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typeset [ {+|-}AEFHUafghklprtuxmz ] [ -LRZi [ n ]] [ name[=value] ... ]
typeset -T [ {+|-}Urux ] [ -LRZ [ n ]] SCALAR[=value] array [ sep ]
Set or display attributes and values for shell parameters.
A parameter is created for each name that does not already refer to
one. When inside a function, a new parameter is created for every
name (even those that already exist), and is unset again when the
function completes. See `Local Parameters' in zshparam(1). The
same rules apply to special shell parameters, which retain their
special attributes when made local.
For each name=value assignment, the parameter name is set to value.
Note that arrays currently cannot be assigned in typeset expres‐
sions, only scalars and integers. Unless the option KSH_TYPESET is
set, normal expansion rules apply to assignment arguments, so value
may be split into separate words; if the option is set, assignments
which can be recognised when expansion is performed are treated as
single words. For example the command typeset vbl=$(echo one two)
is treated as having one argument if KSH_TYPESET is set, but other‐
wise is treated as having the two arguments vbl=one and two.
If the shell option TYPESET_SILENT is not set, for each remaining
name that refers to a parameter that is set, the name and value of
the parameter are printed in the form of an assignment. Nothing is
printed for newly-created parameters, or when any attribute flags
listed below are given along with the name. Using `+' instead of
minus to introduce an attribute turns it off.
If the -p option is given, parameters and values are printed in the
form of a typeset command and an assignment (which will be printed
separately for arrays and associative arrays), regardless of other
flags and options. Note that the -h flag on parameters is
respected; no value will be shown for these parameters.
If the -T option is given, two or three arguments must be present
(an exception is that zero arguments are allowed to show the list
of parameters created in this fashion). The first two are the name
of a scalar and an array parameter (in that order) that will be
tied together in the manner of $PATH and $path. The optional third
argument is a single-character separator which will be used to join
the elements of the array to form the scalar; if absent, a colon is
used, as with $PATH. Only the first character of the separator is
significant; any remaining characters are ignored. Only the scalar
parameter may be assigned an initial value. Both the scalar and
the array may otherwise be manipulated as normal. If one is unset,
the other will automatically be unset too. There is no way of
untying the variables without unsetting them, or converting the
type of one of them with another typeset command; +T does not work,
assigning an array to SCALAR is an error, and assigning a scalar to
array sets it to be a single-element array. Note that both `type‐
set -xT ...' and `export -T ...' work, but only the scalar will be
marked for export. Setting the value using the scalar version
causes a split on all separators (which cannot be quoted).
The -g (global) flag is treated specially: it means that any
resulting parameter will not be restricted to local scope. Note
that this does not necessarily mean that the parameter will be
global, as the flag will apply to any existing parameter (even if
unset) from an enclosing function. This flag does not affect the
parameter after creation, hence it has no effect when listing
existing parameters, nor does the flag +g have any effect except in
combination with -m (see below).
If no name is present, the names and values of all parameters are
printed. In this case the attribute flags restrict the display to
only those parameters that have the specified attributes, and using
`+' rather than `-' to introduce the flag suppresses printing of
the values of parameters when there is no parameter name. Also, if
the last option is the word `+', then names are printed but values
are not.
If the -m flag is given the name arguments are taken as patterns
(which should be quoted). With no attribute flags, all parameters
(or functions with the -f flag) with matching names are printed
(the shell option TYPESET_SILENT is not used in this case). Note
that -m is ignored if no patterns are given. If the +g flag is
combined with -m, a new local parameter is created for every match‐
ing parameter that is not already local. Otherwise -m applies all
other flags or assignments to the existing parameters. Except when
assignments are made with name=value, using +m forces the matching
parameters to be printed, even inside a function.
If no attribute flags are given and either no -m flag is present or
the +m form was used, each parameter name printed is preceded by a
list of the attributes of that parameter (array, association,
exported, integer, readonly). If +m is used with attribute flags,
and all those flags are introduced with +, the matching parameter
names are printed but their values are not.
Attribute flags that transform the final value (-L, -R, -Z, -l, u)
are only applied to the expanded value at the point of a parameter
expansion expression using `$'. They are not applied when a param‐
eter is retrieved internally by the shell for any purpose.
The following attribute flags may be specified:
-A The names refer to associative array parameters; see `Array
Parameters' in zshparam(1).
-L Left justify and remove leading blanks from value. If n is
nonzero, it defines the width of the field. If n is zero,
the width is determined by the width of the value of the
first assignment. In the case of numeric parameters, the
length of the complete value assigned to the parameter is
used to determine the width, not the value that would be
output.
The width is the count of characters, which may be multibyte
characters if the MULTIBYTE option is in effect. Note that
the screen width of the character is not taken into account;
if this is required, use padding with parameter expansion
flags ${(ml...)...} as described in `Parameter Expansion
Flags' in zshexpn(1).
When the parameter is expanded, it is filled on the right
with blanks or truncated if necessary to fit the field.
Note truncation can lead to unexpected results with numeric
parameters. Leading zeros are removed if the -Z flag is
also set.
-R Similar to -L, except that right justification is used; when
the parameter is expanded, the field is left filled with
blanks or truncated from the end. May not be combined with
the -Z flag.
-U For arrays (but not for associative arrays), keep only the
first occurrence of each duplicated value. This may also be
set for colon-separated special parameters like PATH or FIG‐
NORE, etc. This flag has a different meaning when used with
-f; see below.
-Z Specially handled if set along with the -L flag. Otherwise,
similar to -R, except that leading zeros are used for pad‐
ding instead of blanks if the first non-blank character is a
digit. Numeric parameters are specially handled: they are
always eligible for padding with zeroes, and the zeroes are
inserted at an appropriate place in the output.
-a The names refer to array parameters. An array parameter may
be created this way, but it may not be assigned to in the
typeset statement. When displaying, both normal and asso‐
ciative arrays are shown.
-f The names refer to functions rather than parameters. No
assignments can be made, and the only other valid flags are
-t, -k, -u, -U and -z. The flag -t turns on execution trac‐
ing for this function. The -u and -U flags cause the func‐
tion to be marked for autoloading; -U also causes alias
expansion to be suppressed when the function is loaded. The
fpath parameter will be searched to find the function defi‐
nition when the function is first referenced; see the sec‐
tion `Functions'. The -k and -z flags make the function be
loaded using ksh-style or zsh-style autoloading respec‐
tively. If neither is given, the setting of the KSH_AUTOLOAD
option determines how the function is loaded.
-h Hide: only useful for special parameters (those marked `<S>'
in the table in zshparam(1)), and for local parameters with
the same name as a special parameter, though harmless for
others. A special parameter with this attribute will not
retain its special effect when made local. Thus after
`typeset -h PATH', a function containing `typeset PATH' will
create an ordinary local parameter without the usual behav‐
iour of PATH. Alternatively, the local parameter may itself
be given this attribute; hence inside a function `typeset -h
PATH' creates an ordinary local parameter and the special
PATH parameter is not altered in any way. It is also possi‐
ble to create a local parameter using `typeset +h special',
where the local copy of special will retain its special
properties regardless of having the -h attribute. Global
special parameters loaded from shell modules (currently
those in zsh/mapfile and zsh/parameter) are automatically
given the -h attribute to avoid name clashes.
-H Hide value: specifies that typeset will not display the
value of the parameter when listing parameters; the display
for such parameters is always as if the `+' flag had been
given. Use of the parameter is in other respects normal,
and the option does not apply if the parameter is specified
by name, or by pattern with the -m option. This is on by
default for the parameters in the zsh/parameter and zsh/map‐
file modules. Note, however, that unlike the -h flag this
is also useful for non-special parameters.
-i Use an internal integer representation. If n is nonzero it
defines the output arithmetic base, otherwise it is deter‐
mined by the first assignment. Bases from 2 to 36 inclusive
are allowed.
-E Use an internal double-precision floating point representa‐
tion. On output the variable will be converted to scien‐
tific notation. If n is nonzero it defines the number of
significant figures to display; the default is ten.
-F Use an internal double-precision floating point representa‐
tion. On output the variable will be converted to
fixed-point decimal notation. If n is nonzero it defines
the number of digits to display after the decimal point; the
default is ten.
-l Convert the result to lower case whenever the parameter is
expanded. The value is not converted when assigned.
-r The given names are marked readonly. Note that if name is a
special parameter, the readonly attribute can be turned on,
but cannot then be turned off.
-t Tags the named parameters. Tags have no special meaning to
the shell. This flag has a different meaning when used with
-f; see above.
-u Convert the result to upper case whenever the parameter is
expanded. The value is not converted when assigned. This
flag has a different meaning when used with -f; see above.
-x Mark for automatic export to the environment of subsequently
executed commands. If the option GLOBAL_EXPORT is set, this
implies the option -g, unless +g is also explicitly given;
in other words the parameter is not made local to the
enclosing function. This is for compatibility with previous
versions of zsh.
declare
Same as typeset.
float [ {+|-}EFHghlprtux ] [ -LRZ [ n ]] [ name[=value] ... ]
Equivalent to typeset -E, except that options irrelevant to float‐
ing point numbers are not permitted.
integer [ {+|-}Hghilprtux ] [ -LRZ [ n ]] [ name[=value] ... ]
Equivalent to typeset -i, except that options irrelevant to inte‐
gers are not permitted.
local [ {+|-}AEFHUahlprtux ] [ -LRZi [ n ]] [ name[=value] ] ...
Same as typeset, except that the options -g, and -f are not permit‐
ted. In this case the -x option does not force the use of -g, i.e.
exported variables will be local to functions.
readonly
Same as typeset -r.
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