Timeouts for popular Ruby gems
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README.md

The Ultimate Guide to Ruby Timeouts

An unresponsive service can be worse than a down one. It can tie up your entire system if not handled properly. All network requests should have a timeout.

Here’s how to add timeouts for popular Ruby gems. All have been tested. You should avoid Ruby’s Timeout module. The default is no timeout, unless otherwise specified. Enjoy!

Build Status

Timeout Types

  • connect (or open) - time to open the connection
  • read (or receive) - time to receive data after connected
  • write (or send) - time to send data after connected
  • checkout - time to checkout a connection from the pool
  • statement - time to execute a database statement

Statement Timeouts

For many apps, the single most important thing to do (if you use a relational database)

Gems

Data Stores

HTTP Clients

Web Servers

Rack Middleware

3rd Party Services

Other

Statement Timeouts

Prevent single queries from taking up all of your database’s resources.

PostgreSQL

If you use Rails, add to your config/database.yml

production:
  variables:
    statement_timeout: 250 # ms

or set it on your database role

ALTER ROLE myuser SET statement_timeout = 250;

Test with

SELECT pg_sleep(5);

To set for a single transaction, use

BEGIN;
SET LOCAL statement_timeout = 250;
...
COMMIT;

MySQL

Note: Requires MySQL 5.7.8 or higher

If you use Rails, add to your config/database.yml

production:
  variables:
    max_execution_time: 250 # ms

or set it directly on each connection

SET SESSION max_execution_time = 250;

Test with

SELECT 1 FROM information_schema.tables WHERE sleep(5);

To set for a single statement, use an optimizer hint

SELECT /*+ MAX_EXECUTION_TIME(250) */ ...

MariaDB

Note: Requires MariaDB 10.1.1 or higher

If you use Rails, add to your config/database.yml

production:
  variables:
    max_statement_time: 1 # sec

or set it directly on each connection

SET SESSION max_statement_time = 1;

Test with

SELECT 1 FROM information_schema.tables WHERE sleep(5);

As of MariaDB 10.1.2, you can set single statement timeouts with

SET STATEMENT max_statement_time=1 FOR
  SELECT ...

Official docs

Data Stores

activerecord

  • postgres adapter

    ActiveRecord::Base.establish_connection(connect_timeout: 1, checkout_timeout: 1, ...)

    or in config/database.yml

    production:
      connect_timeout: 1
      checkout_timeout: 1

    Raises

    • PG::ConnectionBad on connect and read timeouts
    • ActiveRecord::ConnectionTimeoutError on checkout timeout

    See also PostgreSQL statement timeouts

  • mysql2 adapter

    ActiveRecord::Base.establish_connection(connect_timeout: 1, read_timeout: 1, write_timeout: 1, checkout_timeout: 1, ...)

    or in config/database.yml

    production:
      connect_timeout: 1
      read_timeout: 1
      write_timeout: 1
      checkout_timeout: 1

    Raises

    • Mysql2::Error on connect and read timeouts
    • ActiveRecord::ConnectionTimeoutError on checkout timeout

    See also MySQL statement timeouts

bunny

Bunny.new(connection_timeout: 1, read_timeout: 1, ...)

Raises

  • Bunny::TCPConnectionFailedForAllHosts on connect timeout
  • Bunny::NetworkFailure on read timeout

cassandra-driver

Cassandra.cluster(connect_timeout: 1, timeout: 1)

Default: 10s connect timeout, 12s read timeout

Raises

  • Cassandra::Errors::NoHostsAvailable on connect timeout
  • Cassandra::Errors::TimeoutError on read timeout

connection_pool

ConnectionPool.new(timeout: 1) { ... }

Raises Timeout::Error

couchrest

CouchRest.new(url, open_timeout: 1, read_timeout: 1, timeout: 1)

Raises

  • HTTPClient::ConnectTimeoutError on connect timeout
  • HTTPClient::ReceiveTimeoutError on read timeout

dalli

Dalli::Client.new(host, socket_timeout: 1, ...)

Default: 0.5s

Raises Dalli::RingError

drill-sergeant

Drill.new(url: url, open_timeout: 1, read_timeout: 1)

Default: 3s connect timeout, no read timeout

Raises

  • Net::OpenTimeout on connect timeout
  • Net::ReadTimeout on read timeout

elasticsearch

Elasticsearch::Client.new(transport_options: {request: {timeout: 1}}, ...)

Raises

  • Faraday::ConnectionFailed on connect timeout
  • Faraday::TimeoutError on read timeout

hiredis

conn = Hiredis::Connection.new
conn.timeout = 1_000_000 # microseconds

Raises

  • Errno::ETIMEDOUT on connect timeout
  • Errno::EAGAIN on read timeout

influxdb

InfluxDB::Client.new(open_timeout: 1, read_timeout: 1)

Raises InfluxDB::ConnectionError

mongo

Mongo::Client.new([host], connect_timeout: 1, socket_timeout: 1, server_selection_timeout: 1, ...)

Raises Mongo::Error::NoServerAvailable

mongoid

production:
  clients:
    default:
      options:
        connect_timeout: 1
        socket_timeout: 1
        server_selection_timeout: 1

Raises Mongo::Error::NoServerAvailable

mysql2

Mysql2::Client.new(connect_timeout: 1, read_timeout: 1, write_timeout: 1, ...)

Raises Mysql2::Error

neo4j

config.neo4j.session.options = {
  faraday_configurator: lambda do |faraday|
    faraday.adapter :typhoeus
    faraday.options[:open_timeout] = 5
    faraday.options[:timeout] = 65
  end
}

Raises Faraday::TimeoutError

pg

PG.connect(connect_timeout: 1, ...)

Raises PG::ConnectionBad

presto-client

Presto::Client.new(http_open_timeout: 1, http_timeout: 1)

Raises

  • Faraday::ConnectionFailed on connect timeout
  • Faraday::TimeoutError on read timeout

redis

Redis.new(connect_timeout: 1, timeout: 1, ...)

Default: 5s

Raises

  • Redis::CannotConnectError on connect timeout
  • Redis::TimeoutError on read timeout

rsolr

RSolr.connect(open_timeout: 1, read_timeout: 1)

Raises

  • RSolr::Error::ConnectionRefused on connect timeout
  • RSolr::Error::Http on read timeout

ruby-druid

Not configurable at the moment

Default: 10s connect timeout, no read timeout

ruby-kafka

Kafka.new(connect_timeout: 1, socket_timeout: 1)

Raises Kafka::ConnectionError

searchkick

Searchkick.timeout = 1
Searchkick.search_timeout = 1

Default: 10s

Raises same exceptions as elasticsearch

sequel

  • postgres adapter

    Sequel.connect(connect_timeout: 1, pool_timeout: 1, ...)
    • Sequel::DatabaseConnectionError on connect and read timeouts
    • Sequel::PoolTimeout on checkout timeout
  • mysql2 adapter

    Sequel.connect(timeout: 1, read_timeout: 1, connect_timeout: 1, pool_timeout: 1, ...)

    Raises

    • Sequel::DatabaseConnectionError on connect and read timeouts
    • Sequel::PoolTimeout on checkout timeout

HTTP Clients

curb

curl = Curl::Easy.new(url)
curl.connect_timeout = 1
curl.timeout = 1
curl.perform

Raises Curl::Err::TimeoutError

em-http-client

EventMachine.run do
  http = EventMachine::HttpRequest.new(url, connect_timeout: 1, inactivity_timeout: 1).get
  http.errback  { http.error }
end

No exception is raised, but http.error is set to Errno::ETIMEDOUT in http.errback.

excon

Excon.get(url, connect_timeout: 1, read_timeout: 1, write_timeout: 1)

Raises Excon::Errors::Timeout

faraday

Faraday.get(url) do |req|
  req.options.open_timeout = 1
  req.options.timeout = 1
end

or

Faraday.new(url, request: {open_timeout: 1, timeout: 1}) do |faraday|
  # ...
end

Raises

  • Faraday::ConnectionFailed on connect timeout
  • Faraday::TimeoutError on read timeout

http

HTTP.timeout(connect: 1, read: 1, write: 1).get(url)

Raises HTTP::TimeoutError

httparty

HTTParty.get(url, timeout: 1)

Raises

  • Net::OpenTimeout on connect timeout
  • Net::ReadTimeout on read timeout

httpclient

client = HTTPClient.new
client.connect_timeout = 1
client.receive_timeout = 1
client.send_timeout = 1
client.get(url)

Raises

  • HTTPClient::ConnectTimeoutError on connect timeout
  • HTTPClient::ReceiveTimeoutError on read timeout

httpi

HTTPI::Request.new(url: url, open_timeout: 1)

Raises same errors as underlying client

net/http

Net::HTTP.start(host, port, open_timeout: 1, read_timeout: 1) do
  # ...
end

or

http = Net::HTTP.new(host, port)
http.open_timeout = 1
http.read_timeout = 1

Raises

  • Net::OpenTimeout on connect timeout
  • Net::ReadTimeout on read timeout

Default: 60s connect timeout (Ruby 2.3+), 60s read timeout

Write timeout is infinite, presently can't be set.

Note: Read timeouts are retried automatically

open-uri

open(url, open_timeout: 1, read_timeout: 1)

Raises

  • Net::OpenTimeout on connect timeout
  • Net::ReadTimeout on read timeout

Note that open-uri didn't support (and so didn't pass to underlying net/http) the :open_timeout argument until Ruby 2.2.

patron

sess = Patron::Session.new
sess.connect_timeout = 1
sess.timeout = 1

Raises Patron::TimeoutError

rest-client

RestClient::Request.execute(method: :get, url: url, open_timeout: 1, read_timeout: 1)

# shorthand to set open_timeout = read_timeout = 1
RestClient::Request.execute(method: :get, url: url, timeout: 1)

Same options also work with RestClient::Resource.

Raises

  • RestClient::Exceptions::OpenTimeout on connect timeout
  • RestClient::Exceptions::ReadTimeout on read timeout

Default: 60s connect timeout (Ruby 2.3+), 60s read timeout

typhoeus

response = Typhoeus.get(url, connecttimeout: 1, timeout: 1)

No exception is raised. Check for a timeout with

response.timed_out?

unirest

Unirest.timeout(1)

Connect timeout is not configurable

Default: 10s read timeout, no connect timeout

Raises RuntimeError

Web Servers

puma

# config/puma.rb
worker_timeout 15

Default: 30s

This kills and respawns the worker process. Note that this is for the worker and not threads. This isn’t a request timeout either. Use Rack middleware for request timeouts.

# config/puma.rb
worker_shutdown_timeout 8

Default: 60s

This causes Puma to send a SIGKILL signal to a worker if it hasn’t shutdown within the specified time period after having received a SIGTERM signal.

unicorn

# config/unicorn.rb
timeout 15

Default: 60s

This kills and respawns the worker process.

It’s recommended to use this in addition to Rack middleware.

Rack Middleware

rack-timeout

Rack::Timeout.timeout = 5
Rack::Timeout.wait_timeout = 5

Default: 15s service timeout, 30s wait timeout

Raises Rack::Timeout::RequestTimeoutError or Rack::Timeout::RequestExpiryError

Read more here

Note: The approach used by Rack::Timeout can leave your application in an inconsistent state, as described here

slowpoke

Slowpoke.timeout = 5

Default: 15s

Raises same exceptions as rack-timeout

3rd Party Services

aws-sdk

Aws.config = {
  http_open_timeout: 1,
  http_read_timeout: 1
}

Or with a client

Aws::S3::Client.new(
  http_open_timeout: 1,
  http_read_timeout: 1
)

Raises Seahorse::Client::NetworkingError

azure

Not configurable at the moment, and no timeout by default

bitly

Bitly.new(username, api_key, timeout)

Raises BitlyTimeout

checkr-official

Default: 30s connect timeout, 60s read timeout

Not configurable at the moment

coinbase

Not configurable at the moment

dogapi

timeout = 1
Dogapi::Client.new(api_key, nil, nil, nil, false, timeout)

Raises

  • Net::OpenTimeout on connect timeout
  • Net::ReadTimeout on read timeout

droplet_kit

Not configurable at the moment, and no timeout by default

fastly

Not configurable at the moment, and no timeout by default

firebase

firebase = Firebase::Client.new(url)
firebase.request.connect_timeout = 1
firebase.request.receive_timeout = 1
firebase.request.send_timeout = 1

Raises

  • HTTPClient::ConnectTimeoutError on connect timeout
  • HTTPClient::ReceiveTimeoutError on read timeout

gibbon

Gibbon::Request.new(open_timeout: 1, timeout: 1, ...)

Raises Gibbon::MailChimpError

github_api

Github.new(connection_options: {request: {open_timeout: 1, timeout: 1}})

Raises

  • Faraday::ConnectionFailed on connect timeout
  • Faraday::TimeoutError on read timeout

google-cloud

Google::Cloud::Storage.new(timeout: 1)

Raises Google::Cloud::Error

hipchat

[HipChat::Client, HipChat::Room, HipChat::User].each { |c| c.default_timeout(1) }

Raises

  • Net::OpenTimeout on connect timeout
  • Net::ReadTimeout on read timeout

koala

Koala.http_service.http_options = {request: {open_timeout: 1, timeout: 1}}

Raises

  • Faraday::ConnectionFailed on connect timeout
  • Faraday::TimeoutError on read timeout

octokit

Octokit::Client.new(connection_options: {request: {open_timeout: 1, timeout: 1}})

Raises

  • Faraday::ConnectionFailed on connect timeout
  • Faraday::TimeoutError on read timeout

pwned

Pwned::Password.new("password", open_timeout: 1, read_timeout: 1)

Raises Pwned::TimeoutError

restforce

Restforce.new(timeout: 1)

Raises

  • Faraday::ConnectionFailed on connect timeout
  • Faraday::TimeoutError on read timeout

shopify_api

ShopifyAPI::Base.timeout = 1

Raises ActiveResource::TimeoutError

slack-notifier

Slack::Notifier.new(webhook_url, http_options: {open_timeout: 1, read_timeout: 1})

Raises

  • Net::OpenTimeout on connect timeout
  • Net::ReadTimeout on read timeout

slack-ruby-client

Slack::Web::Client.new(open_timeout: 1, timeout: 1)

Raises

  • Faraday::ConnectionFailed on connect timeout
  • Faraday::TimeoutError on read timeout

sift

Sift::Client.new(timeout: 1)

Default: 2s

Raises

  • Net::OpenTimeout on connect timeout
  • Net::ReadTimeout on read timeout

smartystreets_ruby_sdk

SmartyStreets::ClientBuilder.new(credentials).with_max_timeout(1)

Connect timeout is not configurable at the moment

Raises Net::ReadTimeout on read timeout

stripe

Stripe.open_timeout = 1
Stripe.read_timeout = 1

Default: 30s connect timeout, 80s read timeout

Raises Stripe::APIConnectionError

tamber

Tamber.open_timeout = 1
Tamber.read_timeout = 1

Raises Tamber::NetworkError

twilio-ruby

http_client = Twilio::HTTP::Client.new(timeout: 1)
Twilio::REST::Client.new(account_sid, auth_token, nil, nil, http_client)

Default: 30s

Raises

  • Faraday::ConnectionFailed on connect timeout
  • Faraday::TimeoutError on read timeout

twitter

Twitter::REST::Client.new do |config|
  config.timeouts = {connect: 1, read: 1, write: 1}
end

Raises HTTP::TimeoutError

yt

Not configurable at the moment, and no timeout by default

zendesk_api

ZendeskAPI::Client.new do |config|
  config.client_options = {request: {open_timeout: 1, timeout: 1}}
end

Default: 10s connect timeout, no read timeout

Raises ZendeskAPI::Error::NetworkError

Other

acme-client

Acme::Client.new(connection_options: {request: {open_timeout: 1, timeout: 1}})

Raises

  • Faraday::ConnectionFailed on connect timeout
  • Faraday::TimeoutError on read timeout

actionmailer

ActionMailer::Base.smtp_settings = {
  open_timeout: 1,
  read_timeout: 1
}

Raises

  • Net::OpenTimeout on connect timeout
  • Net::ReadTimeout on read timeout

activemerchant

ActiveMerchant::Billing::Gateway.open_timeout = 1
ActiveMerchant::Billing::Gateway.read_timeout = 1

Default: 60s

Raises ActiveMerchant::ConnectionError

activeresource

class Person < ActiveResource::Base
  self.open_timeout = 1
  self.read_timeout = 1
end

Raises ActiveResource::TimeoutError

active_shipping

client = ActiveShipping::USPS.new(login: "developer-key")
client.open_timeout = 1
client.read_timeout = 1

Default: 2s connect timeout, 10s read timeout

Raises ActiveUtils::ConnectionError

docker-api

Docker.options = {
  read_timeout: 1
}

Connect timeout not configurable

Raises Docker::Error::TimeoutError

fastimage

FastImage.size(url, timeout: 1)

Returns nil on timeouts

If you pass raise_on_failure: true, raises FastImage::ImageFetchFailure

geocoder

Geocoder.configure(timeout: 1, ...)

No exception is raised by default. To raise exceptions, use

Geocoder.configure(timeout: 1, always_raise: :all, ...)

Raises Geocoder::LookupTimeout

graphql-client

GraphQL::Client::HTTP.new(url) do
  def connection
    conn = super
    conn.open_timeout = 1
    conn.read_timeout = 1
    conn
  end
end

Raises

  • Net::OpenTimeout on connect timeout
  • Net::ReadTimeout on read timeout

grpc

RouteGuide::Stub.new(addr, :this_channel_is_insecure, timeout: 1)

Raises GRPC::DeadlineExceeded

kubeclient

Kubeclient::Client.new(url, timeouts: {open: 1, read: 1})

Raises KubeException

Default: 60s connect timeout (Ruby 2.3+), 60s read timeout

mail

Mail.defaults do
  delivery_method :smtp, open_timeout: 1, read_timeout: 1
end

Raises

  • Net::OpenTimeout on connect timeout
  • Net::ReadTimeout on read timeout

mechanize

agent = Mechanize.new
agent.open_timeout = 1
agent.read_timeout = 1

Raises

  • Net::OpenTimeout on connect timeout
  • Net::HTTP::Persistent::Error on read timeout

nats-pure

nats = NATS::IO::Client.new
nats.connect(connect_timeout: 1)

Raises NATS::IO::SocketTimeoutError

net-dns

Net::DNS::Resolver.new(udp_timeout: 1)

Default: 5s

Raises Net::DNS::Resolver::NoResponseError

net/ftp

Net::FTP.new(host, open_timeout: 1, read_timeout: 1)

Raises

  • Net::OpenTimeout on connect timeout
  • Net::ReadTimeout on read timeout

net/ldap

Net::LDAP.new(host: host, connect_timeout: 1)

Read timeout not configurable at the moment

Default: 5s connect timeout, no read timeout

Raises Net::LDAP::Error

net-ntp

timeout = 1
Net::NTP.get(host, port, timeout)

Raises Timeout::Error

net-scp

Net::SCP.start(host, user, timeout: 1)

Raises Net::SSH::ConnectionTimeout

net-sftp

Net::SFTP.start(host, user, timeout: 1)

Raises Net::SSH::ConnectionTimeout

net/smtp

smtp = Net::SMTP.new(host, 25)
smtp.open_timeout = 1
smtp.read_timeout = 1

Raises

  • Net::OpenTimeout on connect timeout
  • Net::ReadTimeout on read timeout

net-ssh

Net::SSH.start(host, user, timeout: 1)

Raises Net::SSH::ConnectionTimeout

net-telnet

Net::Telnet::new("Host" => host, "Timeout" => 1)

Raises

  • Net::OpenTimeout on connect timeout
  • Net::ReadTimeout on read timeout

omniauth-oauth2

Not configurable at the moment, and no timeout by default

reversed

Reversed.lookup("8.8.8.8", timeout: 1)

Returns nil on timeouts

savon

Savon.client(wsdl: url, open_timeout: 1, read_timeout: 1)

Raises

  • HTTPClient::ConnectTimeoutError on connect timeout
  • HTTPClient::ReceiveTimeoutError on read timeout

socket

Socket.tcp(host, 80, connect_timeout: 1) do |sock|
  # ...
end

Raises Errno::ETIMEDOUT

spydr

Spidr.open_timeout = 1
Spidr.read_timeout = 1

No exception is raised. Check for failures with

agent = Spidr.site(url)
agent.failures

spyke

Spyke::Base.connection = Faraday.new(url: url) do |c|
  c.adapter Faraday.default_adapter
  c.options[:open_timeout] = 1
  c.options[:timeout] = 1
end

Raises Spyke::ConnectionError

stomp

Stomp::Client.new(start_timeout: 1, connect_timeout: 1, connread_timeout: 1, parse_timeout: 1)

Raises

  • Stomp::Error::StartTimeoutException on connect timeout
  • Stomp::Error::ReceiveTimeout on read timeout

zk

Not configurable at the moment

Default: 30s

Raises Zookeeper::Exceptions::ContinuationTimeoutError

zookeeper

Not configurable at the moment

Default: 30s

Raises Zookeeper::Exceptions::ContinuationTimeoutError

Don’t see a library you use?

Let us know. Even better, create a pull request for it.

Rescuing Exceptions

Take advantage of inheritance. Instead of

rescue Net::OpenTimeout, Net::ReadTimeout

you can do

rescue Timeout::Error

Use

  • Timeout::Error for both Net::OpenTimeout and Net::ReadTimeout
  • Faraday::ClientError for both Faraday::ConnectionFailed and Faraday::TimeoutError
  • HTTPClient::TimeoutError for both HTTPClient::ConnectTimeoutError and HTTPClient::ReceiveTimeoutError
  • Redis::BaseConnectionError for both Redis::CannotConnectError and Redis::TimeoutError
  • Rack::Timeout::Error for both Rack::Timeout::RequestTimeoutError and Rack::Timeout::RequestExpiryError
  • RestClient::Exceptions::Timeout for both RestClient::Exceptions::OpenTimeout and RestClient::Exceptions::ReadTimeout

Existing Services

Adding timeouts to existing services can be a daunting task, but there’s a low risk way to do it.

  1. Select a timeout - say 5 seconds
  2. Log instances exceeding the proposed timeout
  3. Fix them
  4. Add the timeout
  5. Repeat this process with a lower timeout, until your target timeout is achieved

Running the Tests

git clone https://github.com/ankane/the-ultimate-guide-to-ruby-timeouts.git
cd the-ultimate-guide-to-ruby-timeouts
bundle install
node test/server.js

To run all tests, use:

bundle exec rake

To run individual tests, use:

ruby test/faraday_test.rb

And lastly...

Because time is not going to go backwards, I think I better stop now. - Stephen Hawking

🕓