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/* Hash Tables Implementation.
*
* This file implements in memory hash tables with insert/del/replace/find/
* get-random-element operations. Hash tables will auto resize if needed
* tables of power of two in size are used, collisions are handled by
* chaining. See the source code for more information... :)
*
* Copyright (c) 2006-2012, Salvatore Sanfilippo <antirez at gmail dot com>
* All rights reserved.
*
* Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
* modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
*
* * Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice,
* this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
* * Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
* notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
* documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
* * Neither the name of Redis nor the names of its contributors may be used
* to endorse or promote products derived from this software without
* specific prior written permission.
*
* THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS"
* AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
* IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
* ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE
* LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR
* CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF
* SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS
* INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN
* CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE)
* ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
* POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
*/
#include "fmacros.h"
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <stdarg.h>
#include <limits.h>
#include <sys/time.h>
#include <ctype.h>
#include "dict.h"
#include "zmalloc.h"
#include "redisassert.h"
/* Using dictEnableResize() / dictDisableResize() we make possible to
* enable/disable resizing of the hash table as needed. This is very important
* for Redis, as we use copy-on-write and don't want to move too much memory
* around when there is a child performing saving operations.
*
* Note that even when dict_can_resize is set to 0, not all resizes are
* prevented: a hash table is still allowed to grow if the ratio between
* the number of elements and the buckets > dict_force_resize_ratio. */
static int dict_can_resize = 1;
static unsigned int dict_force_resize_ratio = 5;
/* -------------------------- private prototypes ---------------------------- */
static int _dictExpandIfNeeded(dict *ht);
static unsigned long _dictNextPower(unsigned long size);
static int _dictKeyIndex(dict *ht, const void *key);
static int _dictInit(dict *ht, dictType *type, void *privDataPtr);
/* -------------------------- hash functions -------------------------------- */
/* Thomas Wang's 32 bit Mix Function */
unsigned int dictIntHashFunction(unsigned int key)
{
key += ~(key << 15);
key ^= (key >> 10);
key += (key << 3);
key ^= (key >> 6);
key += ~(key << 11);
key ^= (key >> 16);
return key;
}
static uint32_t dict_hash_function_seed = 5381;
void dictSetHashFunctionSeed(uint32_t seed) {
dict_hash_function_seed = seed;
}
uint32_t dictGetHashFunctionSeed(void) {
return dict_hash_function_seed;
}
/* MurmurHash2, by Austin Appleby
* Note - This code makes a few assumptions about how your machine behaves -
* 1. We can read a 4-byte value from any address without crashing
* 2. sizeof(int) == 4
*
* And it has a few limitations -
*
* 1. It will not work incrementally.
* 2. It will not produce the same results on little-endian and big-endian
* machines.
*/
unsigned int dictGenHashFunction(const void *key, int len) {
/* 'm' and 'r' are mixing constants generated offline.
They're not really 'magic', they just happen to work well. */
uint32_t seed = dict_hash_function_seed;
const uint32_t m = 0x5bd1e995;
const int r = 24;
/* Initialize the hash to a 'random' value */
uint32_t h = seed ^ len;
/* Mix 4 bytes at a time into the hash */
const unsigned char *data = (const unsigned char *)key;
while(len >= 4) {
uint32_t k = *(uint32_t*)data;
k *= m;
k ^= k >> r;
k *= m;
h *= m;
h ^= k;
data += 4;
len -= 4;
}
/* Handle the last few bytes of the input array */
switch(len) {
case 3: h ^= data[2] << 16;
case 2: h ^= data[1] << 8;
case 1: h ^= data[0]; h *= m;
};
/* Do a few final mixes of the hash to ensure the last few
* bytes are well-incorporated. */
h ^= h >> 13;
h *= m;
h ^= h >> 15;
return (unsigned int)h;
}
/* And a case insensitive hash function (based on djb hash) */
unsigned int dictGenCaseHashFunction(const unsigned char *buf, int len) {
unsigned int hash = (unsigned int)dict_hash_function_seed;
while (len--)
hash = ((hash << 5) + hash) + (tolower(*buf++)); /* hash * 33 + c */
return hash;
}
/* ----------------------------- API implementation ------------------------- */
/* Reset a hash table already initialized with ht_init().
* NOTE: This function should only be called by ht_destroy(). */
static void _dictReset(dictht *ht)
{
ht->table = NULL;
ht->size = 0;
ht->sizemask = 0;
ht->used = 0;
}
/* Create a new hash table */
dict *dictCreate(dictType *type,
void *privDataPtr)
{
dict *d = zmalloc(sizeof(*d));
_dictInit(d,type,privDataPtr);
return d;
}
/* Initialize the hash table */
int _dictInit(dict *d, dictType *type,
void *privDataPtr)
{
_dictReset(&d->ht[0]);
_dictReset(&d->ht[1]);
d->type = type;
d->privdata = privDataPtr;
d->rehashidx = -1;
d->iterators = 0;
return DICT_OK;
}
/* Resize the table to the minimal size that contains all the elements,
* but with the invariant of a USED/BUCKETS ratio near to <= 1 */
int dictResize(dict *d)
{
int minimal;
if (!dict_can_resize || dictIsRehashing(d)) return DICT_ERR;
minimal = d->ht[0].used;
if (minimal < DICT_HT_INITIAL_SIZE)
minimal = DICT_HT_INITIAL_SIZE;
return dictExpand(d, minimal);
}
/* Expand or create the hash table */
int dictExpand(dict *d, unsigned long size)
{
dictht n; /* the new hash table */
unsigned long realsize = _dictNextPower(size);
/* the size is invalid if it is smaller than the number of
* elements already inside the hash table */
if (dictIsRehashing(d) || d->ht[0].used > size)
return DICT_ERR;
/* Rehashing to the same table size is not useful. */
if (realsize == d->ht[0].size) return DICT_ERR;
/* Allocate the new hash table and initialize all pointers to NULL */
n.size = realsize;
n.sizemask = realsize-1;
n.table = zcalloc(realsize*sizeof(dictEntry*));
n.used = 0;
/* Is this the first initialization? If so it's not really a rehashing
* we just set the first hash table so that it can accept keys. */
if (d->ht[0].table == NULL) {
d->ht[0] = n;
return DICT_OK;
}
/* Prepare a second hash table for incremental rehashing */
d->ht[1] = n;
d->rehashidx = 0;
return DICT_OK;
}
/* Performs N steps of incremental rehashing. Returns 1 if there are still
* keys to move from the old to the new hash table, otherwise 0 is returned.
*
* Note that a rehashing step consists in moving a bucket (that may have more
* than one key as we use chaining) from the old to the new hash table, however
* since part of the hash table may be composed of empty spaces, it is not
* guaranteed that this function will rehash even a single bucket, since it
* will visit at max N*10 empty buckets in total, otherwise the amount of
* work it does would be unbound and the function may block for a long time. */
int dictRehash(dict *d, int n) {
int empty_visits = n*10; /* Max number of empty buckets to visit. */
if (!dictIsRehashing(d)) return 0;
while(n-- && d->ht[0].used != 0) {
dictEntry *de, *nextde;
/* Note that rehashidx can't overflow as we are sure there are more
* elements because ht[0].used != 0 */
assert(d->ht[0].size > (unsigned long)d->rehashidx);
while(d->ht[0].table[d->rehashidx] == NULL) {
d->rehashidx++;
if (--empty_visits == 0) return 1;
}
de = d->ht[0].table[d->rehashidx];
/* Move all the keys in this bucket from the old to the new hash HT */
while(de) {
unsigned int h;
nextde = de->next;
/* Get the index in the new hash table */
h = dictHashKey(d, de->key) & d->ht[1].sizemask;
de->next = d->ht[1].table[h];
d->ht[1].table[h] = de;
d->ht[0].used--;
d->ht[1].used++;
de = nextde;
}
d->ht[0].table[d->rehashidx] = NULL;
d->rehashidx++;
}
/* Check if we already rehashed the whole table... */
if (d->ht[0].used == 0) {
zfree(d->ht[0].table);
d->ht[0] = d->ht[1];
_dictReset(&d->ht[1]);
d->rehashidx = -1;
return 0;
}
/* More to rehash... */
return 1;
}
long long timeInMilliseconds(void) {
struct timeval tv;
gettimeofday(&tv,NULL);
return (((long long)tv.tv_sec)*1000)+(tv.tv_usec/1000);
}
/* Rehash for an amount of time between ms milliseconds and ms+1 milliseconds */
int dictRehashMilliseconds(dict *d, int ms) {
long long start = timeInMilliseconds();
int rehashes = 0;
while(dictRehash(d,100)) {
rehashes += 100;
if (timeInMilliseconds()-start > ms) break;
}
return rehashes;
}
/* This function performs just a step of rehashing, and only if there are
* no safe iterators bound to our hash table. When we have iterators in the
* middle of a rehashing we can't mess with the two hash tables otherwise
* some element can be missed or duplicated.
*
* This function is called by common lookup or update operations in the
* dictionary so that the hash table automatically migrates from H1 to H2
* while it is actively used. */
static void _dictRehashStep(dict *d) {
if (d->iterators == 0) dictRehash(d,1);
}
/* Add an element to the target hash table */
int dictAdd(dict *d, void *key, void *val)
{
dictEntry *entry = dictAddRaw(d,key);
if (!entry) return DICT_ERR;
dictSetVal(d, entry, val);
return DICT_OK;
}
/* Low level add. This function adds the entry but instead of setting
* a value returns the dictEntry structure to the user, that will make
* sure to fill the value field as he wishes.
*
* This function is also directly exposed to the user API to be called
* mainly in order to store non-pointers inside the hash value, example:
*
* entry = dictAddRaw(dict,mykey);
* if (entry != NULL) dictSetSignedIntegerVal(entry,1000);
*
* Return values:
*
* If key already exists NULL is returned.
* If key was added, the hash entry is returned to be manipulated by the caller.
*/
dictEntry *dictAddRaw(dict *d, void *key)
{
int index;
dictEntry *entry;
dictht *ht;
if (dictIsRehashing(d)) _dictRehashStep(d);
/* Get the index of the new element, or -1 if
* the element already exists. */
if ((index = _dictKeyIndex(d, key)) == -1)
return NULL;
/* Allocate the memory and store the new entry.
* Insert the element in top, with the assumption that in a database
* system it is more likely that recently added entries are accessed
* more frequently. */
ht = dictIsRehashing(d) ? &d->ht[1] : &d->ht[0];
entry = zmalloc(sizeof(*entry));
entry->next = ht->table[index];
ht->table[index] = entry;
ht->used++;
/* Set the hash entry fields. */
dictSetKey(d, entry, key);
return entry;
}
/* Add an element, discarding the old if the key already exists.
* Return 1 if the key was added from scratch, 0 if there was already an
* element with such key and dictReplace() just performed a value update
* operation. */
int dictReplace(dict *d, void *key, void *val)
{
dictEntry *entry, auxentry;
/* Try to add the element. If the key
* does not exists dictAdd will suceed. */
if (dictAdd(d, key, val) == DICT_OK)
return 1;
/* It already exists, get the entry */
entry = dictFind(d, key);
/* Set the new value and free the old one. Note that it is important
* to do that in this order, as the value may just be exactly the same
* as the previous one. In this context, think to reference counting,
* you want to increment (set), and then decrement (free), and not the
* reverse. */
auxentry = *entry;
dictSetVal(d, entry, val);
dictFreeVal(d, &auxentry);
return 0;
}
/* dictReplaceRaw() is simply a version of dictAddRaw() that always
* returns the hash entry of the specified key, even if the key already
* exists and can't be added (in that case the entry of the already
* existing key is returned.)
*
* See dictAddRaw() for more information. */
dictEntry *dictReplaceRaw(dict *d, void *key) {
dictEntry *entry = dictFind(d,key);
return entry ? entry : dictAddRaw(d,key);
}
/* Search and remove an element */
static int dictGenericDelete(dict *d, const void *key, int nofree)
{
unsigned int h, idx;
dictEntry *he, *prevHe;
int table;
if (d->ht[0].size == 0) return DICT_ERR; /* d->ht[0].table is NULL */
if (dictIsRehashing(d)) _dictRehashStep(d);
h = dictHashKey(d, key);
for (table = 0; table <= 1; table++) {
idx = h & d->ht[table].sizemask;
he = d->ht[table].table[idx];
prevHe = NULL;
while(he) {
if (dictCompareKeys(d, key, he->key)) {
/* Unlink the element from the list */
if (prevHe)
prevHe->next = he->next;
else
d->ht[table].table[idx] = he->next;
if (!nofree) {
dictFreeKey(d, he);
dictFreeVal(d, he);
}
zfree(he);
d->ht[table].used--;
return DICT_OK;
}
prevHe = he;
he = he->next;
}
if (!dictIsRehashing(d)) break;
}
return DICT_ERR; /* not found */
}
int dictDelete(dict *ht, const void *key) {
return dictGenericDelete(ht,key,0);
}
int dictDeleteNoFree(dict *ht, const void *key) {
return dictGenericDelete(ht,key,1);
}
/* Destroy an entire dictionary */
int _dictClear(dict *d, dictht *ht, void(callback)(void *)) {
unsigned long i;
/* Free all the elements */
for (i = 0; i < ht->size && ht->used > 0; i++) {
dictEntry *he, *nextHe;
if (callback && (i & 65535) == 0) callback(d->privdata);
if ((he = ht->table[i]) == NULL) continue;
while(he) {
nextHe = he->next;
dictFreeKey(d, he);
dictFreeVal(d, he);
zfree(he);
ht->used--;
he = nextHe;
}
}
/* Free the table and the allocated cache structure */
zfree(ht->table);
/* Re-initialize the table */
_dictReset(ht);
return DICT_OK; /* never fails */
}
/* Clear & Release the hash table */
void dictRelease(dict *d)
{
_dictClear(d,&d->ht[0],NULL);
_dictClear(d,&d->ht[1],NULL);
zfree(d);
}
dictEntry *dictFind(dict *d, const void *key)
{
dictEntry *he;
unsigned int h, idx, table;
if (d->ht[0].size == 0) return NULL; /* We don't have a table at all */
if (dictIsRehashing(d)) _dictRehashStep(d);
h = dictHashKey(d, key);
for (table = 0; table <= 1; table++) {
idx = h & d->ht[table].sizemask;
he = d->ht[table].table[idx];
while(he) {
if (dictCompareKeys(d, key, he->key))
return he;
he = he->next;
}
if (!dictIsRehashing(d)) return NULL;
}
return NULL;
}
void *dictFetchValue(dict *d, const void *key) {
dictEntry *he;
he = dictFind(d,key);
return he ? dictGetVal(he) : NULL;
}
/* A fingerprint is a 64 bit number that represents the state of the dictionary
* at a given time, it's just a few dict properties xored together.
* When an unsafe iterator is initialized, we get the dict fingerprint, and check
* the fingerprint again when the iterator is released.
* If the two fingerprints are different it means that the user of the iterator
* performed forbidden operations against the dictionary while iterating. */
long long dictFingerprint(dict *d) {
long long integers[6], hash = 0;
int j;
integers[0] = (long) d->ht[0].table;
integers[1] = d->ht[0].size;
integers[2] = d->ht[0].used;
integers[3] = (long) d->ht[1].table;
integers[4] = d->ht[1].size;
integers[5] = d->ht[1].used;
/* We hash N integers by summing every successive integer with the integer
* hashing of the previous sum. Basically:
*
* Result = hash(hash(hash(int1)+int2)+int3) ...
*
* This way the same set of integers in a different order will (likely) hash
* to a different number. */
for (j = 0; j < 6; j++) {
hash += integers[j];
/* For the hashing step we use Tomas Wang's 64 bit integer hash. */
hash = (~hash) + (hash << 21); // hash = (hash << 21) - hash - 1;
hash = hash ^ (hash >> 24);
hash = (hash + (hash << 3)) + (hash << 8); // hash * 265
hash = hash ^ (hash >> 14);
hash = (hash + (hash << 2)) + (hash << 4); // hash * 21
hash = hash ^ (hash >> 28);
hash = hash + (hash << 31);
}
return hash;
}
dictIterator *dictGetIterator(dict *d)
{
dictIterator *iter = zmalloc(sizeof(*iter));
iter->d = d;
iter->table = 0;
iter->index = -1;
iter->safe = 0;
iter->entry = NULL;
iter->nextEntry = NULL;
return iter;
}
dictIterator *dictGetSafeIterator(dict *d) {
dictIterator *i = dictGetIterator(d);
i->safe = 1;
return i;
}
dictEntry *dictNext(dictIterator *iter)
{
while (1) {
if (iter->entry == NULL) {
dictht *ht = &iter->d->ht[iter->table];
if (iter->index == -1 && iter->table == 0) {
if (iter->safe)
iter->d->iterators++;
else
iter->fingerprint = dictFingerprint(iter->d);
}
iter->index++;
if (iter->index >= (long) ht->size) {
if (dictIsRehashing(iter->d) && iter->table == 0) {
iter->table++;
iter->index = 0;
ht = &iter->d->ht[1];
} else {
break;
}
}
iter->entry = ht->table[iter->index];
} else {
iter->entry = iter->nextEntry;
}
if (iter->entry) {
/* We need to save the 'next' here, the iterator user
* may delete the entry we are returning. */
iter->nextEntry = iter->entry->next;
return iter->entry;
}
}
return NULL;
}
void dictReleaseIterator(dictIterator *iter)
{
if (!(iter->index == -1 && iter->table == 0)) {
if (iter->safe)
iter->d->iterators--;
else
assert(iter->fingerprint == dictFingerprint(iter->d));
}
zfree(iter);
}
/* Return a random entry from the hash table. Useful to
* implement randomized algorithms */
dictEntry *dictGetRandomKey(dict *d)
{
dictEntry *he, *orighe;
unsigned int h;
int listlen, listele;
if (dictSize(d) == 0) return NULL;
if (dictIsRehashing(d)) _dictRehashStep(d);
if (dictIsRehashing(d)) {
do {
/* We are sure there are no elements in indexes from 0
* to rehashidx-1 */
h = d->rehashidx + (random() % (d->ht[0].size +
d->ht[1].size -
d->rehashidx));
he = (h >= d->ht[0].size) ? d->ht[1].table[h - d->ht[0].size] :
d->ht[0].table[h];
} while(he == NULL);
} else {
do {
h = random() & d->ht[0].sizemask;
he = d->ht[0].table[h];
} while(he == NULL);
}
/* Now we found a non empty bucket, but it is a linked
* list and we need to get a random element from the list.
* The only sane way to do so is counting the elements and
* select a random index. */
listlen = 0;
orighe = he;
while(he) {
he = he->next;
listlen++;
}
listele = random() % listlen;
he = orighe;
while(listele--) he = he->next;
return he;
}
/* This function samples the dictionary to return a few keys from random
* locations.
*
* It does not guarantee to return all the keys specified in 'count', nor
* it does guarantee to return non-duplicated elements, however it will make
* some effort to do both things.
*
* Returned pointers to hash table entries are stored into 'des' that
* points to an array of dictEntry pointers. The array must have room for
* at least 'count' elements, that is the argument we pass to the function
* to tell how many random elements we need.
*
* The function returns the number of items stored into 'des', that may
* be less than 'count' if the hash table has less than 'count' elements
* inside, or if not enough elements were found in a reasonable amount of
* steps.
*
* Note that this function is not suitable when you need a good distribution
* of the returned items, but only when you need to "sample" a given number
* of continuous elements to run some kind of algorithm or to produce
* statistics. However the function is much faster than dictGetRandomKey()
* at producing N elements. */
unsigned int dictGetSomeKeys(dict *d, dictEntry **des, unsigned int count) {
unsigned long j; /* internal hash table id, 0 or 1. */
unsigned long tables; /* 1 or 2 tables? */
unsigned long stored = 0, maxsizemask;
unsigned long maxsteps;
if (dictSize(d) < count) count = dictSize(d);
maxsteps = count*10;
/* Try to do a rehashing work proportional to 'count'. */
for (j = 0; j < count; j++) {
if (dictIsRehashing(d))
_dictRehashStep(d);
else
break;
}
tables = dictIsRehashing(d) ? 2 : 1;
maxsizemask = d->ht[0].sizemask;
if (tables > 1 && maxsizemask < d->ht[1].sizemask)
maxsizemask = d->ht[1].sizemask;
/* Pick a random point inside the larger table. */
unsigned long i = random() & maxsizemask;
unsigned long emptylen = 0; /* Continuous empty entries so far. */
while(stored < count && maxsteps--) {
for (j = 0; j < tables; j++) {
/* Invariant of the dict.c rehashing: up to the indexes already
* visited in ht[0] during the rehashing, there are no populated
* buckets, so we can skip ht[0] for indexes between 0 and idx-1. */
if (tables == 2 && j == 0 && i < (unsigned long) d->rehashidx) {
/* Moreover, if we are currently out of range in the second
* table, there will be no elements in both tables up to
* the current rehashing index, so we jump if possible.
* (this happens when going from big to small table). */
if (i >= d->ht[1].size) i = d->rehashidx;
continue;
}
if (i >= d->ht[j].size) continue; /* Out of range for this table. */
dictEntry *he = d->ht[j].table[i];
/* Count contiguous empty buckets, and jump to other
* locations if they reach 'count' (with a minimum of 5). */
if (he == NULL) {
emptylen++;
if (emptylen >= 5 && emptylen > count) {
i = random() & maxsizemask;
emptylen = 0;
}
} else {
emptylen = 0;
while (he) {
/* Collect all the elements of the buckets found non
* empty while iterating. */
*des = he;
des++;
he = he->next;
stored++;
if (stored == count) return stored;
}
}
}
i = (i+1) & maxsizemask;
}
return stored;
}
/* Function to reverse bits. Algorithm from:
* http://graphics.stanford.edu/~seander/bithacks.html#ReverseParallel */
static unsigned long rev(unsigned long v) {
unsigned long s = 8 * sizeof(v); // bit size; must be power of 2
unsigned long mask = ~0;
while ((s >>= 1) > 0) {
mask ^= (mask << s);
v = ((v >> s) & mask) | ((v << s) & ~mask);
}
return v;
}
/* dictScan() is used to iterate over the elements of a dictionary.
*
* Iterating works the following way:
*
* 1) Initially you call the function using a cursor (v) value of 0.
* 2) The function performs one step of the iteration, and returns the
* new cursor value you must use in the next call.
* 3) When the returned cursor is 0, the iteration is complete.
*
* The function guarantees all elements present in the
* dictionary get returned between the start and end of the iteration.
* However it is possible some elements get returned multiple times.
*
* For every element returned, the callback argument 'fn' is
* called with 'privdata' as first argument and the dictionary entry
* 'de' as second argument.
*
* HOW IT WORKS.
*
* The iteration algorithm was designed by Pieter Noordhuis.
* The main idea is to increment a cursor starting from the higher order
* bits. That is, instead of incrementing the cursor normally, the bits
* of the cursor are reversed, then the cursor is incremented, and finally
* the bits are reversed again.
*
* This strategy is needed because the hash table may be resized between
* iteration calls.
*
* dict.c hash tables are always power of two in size, and they
* use chaining, so the position of an element in a given table is given
* by computing the bitwise AND between Hash(key) and SIZE-1
* (where SIZE-1 is always the mask that is equivalent to taking the rest
* of the division between the Hash of the key and SIZE).
*
* For example if the current hash table size is 16, the mask is
* (in binary) 1111. The position of a key in the hash table will always be
* the last four bits of the hash output, and so forth.
*
* WHAT HAPPENS IF THE TABLE CHANGES IN SIZE?
*
* If the hash table grows, elements can go anywhere in one multiple of
* the old bucket: for example let's say we already iterated with
* a 4 bit cursor 1100 (the mask is 1111 because hash table size = 16).
*
* If the hash table will be resized to 64 elements, then the new mask will
* be 111111. The new buckets you obtain by substituting in ??1100
* with either 0 or 1 can be targeted only by keys we already visited
* when scanning the bucket 1100 in the smaller hash table.
*
* By iterating the higher bits first, because of the inverted counter, the
* cursor does not need to restart if the table size gets bigger. It will
* continue iterating using cursors without '1100' at the end, and also
* without any other combination of the final 4 bits already explored.
*
* Similarly when the table size shrinks over time, for example going from
* 16 to 8, if a combination of the lower three bits (the mask for size 8
* is 111) were already completely explored, it would not be visited again
* because we are sure we tried, for example, both 0111 and 1111 (all the
* variations of the higher bit) so we don't need to test it again.
*
* WAIT... YOU HAVE *TWO* TABLES DURING REHASHING!
*
* Yes, this is true, but we always iterate the smaller table first, then
* we test all the expansions of the current cursor into the larger
* table. For example if the current cursor is 101 and we also have a
* larger table of size 16, we also test (0)101 and (1)101 inside the larger
* table. This reduces the problem back to having only one table, where
* the larger one, if it exists, is just an expansion of the smaller one.
*
* LIMITATIONS
*
* This iterator is completely stateless, and this is a huge advantage,
* including no additional memory used.
*
* The disadvantages resulting from this design are:
*
* 1) It is possible we return elements more than once. However this is usually
* easy to deal with in the application level.
* 2) The iterator must return multiple elements per call, as it needs to always
* return all the keys chained in a given bucket, and all the expansions, so
* we are sure we don't miss keys moving during rehashing.
* 3) The reverse cursor is somewhat hard to understand at first, but this
* comment is supposed to help.
*/
unsigned long dictScan(dict *d,
unsigned long v,
dictScanFunction *fn,
void *privdata)
{
dictht *t0, *t1;
const dictEntry *de;
unsigned long m0, m1;
if (dictSize(d) == 0) return 0;
if (!dictIsRehashing(d)) {
t0 = &(d->ht[0]);
m0 = t0->sizemask;
/* Emit entries at cursor */
de = t0->table[v & m0];
while (de) {
fn(privdata, de);
de = de->next;
}
} else {
t0 = &d->ht[0];
t1 = &d->ht[1];
/* Make sure t0 is the smaller and t1 is the bigger table */
if (t0->size > t1->size) {
t0 = &d->ht[1];
t1 = &d->ht[0];
}
m0 = t0->sizemask;
m1 = t1->sizemask;
/* Emit entries at cursor */
de = t0->table[v & m0];
while (de) {
fn(privdata, de);
de = de->next;
}
/* Iterate over indices in larger table that are the expansion
* of the index pointed to by the cursor in the smaller table */
do {
/* Emit entries at cursor */
de = t1->table[v & m1];
while (de) {
fn(privdata, de);
de = de->next;
}
/* Increment bits not covered by the smaller mask */
v = (((v | m0) + 1) & ~m0) | (v & m0);
/* Continue while bits covered by mask difference is non-zero */
} while (v & (m0 ^ m1));
}
/* Set unmasked bits so incrementing the reversed cursor
* operates on the masked bits of the smaller table */
v |= ~m0;
/* Increment the reverse cursor */
v = rev(v);
v++;
v = rev(v);
return v;
}
/* ------------------------- private functions ------------------------------ */
/* Expand the hash table if needed */
static int _dictExpandIfNeeded(dict *d)
{
/* Incremental rehashing already in progress. Return. */
if (dictIsRehashing(d)) return DICT_OK;
/* If the hash table is empty expand it to the initial size. */
if (d->ht[0].size == 0) return dictExpand(d, DICT_HT_INITIAL_SIZE);
/* If we reached the 1:1 ratio, and we are allowed to resize the hash
* table (global setting) or we should avoid it but the ratio between
* elements/buckets is over the "safe" threshold, we resize doubling
* the number of buckets. */
if (d->ht[0].used >= d->ht[0].size &&
(dict_can_resize ||
d->ht[0].used/d->ht[0].size > dict_force_resize_ratio))
{
return dictExpand(d, d->ht[0].used*2);
}
return DICT_OK;
}
/* Our hash table capability is a power of two */
static unsigned long _dictNextPower(unsigned long size)
{
unsigned long i = DICT_HT_INITIAL_SIZE;
if (size >= LONG_MAX) return LONG_MAX;
while(1) {
if (i >= size)
return i;
i *= 2;
}
}
/* Returns the index of a free slot that can be populated with
* a hash entry for the given 'key'.
* If the key already exists, -1 is returned.
*
* Note that if we are in the process of rehashing the hash table, the
* index is always returned in the context of the second (new) hash table. */
static int _dictKeyIndex(dict *d, const void *key)
{
unsigned int h, idx, table;
dictEntry *he;
/* Expand the hash table if needed */
if (_dictExpandIfNeeded(d) == DICT_ERR)
return -1;
/* Compute the key hash value */
h = dictHashKey(d, key);
for (table = 0; table <= 1; table++) {
idx = h & d->ht[table].sizemask;
/* Search if this slot does not already contain the given key */
he = d->ht[table].table[idx];
while(he) {
if (dictCompareKeys(d, key, he->key))
return -1;
he = he->next;
}
if (!dictIsRehashing(d)) break;
}
return idx;
}
void dictEmpty(dict *d, void(callback)(void*)) {
_dictClear(d,&d->ht[0],callback);
_dictClear(d,&d->ht[1],callback);
d->rehashidx = -1;
d->iterators = 0;
}
void dictEnableResize(void) {
dict_can_resize = 1;
}
void dictDisableResize(void) {
dict_can_resize = 0;
}
/* ------------------------------- Debugging ---------------------------------*/
#define DICT_STATS_VECTLEN 50
size_t _dictGetStatsHt(char *buf, size_t bufsize, dictht *ht, int tableid) {
unsigned long i, slots = 0, chainlen, maxchainlen = 0;
unsigned long totchainlen = 0;
unsigned long clvector[DICT_STATS_VECTLEN];
size_t l = 0;
if (ht->used == 0) {
return snprintf(buf,bufsize,
"No stats available for empty dictionaries\n");
}
/* Compute stats. */
for (i = 0; i < DICT_STATS_VECTLEN; i++) clvector[i] = 0;
for (i = 0; i < ht->size; i++) {
dictEntry *he;
if (ht->table[i] == NULL) {
clvector[0]++;
continue;
}
slots++;
/* For each hash entry on this slot... */
chainlen = 0;
he = ht->table[i];
while(he) {
chainlen++;
he = he->next;
}
clvector[(chainlen < DICT_STATS_VECTLEN) ? chainlen : (DICT_STATS_VECTLEN-1)]++;
if (chainlen > maxchainlen) maxchainlen = chainlen;
totchainlen += chainlen;
}
/* Generate human readable stats. */
l += snprintf(buf+l,bufsize-l,
"Hash table %d stats (%s):\n"
" table size: %ld\n"
" number of elements: %ld\n"
" different slots: %ld\n"
" max chain length: %ld\n"
" avg chain length (counted): %.02f\n"
" avg chain length (computed): %.02f\n"
" Chain length distribution:\n",
tableid, (tableid == 0) ? "main hash table" : "rehashing target",
ht->size, ht->used, slots, maxchainlen,
(float)totchainlen/slots, (float)ht->used/slots);
for (i = 0; i < DICT_STATS_VECTLEN-1; i++) {
if (clvector[i] == 0) continue;
if (l >= bufsize) break;
l += snprintf(buf+l,bufsize-l,
" %s%ld: %ld (%.02f%%)\n",
(i == DICT_STATS_VECTLEN-1)?">= ":"",
i, clvector[i], ((float)clvector[i]/ht->size)*100);
}
/* Unlike snprintf(), teturn the number of characters actually written. */
if (bufsize) buf[bufsize-1] = '\0';
return strlen(buf);
}
void dictGetStats(char *buf, size_t bufsize, dict *d) {
size_t l;
char *orig_buf = buf;
size_t orig_bufsize = bufsize;
l = _dictGetStatsHt(buf,bufsize,&d->ht[0],0);
buf += l;
bufsize -= l;
if (dictIsRehashing(d) && bufsize > 0) {
_dictGetStatsHt(buf,bufsize,&d->ht[1],1);
}
/* Make sure there is a NULL term at the end. */
if (orig_bufsize) orig_buf[orig_bufsize-1] = '\0';
}
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