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Librarian - A Framework for Bundlers. Librarian-Chef is at: https://github.com/applicationsonline/librarian-chef.
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README.md

Librarian Build Status

Librarian is a framework for writing bundlers, which are tools that resolve, fetch, install, and isolate a project's dependencies, in Ruby.

Librarian ships with Librarian-Chef, which is a bundler for your Chef-based infrastructure repositories. In the future, Librarian-Chef will be a separate project.

A bundler written with Librarian will expect you to provide a specfile listing your project's declared dependencies, including any version constraints and including the upstream sources for finding them. Librarian can resolve the spec, write a lockfile listing the full resolution, fetch the resolved dependencies, install them, and isolate them in your project.

A bundler written with Librarian will be similar in kind to Bundler, the bundler for Ruby gems that many modern Rails applications use.

Librarian-Chef

Librarian-Chef is a tool that helps you manage the cookbooks that your chef-repo depends on. Here are some more details.

Librarian-Chef is a bundler for infrastructure repositories using Chef. You can use Librarian-Chef to resolve your infrastructure's cookbook dependencies, fetch them, and install them into your infrastructure repository.

Librarian-Chef can resolve and fetch third-party, publicly-released cookbooks, and install them into your infrastructure repository. It can also source cookbooks directly from their own source control repositories.

Librarian-Chef can also deal with cookbooks you may actively be working on outside your infrastructure repository. For example, it can deal with cookbooks directly from their own private source control repositories, whether they are remote or local to your machine, and it can deal with cookbooks released to and hosted on a private cookbooks server.

Librarian-Chef is not primarily intended for dealing with the cookbooks you are actively working on within your infrastructure repository. In such a case, you can still use Librarian-Chef, but it is likely unnecessary.

Librarian-Chef takes over your cookbooks/ directory and manages it for you based on your Cheffile. Your Cheffile becomes the authoritative source for the cookbooks your infrastructure repository depends on. You should not modify the contents of your cookbooks/ directory when using Librarian-Chef. If you have cookbooks which are, rather than being separate projects, inherently part of your infrastructure repository, then they should go in a separate directory, like your site-cookbooks/ directory, and you do not need to use Librarian-Chef to manage them.

The Cheffile

Every infrastruture repository that uses Librarian-Chef will have a file named Cheffile in the root directory of that repository. The full specification for which third-party, publicly-released cookbooks your infrastructure repository depends will go here.

Here's an example Cheffile:

site "http://community.opscode.com/api/v1"

cookbook "ntp"
cookbook "timezone", "0.0.1"

cookbook "rvm",
  :git => "https://github.com/fnichol/chef-rvm",
  :ref => "v0.7.1"

cookbook "cloudera",
  :path => "vendor/cookbooks/cloudera-cookbook"

Here's how it works:

We start off by declaring the default source for this Cheffile.

site "http://community.opscode.com/api/v1"

This default source in this example is the Opscode Community Site API. This is most likely what you will want for your default source. However, you can certainly set up your own API-compatible HTTP endpoint if you want more control.

Any time we declare a cookbook dependency without also declaring a source for that cookbook dependency, Librarian-Chef assumes we want it to look for that cookbook in the default source.

Any time we declare a cookbook dependency that has subsidiary cookbook dependencies of its own, Librarian-Chef assumes we want it to look for the subsidiary cookbook dependencies in the default source.

cookbook "ntp"

Our infrastructure repository depends on the ntp cookbook from the default source. Any version of the ntp cookbook will fulfill our requirements.

cookbook "timezone", "0.0.1"

Our infrastructure repository depends on the timezone cookbook from the default source. But only version 0.0.1 of that cookbook will do.

cookbook "rvm",
  :git => "https://github.com/fnichol/chef-rvm",
  :ref => "v0.7.1"

Our infrastructure repository depends on the rvm cookbook, but not the one from the default source. Instead, the cookbook is to be fetched from the specified Git repository and from the specified Git tag only.

When using a Git source, we do not have to use a :ref =>. If we do not, then Librarian-Chef will assume we meant the master branch. (In the future, this will be changed to whatever branch is the default branch according to the Git remote, which may not be master.)

If we use a :ref =>, we can use anything that Git will recognize as a ref. This includes any branch name, tag name, SHA, or SHA unique prefix. If we use a branch, we can later ask Librarian-Chef to update the cookbook by fetching the most recent version of the cookbook from that same branch.

The Git source also supports a :path => option. If we use the path option, Librarian-Chef will navigate down into the Git repository and only use the specified subdirectory. Many people have the habit of having a single repository with many cookbooks in it. If we need a cookbook from such a repository, we can use the :path => option here to help Librarian-Chef drill down and find the cookbook subdirectory.

cookbook "cloudera",
  :path => "vendor/cookbooks/cloudera-cookbook"

Our infrastructure repository depends on the cloudera cookbook, which we have downloaded and copied into our repository. In this example, vendor/cookbooks/ is only for use with Librarian-Chef. This directory should not appear in the .chef/knife.rb. Librarian-Chef will, instead, copy this cookbook from where we vendored it in our repository into the cookbooks/ directory for us.

The :path => source won't be confused with the :git => source's :path => option.

How to Use

Install Librarian-Chef:

$ gem install librarian

Prepare your infrastructure repository:

$ cd ~/path/to/chef-repo
$ git rm -r cookbooks
$ echo /cookbooks >> .gitignore
$ echo /tmp >> .gitignore

Librarian-Chef takes over your cookbooks/ directory, and will always reinstall the cookbooks listed the Cheffile.lock into your cookbooks/ directory. Hence you do not need your cookbooks/ directory to be tracked in Git. If you nevertheless want your cookbooks/ directory to be tracked in Git, simple don't .gitignore the directory.

If you are manually tracking/vendoring outside cookbooks within the repository, put them in another directory such as vendor/cookbooks/ and use the :path => source when declaring these cookbooks in your Cheffile. Most people will typically not be manually tracking/vendoring outside cookbooks.

Librarian-Chef uses your tmp/ directory for tempfiles and caches. You do not need to track this directory in Git.

Make a Cheffile:

$ librarian-chef init

This creates an empty Cheffile with the Opscode Community Site API as the default source.

Add dependencies and their sources to the Cheffile:

$ cat Cheffile
    site 'http://community.opscode.com/api/v1'
    cookbook 'ntp'
    cookbook 'timezone', '0.0.1'
    cookbook 'rvm',
      :git => 'https://github.com/fnichol/chef-rvm',
      :ref => 'v0.7.1'
    cookbook 'cloudera',
      :path => 'vendor/cookbooks/cloudera-cookbook'

This is the same Cheffile we saw above.

$ librarian-chef install [--clean] [--verbose]

This command looks at each cookbook declaration and fetches the cookbook from the source specified, or from the default source if none is provided.

Each cookbook is inspected, its dependencies are determined, and each dependency is also fetched. For example, if you declare cookbook 'nagios', which depends on other cookbooks such as 'php', then those other cookbooks including 'php' will be fetched. This goes all the way down the chain of dependencies.

This command writes the complete resolution into Cheffile.lock.

This command then copies all of the fetched cookbooks into your cookbooks/ directory, overwriting whatever was there before. You can then use knife cookbook upload -all to upload the cookbooks to your chef-server, if you are using the client-server model.

Check your Cheffile and Cheffile.lock into version control:

$ git add Cheffile
$ git add Cheffile.lock
$ git commit -m "I want these particular versions of these particular cookbooks from these particular."

Make sure you check your Cheffile.lock into version control. This will ensure dependencies do not need to be resolved every run, greatly reducing dependency resolution time.

Get an overview of your Cheffile.lock with:

$ librarian-chef show

Inspect the details of specific resolved dependencies with:

$ librarian-chef show NAME1 [NAME2, ...]

Update your Cheffile with new/changed/removed constraints/sources/dependencies:

$ cat Cheffile
    site 'http://community.opscode.com/api/v1'
    cookbook 'ntp'
    cookbook 'timezone', '0.0.1'
    cookbook 'rvm',
      :git => 'https://github.com/fnichol/chef-rvm',
      :ref => 'v0.7.1'
    cookbook 'monit' # new!
$ git diff Cheffile
$ librarian-chef install [--verbose]
$ git diff Cheffile.lock
$ git add Cheffile
$ git add Cheffile.lock
$ git commit -m "I also want these additional cookbooks."

Find out which dependencies are outdated and may be updated:

$ librarian-chef outdated [--verbose]

Update the version of a dependency:

$ librarian-chef update ntp timezone monit [--verbose]
$ git diff Cheffile.lock
$ git add Cheffile.lock
$ git commit -m "I want updated versions of these cookbooks."

Push your changes to the git repository:

$ git push origin master

Upload the cookbooks to your chef-server:

$ knife cookbook upload --all

Configuration

Configuration comes from three sources with the following highest-to-lowest precedence:

  • The local config (./.librarian/chef/config)
  • The environment
  • The global config (~/.librarian/chef/config)

You can inspect the final configuration with:

$ librarian-chef config

You can find out where a particular key is set with:

$ librarian-chef config KEY

You can set a key at the global level with:

$ librarian-chef config KEY VALUE --global

And remove it with:

$ librarian-chef config KEY --global --delete

You can set a key at the local level with:

$ librarian-chef config KEY VALUE --local

And remove it with:

$ librarian-chef config KEY --local --delete

You cannot set or delete environment-level config keys with the CLI.

Configuration set at either the global or local level will affect subsequent invocations of librarian-chef. Configurations set at the environment level are not saved and will not affect subsequent invocations of librarian-chef.

You can pass a config at the environment level by taking the original config key and transforming it: replace hyphens (-) with underscores (_) and periods (.) with doubled underscores (__), uppercase, and finally prefix with LIBRARIAN_CHEF_. For example, to pass a config in the environment for the key part-one.part-two, set the environment variable LIBRARIAN_CHEF_PART_ONE__PART_TWO.

Configuration affects how various commands operate.

  • The path config sets the cookbooks directory to install to. If a relative path, it is relative to the directory containing the Cheffile. The equivalent environment variable is LIBRARIAN_CHEF_PATH.

  • The install.strip-dot-git config causes the .git/ directory to be stripped out when installing cookbooks from a git source. This must be set to exactly "1" to cause this behavior. The equivalent environment variable is LIBRARIAN_CHEF_INSTALL__STRIP_DOT_GIT.

Configuration can be set by passing specific options to other commands.

  • The path config can be set at the local level by passing the --path option to the install command. It can be unset at the local level by passing the --no-path option to the install command. Note that if this is set at the environment or global level then, even if --no-path is given as an option, the environment or global config will be used.

  • The install.strip-dot-git config can be set at the local level by passing the --strip-dot-git option to the install command. It can be unset at the local level by passing the --no-strip-dot-git option.

Knife Integration

You can integrate your knife.rb with Librarian-Chef.

Stick the following in your knife.rb:

require 'librarian/chef/integration/knife'
cookbook_path Librarian::Chef.install_path,
              "/path/to/chef-repo/site-cookbooks"

In the above, do not to include the path to your cookbooks/ directory. If you have additional cookbooks directories in your chef-repo that you use for vendored cookbooks (where you use the :path => source in your Cheffile), make sure not to include the paths to those additional cookbooks directories either.

You still need to include your site-cookbooks/ directory in the above list.

What this integration does is whenever you use any knife command, it will:

  • Enforce that your Cheffile and Cheffile.lock are in sync
  • Install the resolved cookbooks to a temporary directory
  • Configure Knife to look in the temporary directory for the installed cookbooks and not in the normal cookbooks/ directory.

When you use this integration, any changes you make to anything in the cookbooks/ directory will be ignored by Knife, because Knife won't look in that directory for your cookbooks.

How to Contribute

Running the tests

# Either
$ rspec spec
$ cucumber

# Or
$ rake

You will probably need some way to isolate gems. Librarian provides a Gemfile, so if you want to use bundler, you can prepare the directory with the usual bundle install and run each command prefixed with the usual bundle exec, as:

$ bundle install
$ bundle exec rspec spec
$ bundle exec cucumber
$ bundle exec rake

Installing locally

$ rake install

You should typically not need to install locally, if you are simply trying to patch a bug and test the result on a test case. Instead of installing locally, you are probably better served by:

$ cd $PATH_TO_INFRASTRUCTURE_REPO
$ $PATH_TO_LIBRARIAN_CHECKOUT/bin/librarian-chef install [--verbose]

Reporting Issues

Please include relevant Cheffile and Cheffile.lock files. Please run the librarian-chef commands in verbose mode by using the --verbose flag, and include the verbose output in the bug report as well.

License

Written by Jay Feldblum.

Copyright (c) 2011-2012 ApplicationsOnline, LLC.

Released under the terms of the MIT License. For further information, please see the file MIT-LICENSE.

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