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// Copyright (c) 2011 The Chromium Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
// found in the LICENSE file.
//
// This file defines utility functions for working with strings.
#ifndef BASE_STRING_UTIL_H_
#define BASE_STRING_UTIL_H_
#pragma once
#include <stdarg.h> // va_list
#include <string>
#include <vector>
#include "base/base_api.h"
#include "base/basictypes.h"
#include "base/compiler_specific.h"
#include "base/string16.h"
#include "base/string_piece.h" // For implicit conversions.
// TODO(brettw) remove this dependency. Previously StringPrintf lived in this
// file. We need to convert the callers over to using stringprintf.h instead
// and then remove this.
#include "base/stringprintf.h"
// Safe standard library wrappers for all platforms.
namespace base {
// C standard-library functions like "strncasecmp" and "snprintf" that aren't
// cross-platform are provided as "base::strncasecmp", and their prototypes
// are listed below. These functions are then implemented as inline calls
// to the platform-specific equivalents in the platform-specific headers.
// Compares the two strings s1 and s2 without regard to case using
// the current locale; returns 0 if they are equal, 1 if s1 > s2, and -1 if
// s2 > s1 according to a lexicographic comparison.
BASE_API int strcasecmp(const char* s1, const char* s2);
// Compares up to count characters of s1 and s2 without regard to case using
// the current locale; returns 0 if they are equal, 1 if s1 > s2, and -1 if
// s2 > s1 according to a lexicographic comparison.
BASE_API int strncasecmp(const char* s1, const char* s2, size_t count);
// Same as strncmp but for char16 strings.
BASE_API int strncmp16(const char16* s1, const char16* s2, size_t count);
// Wrapper for vsnprintf that always null-terminates and always returns the
// number of characters that would be in an untruncated formatted
// string, even when truncation occurs.
BASE_API int vsnprintf(char* buffer, size_t size, const char* format,
va_list arguments)
PRINTF_FORMAT(3, 0);
// vswprintf always null-terminates, but when truncation occurs, it will either
// return -1 or the number of characters that would be in an untruncated
// formatted string. The actual return value depends on the underlying
// C library's vswprintf implementation.
BASE_API int vswprintf(wchar_t* buffer, size_t size,
const wchar_t* format, va_list arguments)
WPRINTF_FORMAT(3, 0);
// Some of these implementations need to be inlined.
// We separate the declaration from the implementation of this inline
// function just so the PRINTF_FORMAT works.
inline int snprintf(char* buffer, size_t size, const char* format, ...)
PRINTF_FORMAT(3, 4);
inline int snprintf(char* buffer, size_t size, const char* format, ...) {
va_list arguments;
va_start(arguments, format);
int result = vsnprintf(buffer, size, format, arguments);
va_end(arguments);
return result;
}
// We separate the declaration from the implementation of this inline
// function just so the WPRINTF_FORMAT works.
inline int swprintf(wchar_t* buffer, size_t size, const wchar_t* format, ...)
WPRINTF_FORMAT(3, 4);
inline int swprintf(wchar_t* buffer, size_t size, const wchar_t* format, ...) {
va_list arguments;
va_start(arguments, format);
int result = vswprintf(buffer, size, format, arguments);
va_end(arguments);
return result;
}
// BSD-style safe and consistent string copy functions.
// Copies |src| to |dst|, where |dst_size| is the total allocated size of |dst|.
// Copies at most |dst_size|-1 characters, and always NULL terminates |dst|, as
// long as |dst_size| is not 0. Returns the length of |src| in characters.
// If the return value is >= dst_size, then the output was truncated.
// NOTE: All sizes are in number of characters, NOT in bytes.
BASE_API size_t strlcpy(char* dst, const char* src, size_t dst_size);
BASE_API size_t wcslcpy(wchar_t* dst, const wchar_t* src, size_t dst_size);
// Scan a wprintf format string to determine whether it's portable across a
// variety of systems. This function only checks that the conversion
// specifiers used by the format string are supported and have the same meaning
// on a variety of systems. It doesn't check for other errors that might occur
// within a format string.
//
// Nonportable conversion specifiers for wprintf are:
// - 's' and 'c' without an 'l' length modifier. %s and %c operate on char
// data on all systems except Windows, which treat them as wchar_t data.
// Use %ls and %lc for wchar_t data instead.
// - 'S' and 'C', which operate on wchar_t data on all systems except Windows,
// which treat them as char data. Use %ls and %lc for wchar_t data
// instead.
// - 'F', which is not identified by Windows wprintf documentation.
// - 'D', 'O', and 'U', which are deprecated and not available on all systems.
// Use %ld, %lo, and %lu instead.
//
// Note that there is no portable conversion specifier for char data when
// working with wprintf.
//
// This function is intended to be called from base::vswprintf.
BASE_API bool IsWprintfFormatPortable(const wchar_t* format);
// ASCII-specific tolower. The standard library's tolower is locale sensitive,
// so we don't want to use it here.
template <class Char> inline Char ToLowerASCII(Char c) {
return (c >= 'A' && c <= 'Z') ? (c + ('a' - 'A')) : c;
}
// ASCII-specific toupper. The standard library's toupper is locale sensitive,
// so we don't want to use it here.
template <class Char> inline Char ToUpperASCII(Char c) {
return (c >= 'a' && c <= 'z') ? (c + ('A' - 'a')) : c;
}
// Function objects to aid in comparing/searching strings.
template<typename Char> struct CaseInsensitiveCompare {
public:
bool operator()(Char x, Char y) const {
// TODO(darin): Do we really want to do locale sensitive comparisons here?
// See http://crbug.com/24917
return tolower(x) == tolower(y);
}
};
template<typename Char> struct CaseInsensitiveCompareASCII {
public:
bool operator()(Char x, Char y) const {
return ToLowerASCII(x) == ToLowerASCII(y);
}
};
} // namespace base
#if defined(OS_WIN)
#include "base/string_util_win.h"
#elif defined(OS_POSIX)
#include "base/string_util_posix.h"
#else
#error Define string operations appropriately for your platform
#endif
// These threadsafe functions return references to globally unique empty
// strings.
//
// DO NOT USE THESE AS A GENERAL-PURPOSE SUBSTITUTE FOR DEFAULT CONSTRUCTORS.
// There is only one case where you should use these: functions which need to
// return a string by reference (e.g. as a class member accessor), and don't
// have an empty string to use (e.g. in an error case). These should not be
// used as initializers, function arguments, or return values for functions
// which return by value or outparam.
BASE_API const std::string& EmptyString();
BASE_API const std::wstring& EmptyWString();
BASE_API const string16& EmptyString16();
BASE_API extern const wchar_t kWhitespaceWide[];
BASE_API extern const char16 kWhitespaceUTF16[];
extern const char kWhitespaceASCII[];
extern const char kUtf8ByteOrderMark[];
// Removes characters in remove_chars from anywhere in input. Returns true if
// any characters were removed.
// NOTE: Safe to use the same variable for both input and output.
BASE_API bool RemoveChars(const std::wstring& input,
const wchar_t remove_chars[],
std::wstring* output);
BASE_API bool RemoveChars(const string16& input,
const char16 remove_chars[],
string16* output);
BASE_API bool RemoveChars(const std::string& input,
const char remove_chars[],
std::string* output);
// Removes characters in trim_chars from the beginning and end of input.
// NOTE: Safe to use the same variable for both input and output.
BASE_API bool TrimString(const std::wstring& input,
const wchar_t trim_chars[],
std::wstring* output);
BASE_API bool TrimString(const string16& input,
const char16 trim_chars[],
string16* output);
BASE_API bool TrimString(const std::string& input,
const char trim_chars[],
std::string* output);
// Truncates a string to the nearest UTF-8 character that will leave
// the string less than or equal to the specified byte size.
BASE_API void TruncateUTF8ToByteSize(const std::string& input,
const size_t byte_size,
std::string* output);
// Trims any whitespace from either end of the input string. Returns where
// whitespace was found.
// The non-wide version has two functions:
// * TrimWhitespaceASCII()
// This function is for ASCII strings and only looks for ASCII whitespace;
// Please choose the best one according to your usage.
// NOTE: Safe to use the same variable for both input and output.
enum TrimPositions {
TRIM_NONE = 0,
TRIM_LEADING = 1 << 0,
TRIM_TRAILING = 1 << 1,
TRIM_ALL = TRIM_LEADING | TRIM_TRAILING,
};
BASE_API TrimPositions TrimWhitespace(const std::wstring& input,
TrimPositions positions,
std::wstring* output);
BASE_API TrimPositions TrimWhitespace(const string16& input,
TrimPositions positions,
string16* output);
BASE_API TrimPositions TrimWhitespaceASCII(const std::string& input,
TrimPositions positions,
std::string* output);
// Deprecated. This function is only for backward compatibility and calls
// TrimWhitespaceASCII().
BASE_API TrimPositions TrimWhitespace(const std::string& input,
TrimPositions positions,
std::string* output);
// Searches for CR or LF characters. Removes all contiguous whitespace
// strings that contain them. This is useful when trying to deal with text
// copied from terminals.
// Returns |text|, with the following three transformations:
// (1) Leading and trailing whitespace is trimmed.
// (2) If |trim_sequences_with_line_breaks| is true, any other whitespace
// sequences containing a CR or LF are trimmed.
// (3) All other whitespace sequences are converted to single spaces.
BASE_API std::wstring CollapseWhitespace(const std::wstring& text,
bool trim_sequences_with_line_breaks);
BASE_API string16 CollapseWhitespace(const string16& text,
bool trim_sequences_with_line_breaks);
BASE_API std::string CollapseWhitespaceASCII(
const std::string& text, bool trim_sequences_with_line_breaks);
// Returns true if the passed string is empty or contains only white-space
// characters.
BASE_API bool ContainsOnlyWhitespaceASCII(const std::string& str);
BASE_API bool ContainsOnlyWhitespace(const string16& str);
// Returns true if |input| is empty or contains only characters found in
// |characters|.
BASE_API bool ContainsOnlyChars(const std::wstring& input,
const std::wstring& characters);
BASE_API bool ContainsOnlyChars(const string16& input,
const string16& characters);
BASE_API bool ContainsOnlyChars(const std::string& input,
const std::string& characters);
// Converts to 7-bit ASCII by truncating. The result must be known to be ASCII
// beforehand.
BASE_API std::string WideToASCII(const std::wstring& wide);
BASE_API std::string UTF16ToASCII(const string16& utf16);
// Converts the given wide string to the corresponding Latin1. This will fail
// (return false) if any characters are more than 255.
BASE_API bool WideToLatin1(const std::wstring& wide, std::string* latin1);
// Returns true if the specified string matches the criteria. How can a wide
// string be 8-bit or UTF8? It contains only characters that are < 256 (in the
// first case) or characters that use only 8-bits and whose 8-bit
// representation looks like a UTF-8 string (the second case).
//
// Note that IsStringUTF8 checks not only if the input is structurally
// valid but also if it doesn't contain any non-character codepoint
// (e.g. U+FFFE). It's done on purpose because all the existing callers want
// to have the maximum 'discriminating' power from other encodings. If
// there's a use case for just checking the structural validity, we have to
// add a new function for that.
BASE_API bool IsStringUTF8(const std::string& str);
BASE_API bool IsStringASCII(const std::wstring& str);
BASE_API bool IsStringASCII(const base::StringPiece& str);
BASE_API bool IsStringASCII(const string16& str);
// Converts the elements of the given string. This version uses a pointer to
// clearly differentiate it from the non-pointer variant.
template <class str> inline void StringToLowerASCII(str* s) {
for (typename str::iterator i = s->begin(); i != s->end(); ++i)
*i = base::ToLowerASCII(*i);
}
template <class str> inline str StringToLowerASCII(const str& s) {
// for std::string and std::wstring
str output(s);
StringToLowerASCII(&output);
return output;
}
// Converts the elements of the given string. This version uses a pointer to
// clearly differentiate it from the non-pointer variant.
template <class str> inline void StringToUpperASCII(str* s) {
for (typename str::iterator i = s->begin(); i != s->end(); ++i)
*i = base::ToUpperASCII(*i);
}
template <class str> inline str StringToUpperASCII(const str& s) {
// for std::string and std::wstring
str output(s);
StringToUpperASCII(&output);
return output;
}
// Compare the lower-case form of the given string against the given ASCII
// string. This is useful for doing checking if an input string matches some
// token, and it is optimized to avoid intermediate string copies. This API is
// borrowed from the equivalent APIs in Mozilla.
BASE_API bool LowerCaseEqualsASCII(const std::string& a, const char* b);
BASE_API bool LowerCaseEqualsASCII(const std::wstring& a, const char* b);
BASE_API bool LowerCaseEqualsASCII(const string16& a, const char* b);
// Same thing, but with string iterators instead.
BASE_API bool LowerCaseEqualsASCII(std::string::const_iterator a_begin,
std::string::const_iterator a_end,
const char* b);
BASE_API bool LowerCaseEqualsASCII(std::wstring::const_iterator a_begin,
std::wstring::const_iterator a_end,
const char* b);
BASE_API bool LowerCaseEqualsASCII(string16::const_iterator a_begin,
string16::const_iterator a_end,
const char* b);
BASE_API bool LowerCaseEqualsASCII(const char* a_begin,
const char* a_end,
const char* b);
BASE_API bool LowerCaseEqualsASCII(const wchar_t* a_begin,
const wchar_t* a_end,
const char* b);
BASE_API bool LowerCaseEqualsASCII(const char16* a_begin,
const char16* a_end,
const char* b);
// Performs a case-sensitive string compare. The behavior is undefined if both
// strings are not ASCII.
BASE_API bool EqualsASCII(const string16& a, const base::StringPiece& b);
// Returns true if str starts with search, or false otherwise.
BASE_API bool StartsWithASCII(const std::string& str,
const std::string& search,
bool case_sensitive);
BASE_API bool StartsWith(const std::wstring& str,
const std::wstring& search,
bool case_sensitive);
BASE_API bool StartsWith(const string16& str,
const string16& search,
bool case_sensitive);
// Returns true if str ends with search, or false otherwise.
BASE_API bool EndsWith(const std::string& str,
const std::string& search,
bool case_sensitive);
BASE_API bool EndsWith(const std::wstring& str,
const std::wstring& search,
bool case_sensitive);
BASE_API bool EndsWith(const string16& str,
const string16& search,
bool case_sensitive);
// Determines the type of ASCII character, independent of locale (the C
// library versions will change based on locale).
template <typename Char>
inline bool IsAsciiWhitespace(Char c) {
return c == ' ' || c == '\r' || c == '\n' || c == '\t';
}
template <typename Char>
inline bool IsAsciiAlpha(Char c) {
return ((c >= 'A') && (c <= 'Z')) || ((c >= 'a') && (c <= 'z'));
}
template <typename Char>
inline bool IsAsciiDigit(Char c) {
return c >= '0' && c <= '9';
}
template <typename Char>
inline bool IsHexDigit(Char c) {
return (c >= '0' && c <= '9') ||
(c >= 'A' && c <= 'F') ||
(c >= 'a' && c <= 'f');
}
template <typename Char>
inline Char HexDigitToInt(Char c) {
DCHECK(IsHexDigit(c));
if (c >= '0' && c <= '9')
return c - '0';
if (c >= 'A' && c <= 'F')
return c - 'A' + 10;
if (c >= 'a' && c <= 'f')
return c - 'a' + 10;
return 0;
}
// Returns true if it's a whitespace character.
inline bool IsWhitespace(wchar_t c) {
return wcschr(kWhitespaceWide, c) != NULL;
}
enum DataUnits {
DATA_UNITS_BYTE = 0,
DATA_UNITS_KIBIBYTE,
DATA_UNITS_MEBIBYTE,
DATA_UNITS_GIBIBYTE,
};
// Return the unit type that is appropriate for displaying the amount of bytes
// passed in.
BASE_API DataUnits GetByteDisplayUnits(int64 bytes);
// Return a byte string in human-readable format, displayed in units appropriate
// specified by 'units', with an optional unit suffix.
// Ex: FormatBytes(512, DATA_UNITS_KIBIBYTE, true) => "0.5 KB"
// Ex: FormatBytes(10*1024, DATA_UNITS_MEBIBYTE, false) => "0.1"
BASE_API string16 FormatBytes(int64 bytes, DataUnits units, bool show_units);
// As above, but with "/s" units.
// Ex: FormatSpeed(512, DATA_UNITS_KIBIBYTE, true) => "0.5 KB/s"
// Ex: FormatSpeed(10*1024, DATA_UNITS_MEBIBYTE, false) => "0.1"
BASE_API string16 FormatSpeed(int64 bytes, DataUnits units, bool show_units);
// Return a number formated with separators in the user's locale way.
// Ex: FormatNumber(1234567) => 1,234,567
BASE_API string16 FormatNumber(int64 number);
// Starting at |start_offset| (usually 0), replace the first instance of
// |find_this| with |replace_with|.
BASE_API void ReplaceFirstSubstringAfterOffset(string16* str,
string16::size_type start_offset,
const string16& find_this,
const string16& replace_with);
BASE_API void ReplaceFirstSubstringAfterOffset(
std::string* str,
std::string::size_type start_offset,
const std::string& find_this,
const std::string& replace_with);
// Starting at |start_offset| (usually 0), look through |str| and replace all
// instances of |find_this| with |replace_with|.
//
// This does entire substrings; use std::replace in <algorithm> for single
// characters, for example:
// std::replace(str.begin(), str.end(), 'a', 'b');
BASE_API void ReplaceSubstringsAfterOffset(string16* str,
string16::size_type start_offset,
const string16& find_this,
const string16& replace_with);
BASE_API void ReplaceSubstringsAfterOffset(std::string* str,
std::string::size_type start_offset,
const std::string& find_this,
const std::string& replace_with);
// This is mpcomplete's pattern for saving a string copy when dealing with
// a function that writes results into a wchar_t[] and wanting the result to
// end up in a std::wstring. It ensures that the std::wstring's internal
// buffer has enough room to store the characters to be written into it, and
// sets its .length() attribute to the right value.
//
// The reserve() call allocates the memory required to hold the string
// plus a terminating null. This is done because resize() isn't
// guaranteed to reserve space for the null. The resize() call is
// simply the only way to change the string's 'length' member.
//
// XXX-performance: the call to wide.resize() takes linear time, since it fills
// the string's buffer with nulls. I call it to change the length of the
// string (needed because writing directly to the buffer doesn't do this).
// Perhaps there's a constant-time way to change the string's length.
template <class string_type>
inline typename string_type::value_type* WriteInto(string_type* str,
size_t length_with_null) {
str->reserve(length_with_null);
str->resize(length_with_null - 1);
return &((*str)[0]);
}
//-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Splits a string into its fields delimited by any of the characters in
// |delimiters|. Each field is added to the |tokens| vector. Returns the
// number of tokens found.
BASE_API size_t Tokenize(const std::wstring& str,
const std::wstring& delimiters,
std::vector<std::wstring>* tokens);
BASE_API size_t Tokenize(const string16& str,
const string16& delimiters,
std::vector<string16>* tokens);
BASE_API size_t Tokenize(const std::string& str,
const std::string& delimiters,
std::vector<std::string>* tokens);
BASE_API size_t Tokenize(const base::StringPiece& str,
const base::StringPiece& delimiters,
std::vector<base::StringPiece>* tokens);
// Does the opposite of SplitString().
BASE_API string16 JoinString(const std::vector<string16>& parts, char16 s);
BASE_API std::string JoinString(const std::vector<std::string>& parts, char s);
// Replace $1-$2-$3..$9 in the format string with |a|-|b|-|c|..|i| respectively.
// Additionally, any number of consecutive '$' characters is replaced by that
// number less one. Eg $$->$, $$$->$$, etc. The offsets parameter here can be
// NULL. This only allows you to use up to nine replacements.
BASE_API string16 ReplaceStringPlaceholders(const string16& format_string,
const std::vector<string16>& subst,
std::vector<size_t>* offsets);
BASE_API std::string ReplaceStringPlaceholders(
const base::StringPiece& format_string,
const std::vector<std::string>& subst,
std::vector<size_t>* offsets);
// Single-string shortcut for ReplaceStringHolders. |offset| may be NULL.
BASE_API string16 ReplaceStringPlaceholders(const string16& format_string,
const string16& a,
size_t* offset);
// Returns true if the string passed in matches the pattern. The pattern
// string can contain wildcards like * and ?
// The backslash character (\) is an escape character for * and ?
// We limit the patterns to having a max of 16 * or ? characters.
// ? matches 0 or 1 character, while * matches 0 or more characters.
BASE_API bool MatchPattern(const base::StringPiece& string,
const base::StringPiece& pattern);
BASE_API bool MatchPattern(const string16& string, const string16& pattern);
// Hack to convert any char-like type to its unsigned counterpart.
// For example, it will convert char, signed char and unsigned char to unsigned
// char.
template<typename T>
struct ToUnsigned {
typedef T Unsigned;
};
template<>
struct ToUnsigned<char> {
typedef unsigned char Unsigned;
};
template<>
struct ToUnsigned<signed char> {
typedef unsigned char Unsigned;
};
template<>
struct ToUnsigned<wchar_t> {
#if defined(WCHAR_T_IS_UTF16)
typedef unsigned short Unsigned;
#elif defined(WCHAR_T_IS_UTF32)
typedef uint32 Unsigned;
#endif
};
template<>
struct ToUnsigned<short> {
typedef unsigned short Unsigned;
};
#endif // BASE_STRING_UTIL_H_
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