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http://chronos-st.blogspot.com/2007/12/smalltalk-in-one-page.html
http://www.csci.csusb.edu/dick/samples/smalltalk.syntax.html
Formal EBNF Specification of Smalltalk Syntax
1. Character = ? Any Unicode character ?;
2. WhitespaceCharacter = ? Any space, newline or horizontal tab character ?;
3. DecimalDigit = "0" | "1" | "2" | "3" | "4" | "5" | "6" | "7" | "8" | "9";
4. Letter = "A" | "B" | "C" | "D" | "E" | "F" | "G" | "H" | "I" | "J" | "K" | "L" | "M"
| "N" | "O" | "P" | "Q" | "R" | "S" | "T" | "U" | "V" | "W" | "X" | "Y" | "Z"
| "a" | "b" | "c" | "d" | "e" | "f" | "g" | "h" | "i" | "j" | "k" | "l" | "m"
| "n" | "o" | "p" | "q" | "r" | "s" | "t" | "u" | "v" | "w" | "x" | "y" | "z";
5. CommentCharacter = Character - '"';
(* Any character other than a double quote *)
6. Comment = '"', {CommentCharacter}, '"';
7. OptionalWhitespace = {WhitespaceCharacter | Comment};
8. Whitespace = (WhitespaceCharacter | Comment), OptionalWhitespace;
9. LetterOrDigit =
DecimalDigit
| Letter;
10. Identifier = (Letter | "_"), {(LetterOrDigit | "_")};
11. Reference = Identifier;
12. ConstantReference =
"nil"
| "false"
| "true";
13. PseudoVariableReference =
"self"
| "super"
| "thisContext";
(* "thisContext" is not defined by the ANSI Standard, but is widely used anyway *)
14. ReservedIdentifier =
PseudoVariableReference
| ConstantReference;
15. BindableIdentifier = Identifier - ReservedIdentifier;
16. UnaryMessageSelector = Identifier;
17. Keyword = Identifier, ":";
18. KeywordMessageSelector = Keyword, {Keyword};
19. BinarySelectorChar = "~" | "!" | "@" | "%" | "&" | "*" | "-" | "+" | "=" | "|" | "\" | "<" | ">" | "," | "?" | "/";
20. BinaryMessageSelector = BinarySelectorChar, [BinarySelectorChar];
21. IntegerLiteral = ["-"], UnsignedIntegerLiteral;
22. UnsignedIntegerLiteral =
DecimalIntegerLiteral
| Radix, "r", BaseNIntegerLiteral;
23. DecimalIntegerLiteral = DecimalDigit, {DecimalDigit};
24. Radix = DecimalIntegerLiteral;
25. BaseNIntegerLiteral = LetterOrDigit, {LetterOrDigit};
26. ScaledDecimalLiteral = ["-"], DecimalIntegerLiteral, [".", DecimalIntegerLiteral], "s", [DecimalIntegerLiteral];
27. FloatingPointLiteral = ["-"], DecimalIntegerLiteral, (".", DecimalIntegerLiteral, [Exponent] | Exponent);
28. Exponent = ("e" | "d" | "q"), [["-"], DecimalIntegerLiteral];
29. CharacterLiteral = "$", Character;
30. StringLiteral = "'", {StringLiteralCharacter | "''"}, "'";
(* To embed a "'" character in a String literal, use two consecutive single quotes *)
31. StringLiteralCharacter = Character - "'";
(* Any character other than a single quote *)
32. SymbolInArrayLiteral =
UnaryMessageSelector - ConstantReference
| KeywordMessageSelector
| BinaryMessageSelector;
33. SymbolLiteral = "#", (SymbolInArrayLiteral | ConstantReference | StringLiteral);
34. ArrayLiteral =
ObjectArrayLiteral
| ByteArrayLiteral;
35. ObjectArrayLiteral = "#", NestedObjectArrayLiteral;
36. NestedObjectArrayLiteral = "(", OptionalWhitespace, [LiteralArrayElement, {Whitespace, LiteralArrayElement}], OptionalWhitespace, ")";
37. LiteralArrayElement =
Literal - BlockLiteral
| NestedObjectArrayLiteral
| SymbolInArrayLiteral
| ConstantReference;
38. ByteArrayLiteral = "#[", OptionalWhitespace, [UnsignedIntegerLiteral, {Whitespace, UnsignedIntegerLiteral}], OptionalWhitespace,"]";
(* The preceding production rules would usually be handled by the lexical analyzer;
the following production rules would usually be handled by the parser *)
39. FormalBlockArgumentDeclaration = ":", BindableIdentifier;
40. FormalBlockArgumentDeclarationList = FormalBlockArgumentDeclaration, {Whitespace, FormalBlockArgumentDeclaration};
41. BlockLiteral = "[", [OptionalWhitespace, FormalBlockArgumentDeclarationList, OptionalWhitespace, "|"], ExecutableCode, OptionalWhitespace, "]";
42. Literal = ConstantReference
| IntegerLiteral
| ScaledDecimalLiteral
| FloatingPointLiteral
| CharacterLiteral
| StringLiteral
| SymbolLiteral
| ArrayLiteral
| BlockLiteral;
43. NestedExpression = "(", Statement, OptionalWhitespace, ")";
44. Operand =
Literal
| Reference
| NestedExpression;
45. UnaryMessage = UnaryMessageSelector;
46. UnaryMessageChain = {OptionalWhitespace, UnaryMessage};
47. BinaryMessageOperand = Operand, UnaryMessageChain;
48. BinaryMessage = BinaryMessageSelector, OptionalWhitespace, BinaryMessageOperand;
49. BinaryMessageChain = {OptionalWhitespace, BinaryMessage};
50. KeywordMessageArgument = BinaryMessageOperand, BinaryMessageChain;
51. KeywordMessageSegment = Keyword, OptionalWhitespace, KeywordMessageArgument;
52. KeywordMessage = KeywordMessageSegment, {OptionalWhitespace, KeywordMessageSegment};
53. MessageChain =
UnaryMessage, UnaryMessageChain, BinaryMessageChain, [KeywordMessage]
| BinaryMessage, BinaryMessageChain, [KeywordMessage]
| KeywordMessage;
54. CascadedMessage = ";", OptionalWhitespace, MessageChain;
55. Expression = Operand, [OptionalWhitespace, MessageChain, {OptionalWhitespace, CascadedMessage}];
56. AssignmentOperation = OptionalWhitespace, BindableIdentifier, OptionalWhitespace, ":=";
57. Statement = {AssignmentOperation}, OptionalWhitespace, Expression;
58. MethodReturnOperator = OptionalWhitespace, "^";
59. FinalStatement = [MethodReturnOperator], Statement;
60. LocalVariableDeclarationList = OptionalWhitespace, "|", OptionalWhitespace, [BindableIdentifier, {Whitespace, BindableIdentifier}], OptionalWhitespace, "|";
61. ExecutableCode = [LocalVariableDeclarationList], [{Statement, OptionalWhitespace, "."}, FinalStatement, ["."]];
62. UnaryMethodHeader = UnaryMessageSelector;
63. BinaryMethodHeader = BinaryMessageSelector, OptionalWhitespace, BindableIdentifier;
64. KeywordMethodHeaderSegment = Keyword, OptionalWhitespace, BindableIdentifier;
65. KeywordMethodHeader = KeywordMethodHeaderSegment, {Whitespace, KeywordMethodHeaderSegment};
66. MethodHeader =
UnaryMethodHeader
| BinaryMethodHeader
| KeywordMethodHeader;
67. MethodDeclaration = OptionalWhiteSpace, MethodHeader, ExecutableCode;
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