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meek is a blocking-resistant pluggable transport for Tor. It encodes a
data stream as a sequence of HTTPS requests and responses. Requests are
reflected through a hard-to-block third-party web server in order to
avoid talking directly to a Tor bridge. HTTPS encryption hides
fingerprintable byte patterns in Tor traffic.

The key trick that makes the system work is "domain fronting":
communicating with a forbidden domain in a way that makes it look like
you are communicating with an allowed domain. It works by putting the
allowed domain on the "outside" of a request: in the DNS query and the
SNI TLS extension; and the forbidden domain on the "inside": in the Host
header of the HTTP request. The trick works with web services that
ignore the SNI and handle requests based on the Host header. Google,
with its App Engine infrastructure at, is one of these
services. A client wanting to communicate with a forbidden subdomain of while appearing to communicate with can run
the client plugin program like this:
	meek-client --url=

The meek-client program by itself has a fingerprintable TLS handshake.
To disguise the TLS part of HTTPS connections, meek-client should be run
with the --helper option pointing at a browser extension that has been
set up separately. How it works is meek-client tells the browser what
URL to request, the browser requests it and returns the payload to
meek-client. The TLS implementation is that of the browser, so it better
blends in with allowed traffic. Browser extensions for Chrome and
Firefox are in the chrome and firefox directories.

Here is a summary of the programs that appear in subdirectories.

The client transport plugin, run by a censored client.

The server transport plugin, run on a Tor relay.

Reflector web app that runs on Google App Engine. The reflector simply
copies requests and responses to an instance of meek-server somewhere. A
public instance of the App Engine web app is at

chrome, firefox:
Browser extensions for TLS camouflage.

An auxiliary program for the Tor Browser Bundle that runs a copy of
Firefox with the browser extension and then configures meek-client to
use it as a helper.

An auxiliary program used on Windows to assist with cleanup of

A test program for App Engine that measures roundtrip times to different

A php reflector similar to the appengine one above. Ideally, it can be run on
any platform that supports php. A public instance is at:

To the extent possible under law, the authors have dedicated all
copyright and related and neighboring rights to this software to the
public domain worldwide. This software is distributed without any
warranty. See COPYING.