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/*
* Stepper.cpp - Stepper library for Wiring/Arduino - Version 1.1.0
*
* Original library (0.1) by Tom Igoe.
* Two-wire modifications (0.2) by Sebastian Gassner
* Combination version (0.3) by Tom Igoe and David Mellis
* Bug fix for four-wire (0.4) by Tom Igoe, bug fix from Noah Shibley
* High-speed stepping mod by Eugene Kozlenko
* Timer rollover fix by Eugene Kozlenko
* Five phase five wire (1.1.0) by Ryan Orendorff
*
* This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
* modify it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public
* License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either
* version 2.1 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
*
* This library is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
* but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
* MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU
* Lesser General Public License for more details.
*
* You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public
* License along with this library; if not, write to the Free Software
* Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA
*
*
* Drives a unipolar, bipolar, or five phase stepper motor.
*
* When wiring multiple stepper motors to a microcontroller, you quickly run
* out of output pins, with each motor requiring 4 connections.
*
* By making use of the fact that at any time two of the four motor coils are
* the inverse of the other two, the number of control connections can be
* reduced from 4 to 2 for the unipolar and bipolar motors.
*
* A slightly modified circuit around a Darlington transistor array or an
* L293 H-bridge connects to only 2 microcontroler pins, inverts the signals
* received, and delivers the 4 (2 plus 2 inverted ones) output signals
* required for driving a stepper motor. Similarly the Arduino motor shields
* 2 direction pins may be used.
*
* The sequence of control signals for 5 phase, 5 control wires is as follows:
*
* Step C0 C1 C2 C3 C4
* 1 0 1 1 0 1
* 2 0 1 0 0 1
* 3 0 1 0 1 1
* 4 0 1 0 1 0
* 5 1 1 0 1 0
* 6 1 0 0 1 0
* 7 1 0 1 1 0
* 8 1 0 1 0 0
* 9 1 0 1 0 1
* 10 0 0 1 0 1
*
* The sequence of control signals for 4 control wires is as follows:
*
* Step C0 C1 C2 C3
* 1 1 0 1 0
* 2 0 1 1 0
* 3 0 1 0 1
* 4 1 0 0 1
*
* The sequence of controls signals for 2 control wires is as follows
* (columns C1 and C2 from above):
*
* Step C0 C1
* 1 0 1
* 2 1 1
* 3 1 0
* 4 0 0
*
* The circuits can be found at
*
* http://www.arduino.cc/en/Tutorial/Stepper
*/
#include "Arduino.h"
#include "Stepper.h"
/*
* two-wire constructor.
* Sets which wires should control the motor.
*/
Stepper::Stepper(int number_of_steps, int motor_pin_1, int motor_pin_2)
{
this->step_number = 0; // which step the motor is on
this->direction = 0; // motor direction
this->last_step_time = 0; // time stamp in us of the last step taken
this->number_of_steps = number_of_steps; // total number of steps for this motor
// Arduino pins for the motor control connection:
this->motor_pin_1 = motor_pin_1;
this->motor_pin_2 = motor_pin_2;
// setup the pins on the microcontroller:
pinMode(this->motor_pin_1, OUTPUT);
pinMode(this->motor_pin_2, OUTPUT);
// When there are only 2 pins, set the others to 0:
this->motor_pin_3 = 0;
this->motor_pin_4 = 0;
this->motor_pin_5 = 0;
// pin_count is used by the stepMotor() method:
this->pin_count = 2;
}
/*
* constructor for four-pin version
* Sets which wires should control the motor.
*/
Stepper::Stepper(int number_of_steps, int motor_pin_1, int motor_pin_2,
int motor_pin_3, int motor_pin_4)
{
this->step_number = 0; // which step the motor is on
this->direction = 0; // motor direction
this->last_step_time = 0; // time stamp in us of the last step taken
this->number_of_steps = number_of_steps; // total number of steps for this motor
// Arduino pins for the motor control connection:
this->motor_pin_1 = motor_pin_1;
this->motor_pin_2 = motor_pin_2;
this->motor_pin_3 = motor_pin_3;
this->motor_pin_4 = motor_pin_4;
// setup the pins on the microcontroller:
pinMode(this->motor_pin_1, OUTPUT);
pinMode(this->motor_pin_2, OUTPUT);
pinMode(this->motor_pin_3, OUTPUT);
pinMode(this->motor_pin_4, OUTPUT);
// When there are 4 pins, set the others to 0:
this->motor_pin_5 = 0;
// pin_count is used by the stepMotor() method:
this->pin_count = 4;
}
/*
* constructor for five phase motor with five wires
* Sets which wires should control the motor.
*/
Stepper::Stepper(int number_of_steps, int motor_pin_1, int motor_pin_2,
int motor_pin_3, int motor_pin_4,
int motor_pin_5)
{
this->step_number = 0; // which step the motor is on
this->direction = 0; // motor direction
this->last_step_time = 0; // time stamp in us of the last step taken
this->number_of_steps = number_of_steps; // total number of steps for this motor
// Arduino pins for the motor control connection:
this->motor_pin_1 = motor_pin_1;
this->motor_pin_2 = motor_pin_2;
this->motor_pin_3 = motor_pin_3;
this->motor_pin_4 = motor_pin_4;
this->motor_pin_5 = motor_pin_5;
// setup the pins on the microcontroller:
pinMode(this->motor_pin_1, OUTPUT);
pinMode(this->motor_pin_2, OUTPUT);
pinMode(this->motor_pin_3, OUTPUT);
pinMode(this->motor_pin_4, OUTPUT);
pinMode(this->motor_pin_5, OUTPUT);
// pin_count is used by the stepMotor() method:
this->pin_count = 5;
}
/*
* Sets the speed in revs per minute
*/
void Stepper::setSpeed(long whatSpeed)
{
this->step_delay = 60L * 1000L * 1000L / this->number_of_steps / whatSpeed;
}
/*
* Moves the motor steps_to_move steps. If the number is negative,
* the motor moves in the reverse direction.
*/
void Stepper::step(int steps_to_move)
{
int steps_left = abs(steps_to_move); // how many steps to take
// determine direction based on whether steps_to_mode is + or -:
if (steps_to_move > 0) { this->direction = 1; }
if (steps_to_move < 0) { this->direction = 0; }
// decrement the number of steps, moving one step each time:
while (steps_left > 0)
{
unsigned long now = micros();
// move only if the appropriate delay has passed:
if (now - this->last_step_time >= this->step_delay)
{
// get the timeStamp of when you stepped:
this->last_step_time = now;
// increment or decrement the step number,
// depending on direction:
if (this->direction == 1)
{
this->step_number++;
if (this->step_number == this->number_of_steps) {
this->step_number = 0;
}
}
else
{
if (this->step_number == 0) {
this->step_number = this->number_of_steps;
}
this->step_number--;
}
// decrement the steps left:
steps_left--;
// step the motor to step number 0, 1, ..., {3 or 10}
if (this->pin_count == 5)
stepMotor(this->step_number % 10);
else
stepMotor(this->step_number % 4);
}
}
}
/*
* Moves the motor forward or backwards.
*/
void Stepper::stepMotor(int thisStep)
{
if (this->pin_count == 2) {
switch (thisStep) {
case 0: // 01
digitalWrite(motor_pin_1, LOW);
digitalWrite(motor_pin_2, HIGH);
break;
case 1: // 11
digitalWrite(motor_pin_1, HIGH);
digitalWrite(motor_pin_2, HIGH);
break;
case 2: // 10
digitalWrite(motor_pin_1, HIGH);
digitalWrite(motor_pin_2, LOW);
break;
case 3: // 00
digitalWrite(motor_pin_1, LOW);
digitalWrite(motor_pin_2, LOW);
break;
}
}
if (this->pin_count == 4) {
switch (thisStep) {
case 0: // 1010
digitalWrite(motor_pin_1, HIGH);
digitalWrite(motor_pin_2, LOW);
digitalWrite(motor_pin_3, HIGH);
digitalWrite(motor_pin_4, LOW);
break;
case 1: // 0110
digitalWrite(motor_pin_1, LOW);
digitalWrite(motor_pin_2, HIGH);
digitalWrite(motor_pin_3, HIGH);
digitalWrite(motor_pin_4, LOW);
break;
case 2: //0101
digitalWrite(motor_pin_1, LOW);
digitalWrite(motor_pin_2, HIGH);
digitalWrite(motor_pin_3, LOW);
digitalWrite(motor_pin_4, HIGH);
break;
case 3: //1001
digitalWrite(motor_pin_1, HIGH);
digitalWrite(motor_pin_2, LOW);
digitalWrite(motor_pin_3, LOW);
digitalWrite(motor_pin_4, HIGH);
break;
}
}
if (this->pin_count == 5) {
switch (thisStep) {
case 0: // 01101
digitalWrite(motor_pin_1, LOW);
digitalWrite(motor_pin_2, HIGH);
digitalWrite(motor_pin_3, HIGH);
digitalWrite(motor_pin_4, LOW);
digitalWrite(motor_pin_5, HIGH);
break;
case 1: // 01001
digitalWrite(motor_pin_1, LOW);
digitalWrite(motor_pin_2, HIGH);
digitalWrite(motor_pin_3, LOW);
digitalWrite(motor_pin_4, LOW);
digitalWrite(motor_pin_5, HIGH);
break;
case 2: // 01011
digitalWrite(motor_pin_1, LOW);
digitalWrite(motor_pin_2, HIGH);
digitalWrite(motor_pin_3, LOW);
digitalWrite(motor_pin_4, HIGH);
digitalWrite(motor_pin_5, HIGH);
break;
case 3: // 01010
digitalWrite(motor_pin_1, LOW);
digitalWrite(motor_pin_2, HIGH);
digitalWrite(motor_pin_3, LOW);
digitalWrite(motor_pin_4, HIGH);
digitalWrite(motor_pin_5, LOW);
break;
case 4: // 11010
digitalWrite(motor_pin_1, HIGH);
digitalWrite(motor_pin_2, HIGH);
digitalWrite(motor_pin_3, LOW);
digitalWrite(motor_pin_4, HIGH);
digitalWrite(motor_pin_5, LOW);
break;
case 5: // 10010
digitalWrite(motor_pin_1, HIGH);
digitalWrite(motor_pin_2, LOW);
digitalWrite(motor_pin_3, LOW);
digitalWrite(motor_pin_4, HIGH);
digitalWrite(motor_pin_5, LOW);
break;
case 6: // 10110
digitalWrite(motor_pin_1, HIGH);
digitalWrite(motor_pin_2, LOW);
digitalWrite(motor_pin_3, HIGH);
digitalWrite(motor_pin_4, HIGH);
digitalWrite(motor_pin_5, LOW);
break;
case 7: // 10100
digitalWrite(motor_pin_1, HIGH);
digitalWrite(motor_pin_2, LOW);
digitalWrite(motor_pin_3, HIGH);
digitalWrite(motor_pin_4, LOW);
digitalWrite(motor_pin_5, LOW);
break;
case 8: // 10101
digitalWrite(motor_pin_1, HIGH);
digitalWrite(motor_pin_2, LOW);
digitalWrite(motor_pin_3, HIGH);
digitalWrite(motor_pin_4, LOW);
digitalWrite(motor_pin_5, HIGH);
break;
case 9: // 00101
digitalWrite(motor_pin_1, LOW);
digitalWrite(motor_pin_2, LOW);
digitalWrite(motor_pin_3, HIGH);
digitalWrite(motor_pin_4, LOW);
digitalWrite(motor_pin_5, HIGH);
break;
}
}
}
/*
version() returns the version of the library:
*/
int Stepper::version(void)
{
return 5;
}
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