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Morphological Inflection for Low-Resource Languages using cross-lingual transfer

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A Tool for Morphological Inflection

This is the code accompanying our paper on "Pushing the Limits of Low-Resource Morphological Inflection".


Are listed in requirements.txt so you can just run

pip install -r requirements.txt

Also, run make in order to build the executable needed for data hallucination.

Data Hallucination

Use the script as follows:

python [data_directory] [language] --examples N [--use_dev]

The script assumes data in the format of the SIGMORPHON 2019 task 1 inflection shared task (example from Asturian):

meyorar	meyoraría	V;1;SG;COND
firir	firir	V;NFIN
algamar	algamareis	V;2;PL;SBJV;PST;IPFV;LGSPEC1

All scripts assume that files named language-train, language-dev, and language-test are under data_directory. The output is a file language-hall under data_directory with N hallucinated examples.

If you want to also use the dev dataset for hallucination (recommended for extremely low-resource cases) add the --use_dev flag.


The, align.c and Makefile are taken from Roee Aharoni's work:

Training inflection models

The main script is which implements the models and handles training, testing, etc. For standard training using cross-lingual transfer, run:

py \
	--datapath sample-data/ \
	--L1 adyghe \
	--L2 kabardian \
	--mode train \
	--setting original

Running the above command trains for about 40 minutes on a single CPU (2.4 GHz), producing the following output

[dynet] random seed: 2846648232
[dynet] allocating memory: 512MB
[dynet] memory allocation done.
Data lengths
transfer-language 10000 10000 10000
Accuracy good enough, breaking
[lr=0.1 clips=3401 updates=14115] Epoch  0  :  28131.39509539181
	 COPY Accuracy:  0.95  average edit distance:  0.05
	 TASK Accuracy:  0.68  average edit distance:  0.6
Epoch  14  :  0.5778098778155254
[lr=0.0125 clips=1 updates=100] 	 COPY Accuracy:  1.0  average edit distance:  0.0
	 TASK Accuracy:  0.7  average edit distance:  0.58
Restarting the trainer with half the learning rate!
Best dev accuracy after finetuning:  0.7
Best dev lev distance after finetuning:  0.58

The above script should produce three models under ./models (based on the dev performance metrics).

After training, you can use these models to produce output on the test files, as follows:

py \
	--datapath sample-data/ \
	--L1 adyghe \
	--L2 kabardian \
	--mode test \
	--setting original

Additional Notes

Using various flags you can:

  • use multiple L1 transfer languages by separating the languages with commas e.g. --L1 adyghe,armenian.

  • specify the location to store the models by using the --modelpath flag

  • specify the location to store the output (when testing) by using the --outputpath flag

  • tell the model to use hallucinated data (as created by the script above) with the --use_hall flag.

  • train a model using only hallucinated data with the --only_hall flag.

  • train a model using only the low-resource language (hence without cross-lingual transfer) by setting --setting low

  • swap the low-resource data, using the dev set for training, and using the train as a dev set, by setting --setting swap

  • toggle the language discriminator, and lemma and tag attention regularization components on (they are disabled by default) by using --predict_lang, --use_att_reg, and --use_tag_att_reg. All of them are recommended for best performance.

  • get outputs using various ensemble combinations by using --mode test-ensemble (uses the three models produced by a single run) or --mode test-all-enssemble (uses four models, two produced by a --setting original run and two by a --setting swap run).

  • produce attention visualizations over the development set by setting --mode draw-dev and providing a path to store the figures through --figurepath. Requires matplotlib.


If you use this tool for your work, please consider citing the corresponding paper "Pushing the Limits of Low-Resource Morphological Inflection", Antonios Anastasopoulos and Graham Neubig, to appear at EMNLP 2019.


    title = {Pushing the Limits of Low-Resource Morphological Inflection},
    author = {Anastasopoulos, Antonios and Neubig, Graham},
    booktitle = {Proc. EMNLP},
    address = {Hong Kong},
    month = {November},
    year = {2019},
    note = {to appear}


Morphological Inflection for Low-Resource Languages using cross-lingual transfer






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