*
* Print a debug message, to either a file or the log.
*/
void dvmPrintDebugMessage(const DebugOutputTarget* target, const char* format,
...)
{
va_list args;
va_start(args, format);
switch (target->which) {
case kDebugTargetLog:
LOG_PRI_VA(target->data.log.priority, target->data.log.tag,
format, args);
break;
case kDebugTargetFile:
vfprintf(target->data.file.fp, format, args);
break;
default:
ALOGE("unexpected 'which' %d", target->which);
break;
}
va_end(args);
}
/*
* Return a newly-allocated string in which all occurrences of '.' have
* been changed to '/'. If we find a '/' in the original string, NULL
* is returned to avoid ambiguity.
*/
char* dvmDotToSlash(const char* str)
{
char* newStr = strdup(str);
char* cp = newStr;
if (newStr == NULL)
return NULL;
while (*cp != '\0') {
if (*cp == '/') {
assert(false);
return NULL;
}
if (*cp == '.')
*cp = '/';
cp++;
}
return newStr;
}
std::string dvmHumanReadableDescriptor(const char* descriptor) {
// Count the number of '['s to get the dimensionality.
const char* c = descriptor;
size_t dim = 0;
while (*c == '[') {
dim++;
c++;
}
// Reference or primitive?
if (*c == 'L') {
// "[[La/b/C;" -> "a.b.C[][]".
c++; // Skip the 'L'.
} else {
// "[[B" -> "byte[][]".
// To make life easier, we make primitives look like unqualified
// reference types.
switch (*c) {
case 'B': c = "byte;"; break;
case 'C': c = "char;"; break;
case 'D': c = "double;"; break;
case 'F': c = "float;"; break;
case 'I': c = "int;"; break;
case 'J': c = "long;"; break;
case 'S': c = "short;"; break;
case 'Z': c = "boolean;"; break;
default: return descriptor;
}
}
// At this point, 'c' is a string of the form "fully/qualified/Type;"
// or "primitive;". Rewrite the type with '.' instead of '/':
std::string result;
const char* p = c;
while (*p != ';') {
char ch = *p++;
if (ch == '/') {
ch = '.';
}
result.push_back(ch);
}
// ...and replace the semicolon with 'dim' "[]" pairs:
while (dim--) {
result += "[]";
}
return result;
}
std::string dvmHumanReadableType(const Object* obj)
{
if (obj == NULL) {
return "null";
}
if (obj->clazz == NULL) {
/* should only be possible right after a plain dvmMalloc() */
return "(raw)";
}
std::string result(dvmHumanReadableDescriptor(obj->clazz->descriptor));
if (dvmIsClassObject(obj)) {
const ClassObject* clazz = reinterpret_cast<const ClassObject*>(obj);
result += "<" + dvmHumanReadableDescriptor(clazz->descriptor) + ">";
}
return result;
}
std::string dvmHumanReadableField(const Field* field)
{
if (field == NULL) {
return "(null)";
}
std::string result(dvmHumanReadableDescriptor(field->clazz->descriptor));
result += '.';
result += field->name;
return result;
}
std::string dvmHumanReadableMethod(const Method* method, bool withSignature)
{
if (method == NULL) {
return "(null)";
}
std::string result(dvmHumanReadableDescriptor(method->clazz->descriptor));
result += '.';
result += method->name;
if (withSignature) {
// TODO: the types in this aren't human readable!
char* signature = dexProtoCopyMethodDescriptor(&method->prototype);
result += signature;
free(signature);
}
return result;
}
/*
* Return a newly-allocated string for the "dot version" of the class
* name for the given type descriptor. That is, The initial "L" and
* final ";" (if any) have been removed and all occurrences of '/'
* have been changed to '.'.
*
* "Dot version" names are used in the class loading machinery.
* See also dvmHumanReadableDescriptor.
*/
char* dvmDescriptorToDot(const char* str)
{
size_t at = strlen(str);
char* newStr;
if ((at >= 2) && (str[0] == 'L') && (str[at - 1] == ';')) {
at -= 2; /* Two fewer chars to copy. */
str++; /* Skip the 'L'. */
}
newStr = (char*)malloc(at + 1); /* Add one for the '\0'. */
if (newStr == NULL)
return NULL;
newStr[at] = '\0';
while (at > 0) {
at--;
newStr[at] = (str[at] == '/') ? '.' : str[at];
}
return newStr;
}
/*
* Return a newly-allocated string for the type descriptor
* corresponding to the "dot version" of the given class name. That
* is, non-array names are surrounded by "L" and ";", and all
* occurrences of '.' have been changed to '/'.
*
* "Dot version" names are used in the class loading machinery.
*/
char* dvmDotToDescriptor(const char* str)
{
size_t length = strlen(str);
int wrapElSemi = 0;
char* newStr;
char* at;
if (str[0] != '[') {
length += 2; /* for "L" and ";" */
wrapElSemi = 1;
}
newStr = at = (char*)malloc(length + 1); /* + 1 for the '\0' */
if (newStr == NULL) {
return NULL;
}
if (wrapElSemi) {
*(at++) = 'L';
}
while (*str) {
char c = *(str++);
if (c == '.') {
c = '/';
}
*(at++) = c;
}
if (wrapElSemi) {
*(at++) = ';';
}
*at = '\0';
return newStr;
}
/*
* Return a newly-allocated string for the internal-form class name for
* the given type descriptor. That is, the initial "L" and final ";" (if
* any) have been removed.
*/
char* dvmDescriptorToName(const char* str)
{
if (str[0] == 'L') {
size_t length = strlen(str) - 1;
char* newStr = (char*)malloc(length);
if (newStr == NULL) {
return NULL;
}
strlcpy(newStr, str + 1, length);
return newStr;
}
return strdup(str);
}
/*
* Return a newly-allocated string for the type descriptor for the given
* internal-form class name. That is, a non-array class name will get
* surrounded by "L" and ";", while array names are left as-is.
*/
char* dvmNameToDescriptor(const char* str)
{
if (str[0] != '[') {
size_t length = strlen(str);
char* descriptor = (char*)malloc(length + 3);
if (descriptor == NULL) {
return NULL;
}
descriptor[0] = 'L';
strcpy(descriptor + 1, str);
descriptor[length + 1] = ';';
descriptor[length + 2] = '\0';
return descriptor;
}
return strdup(str);
}
/*
* Get a notion of the current time, in nanoseconds. This is meant for
* computing durations (e.g. "operation X took 52nsec"), so the result
* should not be used to get the current date/time.
*/
u8 dvmGetRelativeTimeNsec()
{
#ifdef HAVE_POSIX_CLOCKS
struct timespec now;
clock_gettime(CLOCK_MONOTONIC, &now);
return (u8)now.tv_sec*1000000000LL + now.tv_nsec;
#else
struct timeval now;
gettimeofday(&now, NULL);
return (u8)now.tv_sec*1000000000LL + now.tv_usec * 1000LL;
#endif
}
/*
* Get the per-thread CPU time, in nanoseconds.
*
* Only useful for time deltas.
*/
u8 dvmGetThreadCpuTimeNsec()
{
#ifdef HAVE_POSIX_CLOCKS
struct timespec now;
clock_gettime(CLOCK_THREAD_CPUTIME_ID, &now);
return (u8)now.tv_sec*1000000000LL + now.tv_nsec;
#else
return (u8) -1;
#endif
}
/*
* Get the per-thread CPU time, in nanoseconds, for the specified thread.
*/
u8 dvmGetOtherThreadCpuTimeNsec(pthread_t thread)
{
#if 0 /*def HAVE_POSIX_CLOCKS*/
int clockId;
if (pthread_getcpuclockid(thread, &clockId) != 0)
return (u8) -1;
struct timespec now;
clock_gettime(clockId, &now);
return (u8)now.tv_sec*1000000000LL + now.tv_nsec;
#else
return (u8) -1;
#endif
}
/*
* Call this repeatedly, with successively higher values for "iteration",
* to sleep for a period of time not to exceed "maxTotalSleep".
*
* For example, when called with iteration==0 we will sleep for a very
* brief time. On the next call we will sleep for a longer time. When
* the sum total of all sleeps reaches "maxTotalSleep", this returns false.
*
* The initial start time value for "relStartTime" MUST come from the
* dvmGetRelativeTimeUsec call. On the device this must come from the
* monotonic clock source, not the wall clock.
*
* This should be used wherever you might be tempted to call sched_yield()
* in a loop. The problem with sched_yield is that, for a high-priority
* thread, the kernel might not actually transfer control elsewhere.
*
* Returns "false" if we were unable to sleep because our time was up.
*/
bool dvmIterativeSleep(int iteration, int maxTotalSleep, u8 relStartTime)
{
/*
* Minimum sleep is one millisecond, it is important to keep this value
* low to ensure short GC pauses since dvmSuspendAllThreads() uses this
* function.
*/
const int minSleep = 1000;
u8 curTime;
int curDelay;
/*
* Get current time, and see if we've already exceeded the limit.
*/
curTime = dvmGetRelativeTimeUsec();
if (curTime >= relStartTime + maxTotalSleep) {
LOGVV("exsl: sleep exceeded (start=%llu max=%d now=%llu)",
relStartTime, maxTotalSleep, curTime);
return false;
}
/*
* Compute current delay. We're bounded by "maxTotalSleep", so no
* real risk of overflow assuming "usleep" isn't returning early.
* (Besides, 2^30 usec is about 18 minutes by itself.)
*
* For iteration==0 we just call sched_yield(), so the first sleep
* at iteration==1 is actually (minSleep * 2).
*/
curDelay = minSleep;
while (iteration-- > 0)
curDelay *= 2;
assert(curDelay > 0);
if (curTime + curDelay >= relStartTime + maxTotalSleep) {
LOGVV("exsl: reduced delay from %d to %d",
curDelay, (int) ((relStartTime + maxTotalSleep) - curTime));
curDelay = (int) ((relStartTime + maxTotalSleep) - curTime);
}
if (iteration == 0) {
LOGVV("exsl: yield");
sched_yield();
} else {
LOGVV("exsl: sleep for %d", curDelay);
usleep(curDelay);
}
return true;
}
/*
* Set the "close on exec" flag so we don't expose our file descriptors
* to processes launched by us.
*/
bool dvmSetCloseOnExec(int fd)
{
int flags;
/*
* There's presently only one flag defined, so getting the previous
* value of the fd flags is probably unnecessary.
*/
flags = fcntl(fd, F_GETFD);
if (flags < 0) {
ALOGW("Unable to get fd flags for fd %d", fd);
return false;
}
if (fcntl(fd, F_SETFD, flags | FD_CLOEXEC) < 0) {
ALOGW("Unable to set close-on-exec for fd %d", fd);
return false;
}
return true;
}
#if (!HAVE_STRLCPY)
/* Implementation of strlcpy() for platforms that don't already have it. */
size_t strlcpy(char *dst, const char *src, size_t size) {
size_t srcLength = strlen(src);
size_t copyLength = srcLength;
if (srcLength > (size - 1)) {
copyLength = size - 1;
}
if (size != 0) {
strncpy(dst, src, copyLength);
dst[copyLength] = '\0';
}
return srcLength;
}
#endif
/*
* Allocates a memory region using ashmem and mmap, initialized to
* zero. Actual allocation rounded up to page multiple. Returns
* NULL on failure.
*/
void *dvmAllocRegion(size_t byteCount, int prot, const char *name) {
void *base;
int fd, ret;
byteCount = ALIGN_UP_TO_PAGE_SIZE(byteCount);
fd = ashmem_create_region(name, byteCount);
if (fd == -1) {
return NULL;
}
base = mmap(NULL, byteCount, prot, MAP_PRIVATE, fd, 0);
ret = close(fd);
if (base == MAP_FAILED) {
return NULL;
}
if (ret == -1) {
return NULL;
}
return base;
}
/*
* Get some per-thread stats.
*
* This is currently generated by opening the appropriate "stat" file
* in /proc and reading the pile of stuff that comes out.
*/
bool dvmGetThreadStats(ProcStatData* pData, pid_t tid)
{
/*
int pid;
char comm[128];
char state;
int ppid, pgrp, session, tty_nr, tpgid;
unsigned long flags, minflt, cminflt, majflt, cmajflt, utime, stime;
long cutime, cstime, priority, nice, zero, itrealvalue;
unsigned long starttime, vsize;
long rss;
unsigned long rlim, startcode, endcode, startstack, kstkesp, kstkeip;
unsigned long signal, blocked, sigignore, sigcatch, wchan, nswap, cnswap;
int exit_signal, processor;
unsigned long rt_priority, policy;
scanf("%d %s %c %d %d %d %d %d %lu %lu %lu %lu %lu %lu %lu %ld %ld %ld "
"%ld %ld %ld %lu %lu %ld %lu %lu %lu %lu %lu %lu %lu %lu %lu %lu "
"%lu %lu %lu %d %d %lu %lu",
&pid, comm, &state, &ppid, &pgrp, &session, &tty_nr, &tpgid,
&flags, &minflt, &cminflt, &majflt, &cmajflt, &utime, &stime,
&cutime, &cstime, &priority, &nice, &zero, &itrealvalue,
&starttime, &vsize, &rss, &rlim, &startcode, &endcode,
&startstack, &kstkesp, &kstkeip, &signal, &blocked, &sigignore,
&sigcatch, &wchan, &nswap, &cnswap, &exit_signal, &processor,
&rt_priority, &policy);
(new: delayacct_blkio_ticks %llu (since Linux 2.6.18))
*/
char nameBuf[64];
int i, fd;
/*
* Open and read the appropriate file. This is expected to work on
* Linux but will fail on other platforms (e.g. Mac sim).
*/
sprintf(nameBuf, "/proc/self/task/%d/stat", (int) tid);
fd = open(nameBuf, O_RDONLY);
if (fd < 0) {
ALOGV("Unable to open '%s': %s", nameBuf, strerror(errno));
return false;
}
char lineBuf[512]; /* > 2x typical */
int cc = read(fd, lineBuf, sizeof(lineBuf)-1);
if (cc <= 0) {
const char* msg = (cc == 0) ? "unexpected EOF" : strerror(errno);
ALOGI("Unable to read '%s': %s", nameBuf, msg);
close(fd);
return false;
}
close(fd);
lineBuf[cc] = '\0';
/*
* Skip whitespace-separated tokens. For the most part we can assume
* that tokens do not contain spaces, and are separated by exactly one
* space character. The only exception is the second field ("comm")
* which may contain spaces but is surrounded by parenthesis.
*/
char* cp = strchr(lineBuf, ')');
if (cp == NULL)
goto parse_fail;
cp += 2;
pData->state = *cp++;
for (i = 3; i < 13; i++) {
cp = strchr(cp+1, ' ');
if (cp == NULL)
goto parse_fail;
}
/*
* Grab utime/stime.
*/
char* endp;
pData->utime = strtoul(cp+1, &endp, 10);
if (endp == cp+1)
ALOGI("Warning: strtoul failed on utime ('%.30s...')", cp);
cp = strchr(cp+1, ' ');
if (cp == NULL)
goto parse_fail;
pData->stime = strtoul(cp+1, &endp, 10);
if (endp == cp+1)
ALOGI("Warning: strtoul failed on stime ('%.30s...')", cp);
/*
* Skip more stuff we don't care about.
*/
for (i = 14; i < 38; i++) {
cp = strchr(cp+1, ' ');
if (cp == NULL)
goto parse_fail;
}
/*
* Grab processor number.
*/
pData->processor = strtol(cp+1, &endp, 10);
if (endp == cp+1)
ALOGI("Warning: strtoul failed on processor ('%.30s...')", cp);
return true;
parse_fail:
ALOGI("stat parse failed (%s)", lineBuf);
return false;
}
/* documented in header file */
const char* dvmPathToAbsolutePortion(const char* path) {
if (path == NULL) {
return NULL;
}
if (path[0] == '/') {
/* It's a regular absolute path. Return it. */
return path;
}
const char* sentinel = strstr(path, "/./");
if (sentinel != NULL) {
/* It's got the sentinel. Return a pointer to the second slash. */
return sentinel + 2;
}
return NULL;
}
// From RE2.
void StringAppendV(std::string* dst, const char* format, va_list ap) {
// First try with a small fixed size buffer
char space[1024];
// It's possible for methods that use a va_list to invalidate
// the data in it upon use. The fix is to make a copy
// of the structure before using it and use that copy instead.
va_list backup_ap;
va_copy(backup_ap, ap);
int result = vsnprintf(space, sizeof(space), format, backup_ap);
va_end(backup_ap);
if ((result >= 0) && ((size_t) result < sizeof(space))) {
// It fit
dst->append(space, result);
return;
}
// Repeatedly increase buffer size until it fits
int length = sizeof(space);
while (true) {
if (result < 0) {
// Older behavior: just try doubling the buffer size
length *= 2;
} else {
// We need exactly "result+1" characters
length = result+1;
}
char* buf = new char[length];
// Restore the va_list before we use it again
va_copy(backup_ap, ap);
result = vsnprintf(buf, length, format, backup_ap);
va_end(backup_ap);
if ((result >= 0) && (result < length)) {
// It fit
dst->append(buf, result);
delete[] buf;
return;
}
delete[] buf;
}
}
std::string StringPrintf(const char* fmt, ...) {
va_list ap;
va_start(ap, fmt);
std::string result;
StringAppendV(&result, fmt, ap);
va_end(ap);
return result;
}
void StringAppendF(std::string* dst, const char* format, ...) {
va_list ap;
va_start(ap, format);
StringAppendV(dst, format, ap);
va_end(ap);
}
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