Sounds like a bug, but I don't think we'll be able to help without seeing your project. If you're concerned about attaching it here, you can also send it just to Apple using https://bugreport.apple.com.
There's definitely something really strange going on here.
If I make delimiterItem a parameter of the appropriate type (Parser<Substring, ((TableDataAlignment) -> ([InlineNode]) -> BlockNode) -> ([InlineNode]) -> BlockNode>), I do not hit the error. If I use an explicit type on the local variable, I do still hit the error.