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import re, errno, socket, select, struct
import compat.ssubprocess as ssubprocess
import helpers, ssyslog
from helpers import *
# python doesn't have a definition for this
def nonfatal(func, *args):
except Fatal, e:
log('error: %s\n' % e)
def ipt_chain_exists(name):
argv = ['iptables', '-t', 'nat', '-nL']
p = ssubprocess.Popen(argv, stdout = ssubprocess.PIPE)
for line in p.stdout:
if line.startswith('Chain %s ' % name):
return True
rv = p.wait()
if rv:
raise Fatal('%r returned %d' % (argv, rv))
def ipt(*args):
argv = ['iptables', '-t', 'nat'] + list(args)
debug1('>> %s\n' % ' '.join(argv))
rv =
if rv:
raise Fatal('%r returned %d' % (argv, rv))
_no_ttl_module = False
def ipt_ttl(*args):
global _no_ttl_module
if not _no_ttl_module:
# we avoid infinite loops by generating server-side connections
# with ttl 42. This makes the client side not recapture those
# connections, in case client == server.
argsplus = list(args) + ['-m', 'ttl', '!', '--ttl', '42']
except Fatal:
# we only get here if the non-ttl attempt succeeds
log('sshuttle: warning: your iptables is missing '
'the ttl module.\n')
_no_ttl_module = True
# We name the chain based on the transproxy port number so that it's possible
# to run multiple copies of sshuttle at the same time. Of course, the
# multiple copies shouldn't have overlapping subnets, or only the most-
# recently-started one will win (because we use "-I OUTPUT 1" instead of
# "-A OUTPUT").
def do_iptables(port, dnsport, subnets):
chain = 'sshuttle-%s' % port
# basic cleanup/setup of chains
if ipt_chain_exists(chain):
nonfatal(ipt, '-D', 'OUTPUT', '-j', chain)
nonfatal(ipt, '-D', 'PREROUTING', '-j', chain)
nonfatal(ipt, '-F', chain)
ipt('-X', chain)
if subnets or dnsport:
ipt('-N', chain)
ipt('-F', chain)
ipt('-I', 'OUTPUT', '1', '-j', chain)
ipt('-I', 'PREROUTING', '1', '-j', chain)
if subnets:
# create new subnet entries. Note that we're sorting in a very
# particular order: we need to go from most-specific (largest swidth)
# to least-specific, and at any given level of specificity, we want
# excludes to come first. That's why the columns are in such a non-
# intuitive order.
for swidth,sexclude,snet in sorted(subnets, reverse=True):
if sexclude:
ipt('-A', chain, '-j', 'RETURN',
'--dest', '%s/%s' % (snet,swidth),
'-p', 'tcp')
ipt_ttl('-A', chain, '-j', 'REDIRECT',
'--dest', '%s/%s' % (snet,swidth),
'-p', 'tcp',
'--to-ports', str(port))
if dnsport:
nslist = resolvconf_nameservers()
for ip in nslist:
ipt_ttl('-A', chain, '-j', 'REDIRECT',
'--dest', '%s/32' % ip,
'-p', 'udp',
'--dport', '53',
'--to-ports', str(dnsport))
def ipfw_rule_exists(n):
argv = ['ipfw', 'list']
p = ssubprocess.Popen(argv, stdout = ssubprocess.PIPE)
found = False
for line in p.stdout:
if line.startswith('%05d ' % n):
if not ('ipttl 42' in line
or ('skipto %d' % (n+1)) in line
or 'check-state' in line):
log('non-sshuttle ipfw rule: %r\n' % line.strip())
raise Fatal('non-sshuttle ipfw rule #%d already exists!' % n)
found = True
rv = p.wait()
if rv:
raise Fatal('%r returned %d' % (argv, rv))
return found
_oldctls = {}
def _fill_oldctls(prefix):
argv = ['sysctl', prefix]
p = ssubprocess.Popen(argv, stdout = ssubprocess.PIPE)
for line in p.stdout:
assert(line[-1] == '\n')
(k,v) = line[:-1].split(': ', 1)
_oldctls[k] = v
rv = p.wait()
if rv:
raise Fatal('%r returned %d' % (argv, rv))
if not line:
raise Fatal('%r returned no data' % (argv,))
def _sysctl_set(name, val):
argv = ['sysctl', '-w', '%s=%s' % (name, val)]
debug1('>> %s\n' % ' '.join(argv))
return, stdout = open('/dev/null', 'w'))
_changedctls = []
def sysctl_set(name, val, permanent=False):
PREFIX = 'net.inet.ip'
assert(name.startswith(PREFIX + '.'))
val = str(val)
if not _oldctls:
if not (name in _oldctls):
debug1('>> No such sysctl: %r\n' % name)
return False
oldval = _oldctls[name]
if val != oldval:
rv = _sysctl_set(name, val)
if rv==0 and permanent:
debug1('>> ...saving permanently in /etc/sysctl.conf\n')
f = open('/etc/sysctl.conf', 'a')
'# Added by sshuttle\n'
'%s=%s\n' % (name, val))
return True
def _udp_unpack(p):
src = (socket.inet_ntoa(p[12:16]), struct.unpack('!H', p[20:22])[0])
dst = (socket.inet_ntoa(p[16:20]), struct.unpack('!H', p[22:24])[0])
return src, dst
def _udp_repack(p, src, dst):
addrs = socket.inet_aton(src[0]) + socket.inet_aton(dst[0])
ports = struct.pack('!HH', src[1], dst[1])
return p[:12] + addrs + ports + p[24:]
_real_dns_server = [None]
def _handle_diversion(divertsock, dnsport):
p,tag = divertsock.recvfrom(4096)
src,dst = _udp_unpack(p)
debug3('got diverted packet from %r to %r\n' % (src, dst))
if dst[1] == 53:
# outgoing DNS
debug3('...packet is a DNS request.\n')
_real_dns_server[0] = dst
dst = ('', dnsport)
elif src[1] == dnsport:
if islocal(src[0]):
debug3('...packet is a DNS response.\n')
src = _real_dns_server[0]
log('weird?! unexpected divert from %r to %r\n' % (src, dst))
newp = _udp_repack(p, src, dst)
divertsock.sendto(newp, tag)
def ipfw(*args):
argv = ['ipfw', '-q'] + list(args)
debug1('>> %s\n' % ' '.join(argv))
rv =
if rv:
raise Fatal('%r returned %d' % (argv, rv))
def do_ipfw(port, dnsport, subnets):
sport = str(port)
xsport = str(port+1)
# cleanup any existing rules
if ipfw_rule_exists(port):
ipfw('delete', sport)
while _changedctls:
name = _changedctls.pop()
oldval = _oldctls[name]
_sysctl_set(name, oldval)
if subnets or dnsport:
sysctl_set('net.inet.ip.fw.enable', 1)
changed = sysctl_set('net.inet.ip.scopedroute', 0, permanent=True)
if changed:
" =====================================\n"
"sshuttle has changed a MacOS kernel setting to work around\n"
"a bug in MacOS 10.6. This will cause your network to drop\n"
"within 5-10 minutes unless you restart your network\n"
"interface (change wireless networks or unplug/plug the\n"
"ethernet port) NOW, then restart sshuttle. The fix is\n"
"permanent; you only have to do this once.\n\n")
ipfw('add', sport, 'check-state', 'ip',
'from', 'any', 'to', 'any')
if subnets:
# create new subnet entries
for swidth,sexclude,snet in sorted(subnets, reverse=True):
if sexclude:
ipfw('add', sport, 'skipto', xsport,
'log', 'tcp',
'from', 'any', 'to', '%s/%s' % (snet,swidth))
ipfw('add', sport, 'fwd', ',%d' % port,
'log', 'tcp',
'from', 'any', 'to', '%s/%s' % (snet,swidth),
'not', 'ipttl', '42', 'keep-state', 'setup')
# This part is much crazier than it is on Linux, because MacOS (at least
# 10.6, and probably other versions, and maybe FreeBSD too) doesn't
# correctly fixup the dstip/dstport for UDP packets when it puts them
# through a 'fwd' rule. It also doesn't fixup the srcip/srcport in the
# response packet. In Linux iptables, all that happens magically for us,
# so we just redirect the packets and relax.
# On MacOS, we have to fix the ports ourselves. For that, we use a
# 'divert' socket, which receives raw packets and lets us mangle them.
# Here's how it works. Let's say the local DNS server is,
# and the remote DNS server is, and the local transproxy port
# is, and a client machine is making a request from
# We see a packet like this:
# ->
# Since the destip:port matches one of our local nameservers, it will
# match a 'fwd' rule, thus grabbing it on the local machine. However,
# the local kernel will then see a packet addressed to *:53 and
# not know what to do with it; there's nobody listening on port 53. Thus,
# we divert it, rewriting it into this:
# ->
# This gets proxied out to the server, which sends it to,
# and the answer comes back, and the proxy sends it back out like this:
# ->
# But that's wrong! The original machine expected an answer from
#, so we have to divert the *answer* and rewrite it:
# ->
# See? Easy stuff.
if dnsport:
divertsock = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_RAW,
divertsock.bind(('', port)) # IP field is ignored
nslist = resolvconf_nameservers()
for ip in nslist:
# relabel and then catch outgoing DNS requests
ipfw('add', sport, 'divert', sport,
'log', 'udp',
'from', 'any', 'to', '%s/32' % ip, '53',
'not', 'ipttl', '42')
# relabel DNS responses
ipfw('add', sport, 'divert', sport,
'log', 'udp',
'from', 'any', str(dnsport), 'to', 'any',
'not', 'ipttl', '42')
def do_wait():
while 1:
r,w,x =[sys.stdin, divertsock], [], [])
if divertsock in r:
_handle_diversion(divertsock, dnsport)
if sys.stdin in r:
do_wait = None
return do_wait
def program_exists(name):
paths = (os.getenv('PATH') or os.defpath).split(os.pathsep)
for p in paths:
fn = '%s/%s' % (p, name)
if os.path.exists(fn):
return not os.path.isdir(fn) and os.access(fn, os.X_OK)
hostmap = {}
def rewrite_etc_hosts(port):
APPEND='# sshuttle-firewall-%d AUTOCREATED' % port
old_content = ''
st = None
old_content = open(HOSTSFILE).read()
st = os.stat(HOSTSFILE)
except IOError, e:
if e.errno == errno.ENOENT:
if old_content.strip() and not os.path.exists(BAKFILE):, BAKFILE)
tmpname = "%s.%d.tmp" % (HOSTSFILE, port)
f = open(tmpname, 'w')
for line in old_content.rstrip().split('\n'):
if line.find(APPEND) >= 0:
f.write('%s\n' % line)
for (name,ip) in sorted(hostmap.items()):
f.write('%-30s %s\n' % ('%s %s' % (ip,name), APPEND))
if st:
os.chown(tmpname, st.st_uid, st.st_gid)
os.chmod(tmpname, st.st_mode)
os.chown(tmpname, 0, 0)
os.chmod(tmpname, 0644)
os.rename(tmpname, HOSTSFILE)
def restore_etc_hosts(port):
global hostmap
hostmap = {}
# This is some voodoo for setting up the kernel's transparent
# proxying stuff. If subnets is empty, we just delete our sshuttle rules;
# otherwise we delete it, then make them from scratch.
# This code is supposed to clean up after itself by deleting its rules on
# exit. In case that fails, it's not the end of the world; future runs will
# supercede it in the transproxy list, at least, so the leftover rules
# are hopefully harmless.
def main(port, dnsport, syslog):
assert(port > 0)
assert(port <= 65535)
assert(dnsport >= 0)
assert(dnsport <= 65535)
if os.getuid() != 0:
raise Fatal('you must be root (or enable su/sudo) to set the firewall')
if program_exists('ipfw'):
do_it = do_ipfw
elif program_exists('iptables'):
do_it = do_iptables
raise Fatal("can't find either ipfw or iptables; check your PATH")
# because of limitations of the 'su' command, the *real* stdin/stdout
# are both attached to stdout initially. Clone stdout into stdin so we
# can read from it.
os.dup2(1, 0)
if syslog:
debug1('firewall manager ready.\n')
# ctrl-c shouldn't be passed along to me. When the main sshuttle dies,
# I'll die automatically.
# we wait until we get some input before creating the rules. That way,
# sshuttle can launch us as early as possible (and get sudo password
# authentication as early in the startup process as possible).
line = sys.stdin.readline(128)
if not line:
return # parent died; nothing to do
subnets = []
if line != 'ROUTES\n':
raise Fatal('firewall: expected ROUTES but got %r' % line)
while 1:
line = sys.stdin.readline(128)
if not line:
raise Fatal('firewall: expected route but got %r' % line)
elif line == 'GO\n':
(width,exclude,ip) = line.strip().split(',', 2)
raise Fatal('firewall: expected route or GO but got %r' % line)
subnets.append((int(width), bool(int(exclude)), ip))
if line:
debug1('firewall manager: starting transproxy.\n')
do_wait = do_it(port, dnsport, subnets)
except IOError:
# the parent process died for some reason; he's surely been loud
# enough, so no reason to report another error
# Now we wait until EOF or any other kind of exception. We need
# to stay running so that we don't need a *second* password
# authentication at shutdown time - that cleanup is important!
while 1:
if do_wait: do_wait()
line = sys.stdin.readline(128)
if line.startswith('HOST '):
(name,ip) = line[5:].strip().split(',', 1)
hostmap[name] = ip
elif line:
raise Fatal('expected EOF, got %r' % line)
debug1('firewall manager: undoing changes.\n')
do_it(port, 0, [])
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