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README.md

Profiling a Larger Web Service

We have a web application that extends a web service. Let's profile this application and attempt to understand how it is working.

Building and Running the Project

We have a website that we will use to learn and explore more about profiling. This project is a search engine for RSS feeds.

Run the website and validate it is working.

$ go build
$ ./project

http://localhost:5000/search

Adding Load

To add load to the service while running profiling we can run these command.

// Send 10k request using 100 connections.
$ hey -m POST -c 100 -n 10000 "http://localhost:5000/search?term=trump&cnn=on&bbc=on&nyt=on"

GODEBUG

GC Trace

Run the website redirecting stdout (logs) to the null device. This will allow us to just see the trace information from the runtime.

$ GODEBUG=gctrace=1 ./project > /dev/null

GOGC

GOGC will change the way the heap grows. Changing this value could help reduce the number of GC's that occur.

Run the website again adding load. Look at the pacing of the GC with these different GOGC values.

$ GODEBUG=gctrace=1 ./project > /dev/null  
$ GODEBUG=gctrace=1 GOGC=200 ./project > /dev/null  
$ GODEBUG=gctrace=1 GOGC=500 ./project > /dev/null

Scheduler Trace

Run the website redirecting stdout (logs) to the null device. This will allow us to just see the trace information from the runtime.

$ GODEBUG=schedtrace=1000 ./project > /dev/null

PPROF

We already added the following import so we can include the profiling route to our web service.

import _ "net/http/pprof"

Raw http/pprof

Look at the basic profiling stats from the new endpoint:

http://localhost:5000/debug/pprof

Capture heap profile:

http://localhost:5000/debug/pprof/heap

Capture cpu profile:

http://localhost:5000/debug/pprof/profile

Interactive Profiling

Run the Go pprof tool in another window or tab to review alloc space heap information.

$ go tool pprof http://localhost:5000/debug/pprof/allocs

Documentation of memory profile options.

// Useful to see current status of heap.
-inuse_space  : Allocations live at the time of profile  	** default
-inuse_objects: Number of bytes allocated at the time of profile

// Useful to see pressure on heap over time.
-alloc_space  : All allocations happened since program start
-alloc_objects: Number of object allocated at the time of profile

If you want to reduce memory consumption, look at the -inuse_space profile collected during normal program operation.

If you want to improve execution speed, look at the -alloc_objects profile collected after significant running time or at program end.

Run the Go pprof tool in another window or tab to review cpu information.

$ go tool pprof http://localhost:5000/debug/pprof/profile

Note that goroutines in "syscall" state consume an OS thread, other goroutines do not (except for goroutines that called runtime.LockOSThread, which is, unfortunately, not visible in the profile).

Note that goroutines in "IO wait" state do NOT consume an OS thread. They are parked on the non-blocking network poller.

Explore using the top, list, web and weblist commands.

Comparing Profiles

Take a snapshot of the current heap profile. Then do the same for the cpu profile.

$ curl -s http://localhost:5000/debug/pprof/heap > base.heap

After some time, take another snapshot:

$ curl -s http://localhost:5000/debug/pprof/heap > current.heap

Now compare both snapshots against the binary and get into the pprof tool:

$ go tool pprof -inuse_space -base base.heap current.heap

Flame Graphs

Go-Torch is a tool for stochastically profiling Go programs. Collects stack traces and synthesizes them into a flame graph.

https://github.com/uber/go-torch

Put some load of the web application and run the torch tool and visualize the profile.

$ go-torch -u http://localhost:5000/

Benchmark Profiling

Run the benchmarks and produce a cpu and memory profile.

$ cd $GOPATH/src/github.com/ardanlabs/gotraining/topics/go/profiling/project/search

$ go test -run none -bench . -benchtime 3s -benchmem -cpuprofile p.out
$ go tool pprof p.out
(pprof) web list rssSearch

$ go test -run none -bench . -benchtime 3s -benchmem -memprofile p.out
$ go tool pprof -inuse_space p.out
(pprof) web list rssSearch

Trace Profiles

Trace Web Application

Capture a trace file for a brief duration.

$ curl -s http://localhost:5000/debug/pprof/trace?seconds=2 > trace.out

Run the Go trace tool.

$ go tool trace trace.out

Use the RSS Search test instead to create a trace.

$ cd $GOPATH/src/github.com/ardanlabs/gotraining/topics/go/profiling/project/search
$ go test -run none -bench . -benchtime 3s -trace trace.out
$ go tool trace trace.out

Expvar

Package expvar provides a standardized interface to public variables, such as operation counters in servers. It exposes these variables via HTTP at /debug/vars in JSON format.

Adding New Variables

import "expvar"

// expvars is adding the goroutine counts to the variable set.
func expvars() {

	// Add goroutine counts to the variable set.
	gr := expvar.NewInt("Goroutines")
	go func() {
		for _ = range time.Tick(time.Millisecond * 250) {
			gr.Set(int64(runtime.NumGoroutine()))
		}
	}()
}

// main is the entry point for the application.
func main() {
	expvars()
	service.Run()
}

Expvarmon

TermUI based Go apps monitor using expvars variables (/debug/vars). Quickest way to monitor your Go app.

$ go get github.com/divan/expvarmon

Running expvarmon

$ expvarmon -ports=":5000" -vars="requests,goroutines,mem:memstats.Alloc"
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