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/* String -> String Map data structure optimized for size.
* This file implements a data structure mapping strings to other strings
* implementing an O(n) lookup data structure designed to be very memory
* efficient.
*
* The Redis Hash type uses this data structure for hashes composed of a small
* number of elements, to switch to an hash table once a given number of
* elements is reached.
*
* Given that many times Redis Hashes are used to represent objects composed
* of few fields, this is a very big win in terms of used memory.
*
* --------------------------------------------------------------------------
*
* Copyright (c) 2009-2010, Salvatore Sanfilippo <antirez at gmail dot com>
* All rights reserved.
*
* Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
* modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
*
* * Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice,
* this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
* * Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
* notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
* documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
* * Neither the name of Redis nor the names of its contributors may be used
* to endorse or promote products derived from this software without
* specific prior written permission.
*
* THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS"
* AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
* IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
* ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE
* LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR
* CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF
* SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS
* INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN
* CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE)
* ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
* POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
*/

/* Memory layout of a zipmap, for the map "foo" => "bar", "hello" => "world":
*
* <zmlen><len>"foo"<len><free>"bar"<len>"hello"<len><free>"world"
*
* <zmlen> is 1 byte length that holds the current size of the zipmap.
* When the zipmap length is greater than or equal to 254, this value
* is not used and the zipmap needs to be traversed to find out the length.
*
* <len> is the length of the following string (key or value).
* <len> lengths are encoded in a single value or in a 5 bytes value.
* If the first byte value (as an unsigned 8 bit value) is between 0 and
* 252, it's a single-byte length. If it is 253 then a four bytes unsigned
* integer follows (in the host byte ordering). A value of 255 is used to
* signal the end of the hash. The special value 254 is used to mark
* empty space that can be used to add new key/value pairs.
*
* <free> is the number of free unused bytes after the string, resulting
* from modification of values associated to a key. For instance if "foo"
* is set to "bar", and later "foo" will be set to "hi", it will have a
* free byte to use if the value will enlarge again later, or even in
* order to add a key/value pair if it fits.
*
* <free> is always an unsigned 8 bit number, because if after an
* update operation there are more than a few free bytes, the zipmap will be
* reallocated to make sure it is as small as possible.
*
* The most compact representation of the above two elements hash is actually:
*
* "\x02\x03foo\x03\x00bar\x05hello\x05\x00world\xff"
*
* Note that because keys and values are prefixed length "objects",
* the lookup will take O(N) where N is the number of elements
* in the zipmap and *not* the number of bytes needed to represent the zipmap.
* This lowers the constant times considerably.
*/

#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <assert.h>
#include "zmalloc.h"
#include "endianconv.h"

#define ZIPMAP_BIGLEN 254
#define ZIPMAP_END 255

/* The following defines the max value for the <free> field described in the
* comments above, that is, the max number of trailing bytes in a value. */
#define ZIPMAP_VALUE_MAX_FREE 4

/* The following macro returns the number of bytes needed to encode the length
* for the integer value _l, that is, 1 byte for lengths < ZIPMAP_BIGLEN and
* 5 bytes for all the other lengths. */
#define ZIPMAP_LEN_BYTES(_l) (((_l) < ZIPMAP_BIGLEN) ? 1 : sizeof(unsigned int)+1)

/* Create a new empty zipmap. */
unsigned char *zipmapNew(void) {
    unsigned char *zm = zmalloc(2);

    zm[0] = 0; /* Length */
    zm[1] = ZIPMAP_END;
    return zm;
}

/* Decode the encoded length pointed by 'p' */
static unsigned int zipmapDecodeLength(unsigned char *p) {
    unsigned int len = *p;

    if (len < ZIPMAP_BIGLEN) return len;
    memcpy(&len,p+1,sizeof(unsigned int));
    memrev32ifbe(&len);
    return len;
}

/* Encode the length 'l' writing it in 'p'. If p is NULL it just returns
* the amount of bytes required to encode such a length. */
static unsigned int zipmapEncodeLength(unsigned char *p, unsigned int len) {
    if (p == NULL) {
        return ZIPMAP_LEN_BYTES(len);
    } else {
        if (len < ZIPMAP_BIGLEN) {
            p[0] = len;
            return 1;
        } else {
            p[0] = ZIPMAP_BIGLEN;
            memcpy(p+1,&len,sizeof(len));
            memrev32ifbe(p+1);
            return 1+sizeof(len);
        }
    }
}

/* Search for a matching key, returning a pointer to the entry inside the
* zipmap. Returns NULL if the key is not found.
*
* If NULL is returned, and totlen is not NULL, it is set to the entire
* size of the zimap, so that the calling function will be able to
* reallocate the original zipmap to make room for more entries. */
static unsigned char *zipmapLookupRaw(unsigned char *zm, unsigned char *key, unsigned int klen, unsigned int *totlen) {
    unsigned char *p = zm+1, *k = NULL;
    unsigned int l,llen;

    while(*p != ZIPMAP_END) {
        unsigned char free;

        /* Match or skip the key */
        l = zipmapDecodeLength(p);
        llen = zipmapEncodeLength(NULL,l);
        if (key != NULL && k == NULL && l == klen && !memcmp(p+llen,key,l)) {
            /* Only return when the user doesn't care
* for the total length of the zipmap. */
            if (totlen != NULL) {
                k = p;
            } else {
                return p;
            }
        }
        p += llen+l;
        /* Skip the value as well */
        l = zipmapDecodeLength(p);
        p += zipmapEncodeLength(NULL,l);
        free = p[0];
        p += l+1+free; /* +1 to skip the free byte */
    }
    if (totlen != NULL) *totlen = (unsigned int)(p-zm)+1;
    return k;
}

static unsigned long zipmapRequiredLength(unsigned int klen, unsigned int vlen) {
    unsigned int l;

    l = klen+vlen+3;
    if (klen >= ZIPMAP_BIGLEN) l += 4;
    if (vlen >= ZIPMAP_BIGLEN) l += 4;
    return l;
}

/* Return the total amount used by a key (encoded length + payload) */
static unsigned int zipmapRawKeyLength(unsigned char *p) {
    unsigned int l = zipmapDecodeLength(p);
    return zipmapEncodeLength(NULL,l) + l;
}

/* Return the total amount used by a value
* (encoded length + single byte free count + payload) */
static unsigned int zipmapRawValueLength(unsigned char *p) {
    unsigned int l = zipmapDecodeLength(p);
    unsigned int used;
    
    used = zipmapEncodeLength(NULL,l);
    used += p[used] + 1 + l;
    return used;
}

/* If 'p' points to a key, this function returns the total amount of
* bytes used to store this entry (entry = key + associated value + trailing
* free space if any). */
static unsigned int zipmapRawEntryLength(unsigned char *p) {
    unsigned int l = zipmapRawKeyLength(p);
    return l + zipmapRawValueLength(p+l);
}

static inline unsigned char *zipmapResize(unsigned char *zm, unsigned int len) {
    zm = zrealloc(zm, len);
    zm[len-1] = ZIPMAP_END;
    return zm;
}

/* Set key to value, creating the key if it does not already exist.
* If 'update' is not NULL, *update is set to 1 if the key was
* already preset, otherwise to 0. */
unsigned char *zipmapSet(unsigned char *zm, unsigned char *key, unsigned int klen, unsigned char *val, unsigned int vlen, int *update) {
    unsigned int zmlen, offset;
    unsigned int freelen, reqlen = zipmapRequiredLength(klen,vlen);
    unsigned int empty, vempty;
    unsigned char *p;
   
    freelen = reqlen;
    if (update) *update = 0;
    p = zipmapLookupRaw(zm,key,klen,&zmlen);
    if (p == NULL) {
        /* Key not found: enlarge */
        zm = zipmapResize(zm, zmlen+reqlen);
        p = zm+zmlen-1;
        zmlen = zmlen+reqlen;

        /* Increase zipmap length (this is an insert) */
        if (zm[0] < ZIPMAP_BIGLEN) zm[0]++;
    } else {
        /* Key found. Is there enough space for the new value? */
        /* Compute the total length: */
        if (update) *update = 1;
        freelen = zipmapRawEntryLength(p);
        if (freelen < reqlen) {
            /* Store the offset of this key within the current zipmap, so
* it can be resized. Then, move the tail backwards so this
* pair fits at the current position. */
            offset = p-zm;
            zm = zipmapResize(zm, zmlen-freelen+reqlen);
            p = zm+offset;

            /* The +1 in the number of bytes to be moved is caused by the
* end-of-zipmap byte. Note: the *original* zmlen is used. */
            memmove(p+reqlen, p+freelen, zmlen-(offset+freelen+1));
            zmlen = zmlen-freelen+reqlen;
            freelen = reqlen;
        }
    }

    /* We now have a suitable block where the key/value entry can
* be written. If there is too much free space, move the tail
* of the zipmap a few bytes to the front and shrink the zipmap,
* as we want zipmaps to be very space efficient. */
    empty = freelen-reqlen;
    if (empty >= ZIPMAP_VALUE_MAX_FREE) {
        /* First, move the tail <empty> bytes to the front, then resize
* the zipmap to be <empty> bytes smaller. */
        offset = p-zm;
        memmove(p+reqlen, p+freelen, zmlen-(offset+freelen+1));
        zmlen -= empty;
        zm = zipmapResize(zm, zmlen);
        p = zm+offset;
        vempty = 0;
    } else {
        vempty = empty;
    }

    /* Just write the key + value and we are done. */
    /* Key: */
    p += zipmapEncodeLength(p,klen);
    memcpy(p,key,klen);
    p += klen;
    /* Value: */
    p += zipmapEncodeLength(p,vlen);
    *p++ = vempty;
    memcpy(p,val,vlen);
    return zm;
}

/* Remove the specified key. If 'deleted' is not NULL the pointed integer is
* set to 0 if the key was not found, to 1 if it was found and deleted. */
unsigned char *zipmapDel(unsigned char *zm, unsigned char *key, unsigned int klen, int *deleted) {
    unsigned int zmlen, freelen;
    unsigned char *p = zipmapLookupRaw(zm,key,klen,&zmlen);
    if (p) {
        freelen = zipmapRawEntryLength(p);
        memmove(p, p+freelen, zmlen-((p-zm)+freelen+1));
        zm = zipmapResize(zm, zmlen-freelen);

        /* Decrease zipmap length */
        if (zm[0] < ZIPMAP_BIGLEN) zm[0]--;

        if (deleted) *deleted = 1;
    } else {
        if (deleted) *deleted = 0;
    }
    return zm;
}

/* Call before iterating through elements via zipmapNext() */
unsigned char *zipmapRewind(unsigned char *zm) {
    return zm+1;
}

/* This function is used to iterate through all the zipmap elements.
* In the first call the first argument is the pointer to the zipmap + 1.
* In the next calls what zipmapNext returns is used as first argument.
* Example:
*
* unsigned char *i = zipmapRewind(my_zipmap);
* while((i = zipmapNext(i,&key,&klen,&value,&vlen)) != NULL) {
* printf("%d bytes key at $p\n", klen, key);
* printf("%d bytes value at $p\n", vlen, value);
* }
*/
unsigned char *zipmapNext(unsigned char *zm, unsigned char **key, unsigned int *klen, unsigned char **value, unsigned int *vlen) {
    if (zm[0] == ZIPMAP_END) return NULL;
    if (key) {
        *key = zm;
        *klen = zipmapDecodeLength(zm);
        *key += ZIPMAP_LEN_BYTES(*klen);
    }
    zm += zipmapRawKeyLength(zm);
    if (value) {
        *value = zm+1;
        *vlen = zipmapDecodeLength(zm);
        *value += ZIPMAP_LEN_BYTES(*vlen);
    }
    zm += zipmapRawValueLength(zm);
    return zm;
}

/* Search a key and retrieve the pointer and len of the associated value.
* If the key is found the function returns 1, otherwise 0. */
int zipmapGet(unsigned char *zm, unsigned char *key, unsigned int klen, unsigned char **value, unsigned int *vlen) {
    unsigned char *p;

    if ((p = zipmapLookupRaw(zm,key,klen,NULL)) == NULL) return 0;
    p += zipmapRawKeyLength(p);
    *vlen = zipmapDecodeLength(p);
    *value = p + ZIPMAP_LEN_BYTES(*vlen) + 1;
    return 1;
}

/* Return 1 if the key exists, otherwise 0 is returned. */
int zipmapExists(unsigned char *zm, unsigned char *key, unsigned int klen) {
    return zipmapLookupRaw(zm,key,klen,NULL) != NULL;
}

/* Return the number of entries inside a zipmap */
unsigned int zipmapLen(unsigned char *zm) {
    unsigned int len = 0;
    if (zm[0] < ZIPMAP_BIGLEN) {
        len = zm[0];
    } else {
        unsigned char *p = zipmapRewind(zm);
        while((p = zipmapNext(p,NULL,NULL,NULL,NULL)) != NULL) len++;

        /* Re-store length if small enough */
        if (len < ZIPMAP_BIGLEN) zm[0] = len;
    }
    return len;
}

/* Return the raw size in bytes of a zipmap, so that we can serialize
* the zipmap on disk (or everywhere is needed) just writing the returned
* amount of bytes of the C array starting at the zipmap pointer. */
size_t zipmapBlobLen(unsigned char *zm) {
    unsigned int totlen;
    zipmapLookupRaw(zm,NULL,0,&totlen);
    return totlen;
}

#ifdef ZIPMAP_TEST_MAIN
void zipmapRepr(unsigned char *p) {
    unsigned int l;

    printf("{status %u}",*p++);
    while(1) {
        if (p[0] == ZIPMAP_END) {
            printf("{end}");
            break;
        } else {
            unsigned char e;

            l = zipmapDecodeLength(p);
            printf("{key %u}",l);
            p += zipmapEncodeLength(NULL,l);
            if (l != 0 && fwrite(p,l,1,stdout) == 0) perror("fwrite");
            p += l;

            l = zipmapDecodeLength(p);
            printf("{value %u}",l);
            p += zipmapEncodeLength(NULL,l);
            e = *p++;
            if (l != 0 && fwrite(p,l,1,stdout) == 0) perror("fwrite");
            p += l+e;
            if (e) {
                printf("[");
                while(e--) printf(".");
                printf("]");
            }
        }
    }
    printf("\n");
}

int main(void) {
    unsigned char *zm;

    zm = zipmapNew();

    zm = zipmapSet(zm,(unsigned char*) "name",4, (unsigned char*) "foo",3,NULL);
    zm = zipmapSet(zm,(unsigned char*) "surname",7, (unsigned char*) "foo",3,NULL);
    zm = zipmapSet(zm,(unsigned char*) "age",3, (unsigned char*) "foo",3,NULL);
    zipmapRepr(zm);

    zm = zipmapSet(zm,(unsigned char*) "hello",5, (unsigned char*) "world!",6,NULL);
    zm = zipmapSet(zm,(unsigned char*) "foo",3, (unsigned char*) "bar",3,NULL);
    zm = zipmapSet(zm,(unsigned char*) "foo",3, (unsigned char*) "!",1,NULL);
    zipmapRepr(zm);
    zm = zipmapSet(zm,(unsigned char*) "foo",3, (unsigned char*) "12345",5,NULL);
    zipmapRepr(zm);
    zm = zipmapSet(zm,(unsigned char*) "new",3, (unsigned char*) "xx",2,NULL);
    zm = zipmapSet(zm,(unsigned char*) "noval",5, (unsigned char*) "",0,NULL);
    zipmapRepr(zm);
    zm = zipmapDel(zm,(unsigned char*) "new",3,NULL);
    zipmapRepr(zm);

    printf("\nLook up large key:\n");
    {
        unsigned char buf[512];
        unsigned char *value;
        unsigned int vlen, i;
        for (i = 0; i < 512; i++) buf[i] = 'a';

        zm = zipmapSet(zm,buf,512,(unsigned char*) "long",4,NULL);
        if (zipmapGet(zm,buf,512,&value,&vlen)) {
            printf(" <long key> is associated to the %d bytes value: %.*s\n",
                vlen, vlen, value);
        }
    }

    printf("\nPerform a direct lookup:\n");
    {
        unsigned char *value;
        unsigned int vlen;

        if (zipmapGet(zm,(unsigned char*) "foo",3,&value,&vlen)) {
            printf(" foo is associated to the %d bytes value: %.*s\n",
                vlen, vlen, value);
        }
    }
    printf("\nIterate through elements:\n");
    {
        unsigned char *i = zipmapRewind(zm);
        unsigned char *key, *value;
        unsigned int klen, vlen;

        while((i = zipmapNext(i,&key,&klen,&value,&vlen)) != NULL) {
            printf(" %d:%.*s => %d:%.*s\n", klen, klen, key, vlen, vlen, value);
        }
    }
    return 0;
}
#endif
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