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Vamp-IR is a proof-system-agnostic language for writing arithmetic circuits


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Vamp-IR is a language for arithmetic circuits. The Vamp-IR compiler can transform an arithmetic circuit into a form that is compatible with any proving system backend.


Vamp-IR book (WIP)

Trying Vamp-IR


git clone
cd vamp-ir
cargo build

Hello World!

We will build a circuit in Vamp-IR that checks if a pair $(x, y)$ is a point on a circle of a certain radius, $R$, which is given publicly.

In a file pyth.pir :

// declare R to be public
pub R;

// define the Pythagorean relation we are checking
def pyth a b c = {
  a^2 + b^2 = c^2

// appends constraint x^2 + y^2 = R^2 to the circuit
pyth x y R;


Compile source pyth.pir to a circuit that can be used in Halo2 and serialize it to the file pyth.halo2.

vamp-ir halo2 compile -s pyth.pir -o pyth.halo2

Create a proof

Suppose the target radius $R$ is $25$, and we come up with $(x, y) = (15, 20)$. We can use vamp-ir to create a Halo2 proof using these inputs.

First create a file pyth.inputs in JSON format which contains our solution.

  "x": "15",
  "y": "20",
  "R": "25"

Then run the Halo2 prover using our compiled circuit and our inputs, outputting a Halo2 proof to pyth.proof.

vamp-ir halo2 prove -c pyth.halo2 -i pyth.inputs -o pyth.proof

Verify the proof

Run the Halo2 verifier using the compiled circuit and the proof.

vamp-ir halo2 verify -c pyth.halo2 -p pyth.proof


These benchmarks are performed on a Lenovo ThinkPad X1 Carbon Gen 9 with 8.0 GiB RAM and an 11th Gen Intel® Core™ i5-1135G7 @ 2.40GHz × 8 unless stated otherwise

Halo2 backend

SHA256 1 block message

Compile Prove Verify
Vamp-IR 172.05 s 26.72 s 0.61 s
Halo2 // 161.05 s 1.06 s

SHA256 2 block message

Compile Prove Verify
Vamp-IR 353.76 s 46.91 s 1.09 s
Halo2 // 160.03 s 1.05 s

SHA256 4 block message

Compile Prove Verify
Vamp-IR 729.47 s Memory Failiure X
Halo2 // 160.36 s 1.03 s

We re-run the with a device that has 128GB of RAM and these are the results:

Compile Prove Verify
Vamp-IR 60 s 81.983 s 0.6 s

ZK-garage plonk backend


Compile Prove Verify
Vamp-IR 76.30 s 57.59 s 0.22 s
ZK-Garage // 32.48 s 0.10 s

Blake2s using only fan-in 2 gates

To have a more fair comparison between Vamp-IR and ZK-Garage, we can use only fan-in 2 gates in the Blake2s circuit. This is because the current version of Vamp-IR does not uses fan-in 3 gates, as the ZK-Garage backend does, which in a speed-up.

Compile Prove Verify
Vamp-IR 76.30 s 57.59 s 0.22 s
ZK-Garage // 360.48 s 0.81 s

The version of Blake2 used for the latter benchmark can be found here:


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