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---------------------- HAProxy how-to ---------------------- version 1.7 willy tarreau 2016/08/14 1) How to build it ------------------ This is a development version, so it is expected to break from time to time, to add and remove features without prior notification and it should not be used in production. If you are not used to build from sources or if you are not used to follow updates then it is recommended that instead you use the packages provided by your software vendor or Linux distribution. Most of them are taking this task seriously and are doing a good job at backporting important fixes. If for any reason you'd prefer a different version than the one packaged for your system, you want to be certain to have all the fixes or to get some commercial support, other choices are available at : http://www.haproxy.com/ To build haproxy, you will need : - GNU make. Neither Solaris nor OpenBSD's make work with the GNU Makefile. If you get many syntax errors when running "make", you may want to retry with "gmake" which is the name commonly used for GNU make on BSD systems. - GCC between 2.95 and 4.8. Others may work, but not tested. - GNU ld Also, you might want to build with libpcre support, which will provide a very efficient regex implementation and will also fix some badness on Solaris' one. To build haproxy, you have to choose your target OS amongst the following ones and assign it to the TARGET variable : - linux22 for Linux 2.2 - linux24 for Linux 2.4 and above (default) - linux24e for Linux 2.4 with support for a working epoll (> 0.21) - linux26 for Linux 2.6 and above - linux2628 for Linux 2.6.28, 3.x, and above (enables splice and tproxy) - solaris for Solaris 8 or 10 (others untested) - freebsd for FreeBSD 5 to 10 (others untested) - netbsd for NetBSD - osx for Mac OS/X - openbsd for OpenBSD 3.1 and above - aix51 for AIX 5.1 - aix52 for AIX 5.2 - cygwin for Cygwin - haiku for Haiku - generic for any other OS or version. - custom to manually adjust every setting You may also choose your CPU to benefit from some optimizations. This is particularly important on UltraSparc machines. For this, you can assign one of the following choices to the CPU variable : - i686 for intel PentiumPro, Pentium 2 and above, AMD Athlon - i586 for intel Pentium, AMD K6, VIA C3. - ultrasparc : Sun UltraSparc I/II/III/IV processor - native : use the build machine's specific processor optimizations. Use with extreme care, and never in virtualized environments (known to break). - generic : any other processor or no CPU-specific optimization. (default) Alternatively, you may just set the CPU_CFLAGS value to the optimal GCC options for your platform. You may want to build specific target binaries which do not match your native compiler's target. This is particularly true on 64-bit systems when you want to build a 32-bit binary. Use the ARCH variable for this purpose. Right now it only knows about a few x86 variants (i386,i486,i586,i686,x86_64), two generic ones (32,64) and sets -m32/-m64 as well as -march=<arch> accordingly. If your system supports PCRE (Perl Compatible Regular Expressions), then you really should build with libpcre which is between 2 and 10 times faster than other libc implementations. Regex are used for header processing (deletion, rewriting, allow, deny). The only inconvenient of libpcre is that it is not yet widely spread, so if you build for other systems, you might get into trouble if they don't have the dynamic library. In this situation, you should statically link libpcre into haproxy so that it will not be necessary to install it on target systems. Available build options for PCRE are : - USE_PCRE=1 to use libpcre, in whatever form is available on your system (shared or static) - USE_STATIC_PCRE=1 to use a static version of libpcre even if the dynamic one is available. This will enhance portability. - with no option, use your OS libc's standard regex implementation (default). Warning! group references on Solaris seem broken. Use static-pcre whenever possible. If your system doesn't provide PCRE, you are encouraged to download it from http://www.pcre.org/ and build it yourself, it's fast and easy. Recent systems can resolve IPv6 host names using getaddrinfo(). This primitive is not present in all libcs and does not work in all of them either. Support in glibc was broken before 2.3. Some embedded libs may not properly work either, thus, support is disabled by default, meaning that some host names which only resolve as IPv6 addresses will not resolve and configs might emit an error during parsing. If you know that your OS libc has reliable support for getaddrinfo(), you can add USE_GETADDRINFO=1 on the make command line to enable it. This is the recommended option for most Linux distro packagers since it's working fine on all recent mainstream distros. It is automatically enabled on Solaris 8 and above, as it's known to work. It is possible to add native support for SSL using the GNU makefile, by passing "USE_OPENSSL=1" on the make command line. The libssl and libcrypto will automatically be linked with haproxy. Some systems also require libz, so if the build fails due to missing symbols such as deflateInit(), then try again with "ADDLIB=-lz". Your are strongly encouraged to always use an up-to-date version of OpenSSL, as found on https://www.openssl.org/ as vulnerabilities are occasionally found and you don't want them on your systems. HAProxy is known to build correctly on all currently supported branches (0.9.8, 1.0.0, 1.0.1 and 1.0.2 at the time of writing). Branch 1.0.2 is recommended for the richest features. To link OpenSSL statically against haproxy, build OpenSSL with the no-shared keyword and install it to a local directory, so your system is not affected : $ export STATICLIBSSL=/tmp/staticlibssl $ ./config --prefix=$STATICLIBSSL no-shared $ make && make install_sw When building haproxy, pass that path via SSL_INC and SSL_LIB to make and include additional libs with ADDLIB if needed (in this case for example libdl): $ make TARGET=linux26 USE_OPENSSL=1 SSL_INC=$STATICLIBSSL/include SSL_LIB=$STATICLIBSSL/lib ADDLIB=-ldl It is also possible to include native support for zlib to benefit from HTTP compression. For this, pass "USE_ZLIB=1" on the "make" command line and ensure that zlib is present on the system. Alternatively it is possible to use libslz for a faster, memory less, but slightly less efficient compression, by passing "USE_SLZ=1". Zlib is commonly found on most systems, otherwise updates can be retrieved from http://www.zlib.net/. It is easy and fast to build. Libslz can be downloaded from http://1wt.eu/projects/libslz/ and is even easier to build. By default, the DEBUG variable is set to '-g' to enable debug symbols. It is not wise to disable it on uncommon systems, because it's often the only way to get a complete core when you need one. Otherwise, you can set DEBUG to '-s' to strip the binary. For example, I use this to build for Solaris 8 : $ make TARGET=solaris CPU=ultrasparc USE_STATIC_PCRE=1 And I build it this way on OpenBSD or FreeBSD : $ gmake TARGET=freebsd USE_PCRE=1 USE_OPENSSL=1 USE_ZLIB=1 And on a classic Linux with SSL and ZLIB support (eg: Red Hat 5.x) : $ make TARGET=linux26 USE_PCRE=1 USE_OPENSSL=1 USE_ZLIB=1 And on a recent Linux >= 2.6.28 with SSL and ZLIB support : $ make TARGET=linux2628 USE_PCRE=1 USE_OPENSSL=1 USE_ZLIB=1 In order to build a 32-bit binary on an x86_64 Linux system with SSL support without support for compression but when OpenSSL requires ZLIB anyway : $ make TARGET=linux26 ARCH=i386 USE_OPENSSL=1 ADDLIB=-lz The SSL stack supports session cache synchronization between all running processes. This involves some atomic operations and synchronization operations which come in multiple flavors depending on the system and architecture : Atomic operations : - internal assembler versions for x86/x86_64 architectures - gcc builtins for other architectures. Some architectures might not be fully supported or might require a more recent version of gcc. If your architecture is not supported, you willy have to either use pthread if supported, or to disable the shared cache. - pthread (posix threads). Pthreads are very common but inter-process support is not that common, and some older operating systems did not report an error when enabling multi-process mode, so they used to silently fail, possibly causing crashes. Linux's implementation is fine. OpenBSD doesn't support them and doesn't build. FreeBSD 9 builds and reports an error at runtime, while certain older versions might silently fail. Pthreads are enabled using USE_PTHREAD_PSHARED=1. Synchronization operations : - internal spinlock : this mode is OS-independant, light but will not scale well to many processes. However, accesses to the session cache are rare enough that this mode could certainly always be used. This is the default mode. - Futexes, which are Linux-specific highly scalable light weight mutexes implemented in user-space with some limited assistance from the kernel. This is the default on Linux 2.6 and above and is enabled by passing USE_FUTEX=1 - pthread (posix threads). See above. If none of these mechanisms is supported by your platform, you may need to build with USE_PRIVATE_CACHE=1 to totally disable SSL cache sharing. Then it is better not to run SSL on multiple processes. If you need to pass other defines, includes, libraries, etc... then please check the Makefile to see which ones will be available in your case, and use the USE_* variables in the Makefile. AIX 5.3 is known to work with the generic target. However, for the binary to also run on 5.2 or earlier, you need to build with DEFINE="-D_MSGQSUPPORT", otherwise __fd_select() will be used while not being present in the libc, but this is easily addressed using the "aix52" target. If you get build errors because of strange symbols or section mismatches, simply remove -g from DEBUG_CFLAGS. You can easily define your own target with the GNU Makefile. Unknown targets are processed with no default option except USE_POLL=default. So you can very well use that property to define your own set of options. USE_POLL can even be disabled by setting USE_POLL="". For example : $ gmake TARGET=tiny USE_POLL="" TARGET_CFLAGS=-fomit-frame-pointer 1.1) DeviceAtlas Device Detection --------------------------------- In order to add DeviceAtlas Device Detection support, you would need to download the API source code from https://deviceatlas.com/deviceatlas-haproxy-module and once extracted : $ make TARGET=<target> USE_PCRE=1 USE_DEVICEATLAS=1 DEVICEATLAS_SRC=<path to the API root folder> Optionally DEVICEATLAS_INC and DEVICEATLAS_LIB may be set to override the path to the include files and libraries respectively if they're not in the source directory. These are supported DeviceAtlas directives (see doc/configuration.txt) : - deviceatlas-json-file <path to the DeviceAtlas JSON data file>. - deviceatlas-log-level <number> (0 to 3, level of information returned by the API, 0 by default). - deviceatlas-property-separator <character> (character used to separate the properties produced by the API, | by default). Sample configuration : global deviceatlas-json-file <path to json file> ... frontend bind *:8881 default_backend servers There are two distinct methods available, one which leverages all HTTP headers and one which uses only a single HTTP header for the detection. The former method is highly recommended and more accurate. There are several possible use cases. # To transmit the DeviceAtlas data downstream to the target application All HTTP headers via the sample / fetch http-request set-header X-DeviceAtlas-Data %[da-csv-fetch(primaryHardwareType,osName,osVersion,browserName,browserVersion,browserRenderingEngine)] Single HTTP header (e.g. User-Agent) via the convertor http-request set-header X-DeviceAtlas-Data %[req.fhdr(User-Agent),da-csv-conv(primaryHardwareType,osName,osVersion,browserName,browserVersion,browserRenderingEngine)] # Mobile content switching with ACL All HTTP headers acl is_mobile da-csv-fetch(mobileDevice) 1 Single HTTP header acl device_type_tablet req.fhdr(User-Agent),da-csv-conv(primaryHardwareType) "Tablet" Please find more information about DeviceAtlas and the detection methods at https://deviceatlas.com/resources . 1.2) 51Degrees Device Detection ------------------------------- You can also include 51Degrees for inbuilt device detection enabling attributes such as screen size (physical & pixels), supported input methods, release date, hardware vendor and model, browser information, and device price among many others. Such information can be used to improve the user experience of a web site by tailoring the page content, layout and business processes to the precise characteristics of the device. Such customisations improve profit by making it easier for customers to get to the information or services they need. Attributes of the device making a web request can be added to HTTP headers as configurable parameters. In order to enable 51Degrees download the 51Degrees source code from the official github repository : git clone https://github.com/51Degrees/Device-Detection then run 'make' with USE_51DEGREES and 51DEGREES_SRC set. Both 51DEGREES_INC and 51DEGREES_LIB may additionally be used to force specific different paths for .o and .h, but will default to 51DEGREES_SRC. Make sure to replace '51D_REPO_PATH' with the path to the 51Degrees repository. 51Degrees provide 2 different detection algorithms: 1. Pattern - balances main memory usage and CPU. 2. Trie - a very high performance detection solution which uses more main memory than Pattern. To make with 51Degrees Pattern algorithm use the following command line. $ make TARGET=<target> USE_51DEGREES=1 51DEGREES_SRC='51D_REPO_PATH'/src/pattern To use the 51Degrees Trie algorithm use the following command line. $ make TARGET=<target> USE_51DEGREES=1 51DEGREES_SRC='51D_REPO_PATH'/src/trie A data file containing information about devices, browsers, operating systems and their associated signatures is then needed. 51Degrees provide a free database with Github repo for this purpose. These free data files are located in '51D_REPO_PATH'/data with the extensions .dat for Pattern data and .trie for Trie data. The configuration file needs to set the following parameters: global 51degrees-data-file path to the Pattern or Trie data file 51degrees-property-name-list list of 51Degrees properties to detect 51degrees-property-separator separator to use between values 51degrees-cache-size LRU-based cache size (disabled by default) The following is an example of the settings for Pattern. global 51degrees-data-file '51D_REPO_PATH'/data/51Degrees-LiteV3.2.dat 51degrees-property-name-list IsTablet DeviceType IsMobile 51degrees-property-separator , 51degrees-cache-size 10000 HAProxy needs a way to pass device information to the backend servers. This is done by using the 51d converter or fetch method, which intercepts the HTTP headers and creates some new headers. This is controlled in the frontend http-in section. The following is an example which adds two new HTTP headers prefixed X-51D- frontend http-in bind *:8081 default_backend servers http-request set-header X-51D-DeviceTypeMobileTablet %[51d.all(DeviceType,IsMobile,IsTablet)] http-request set-header X-51D-Tablet %[51d.all(IsTablet)] Here, two headers are created with 51Degrees data, X-51D-DeviceTypeMobileTablet and X-51D-Tablet. Any number of headers can be created this way and can be named anything. 51d.all( ) invokes the 51degrees fetch. It can be passed up to five property names of values to return. Values will be returned in the same order, seperated by the 51-degrees-property-separator configured earlier. If a property name can't be found the value 'NoData' is returned instead. In addition to the device properties three additional properties related to the validity of the result can be returned when used with the Pattern method. The following example shows how Method, Difference and Rank could be included as one new HTTP header X-51D-Stats. frontend http-in ... http-request set-header X-51D-Stats %[51d.all(Method,Difference,Rank)] These values indicate how confident 51Degrees is in the result that that was returned. More information is available on the 51Degrees web site at: https://51degrees.com/support/documentation/pattern The above 51d.all fetch method uses all available HTTP headers for detection. A modest performance improvement can be obtained by only passing one HTTP header to the detection method with the 51d.single converter. The following example uses the User-Agent HTTP header only for detection. frontend http-in ... http-request set-header X-51D-DeviceTypeMobileTablet %[req.fhdr(User-Agent),51d.single(DeviceType,IsMobile,IsTablet)] Any HTTP header could be used inplace of User-Agent by changing the parameter provided to req.fhdr. When compiled to use the Trie detection method the trie format data file needs to be provided. Changing the extension of the data file from dat to trie will use the correct data. global 51degrees-data-file '51D_REPO_PATH'/data/51Degrees-LiteV3.2.trie When used with Trie the Method, Difference and Rank properties are not available. The free Lite data file contains information about screen size in pixels and whether the device is a mobile. A full list of available properties is located on the 51Degrees web site at: https://51degrees.com/resources/property-dictionary Some properties are only available in the paid for Premium and Enterprise versions of 51Degrees. These data sets not only contain more properties but are updated weekly and daily and contain signatures for 100,000s of different device combinations. For more information see the data options comparison web page: https://51degrees.com/compare-data-options 2) How to install it -------------------- To install haproxy, you can either copy the single resulting binary to the place you want, or run : $ sudo make install If you're packaging it for another system, you can specify its root directory in the usual DESTDIR variable. 3) How to set it up ------------------- There is some documentation in the doc/ directory : - intro.txt : this is an introduction to haproxy, it explains what it is what it is not. Useful for beginners or to re-discover it when planning for an upgrade. - architecture.txt : this is the architecture manual. It is quite old and does not tell about the nice new features, but it's still a good starting point when you know what you want but don't know how to do it. - configuration.txt : this is the configuration manual. It recalls a few essential HTTP basic concepts, and details all the configuration file syntax (keywords, units). It also describes the log and stats format. It is normally always up to date. If you see that something is missing from it, please report it as this is a bug. Please note that this file is huge and that it's generally more convenient to review Cyril Bonté's HTML translation online here : http://cbonte.github.io/haproxy-dconv/configuration-1.6.html - management.txt : it explains how to start haproxy, how to manage it at runtime, how to manage it on multiple nodes, how to proceed with seamless upgrades. - gpl.txt / lgpl.txt : the copy of the licenses covering the software. See the 'LICENSE' file at the top for more information. - the rest is mainly for developers. There are also a number of nice configuration examples in the "examples" directory as well as on several sites and articles on the net which are linked to from the haproxy web site. 4) How to report a bug ---------------------- It is possible that from time to time you'll find a bug. A bug is a case where what you see is not what is documented. Otherwise it can be a misdesign. If you find that something is stupidly design, please discuss it on the list (see the "how to contribute" section below). If you feel like you're proceeding right and haproxy doesn't obey, then first ask yourself if it is possible that nobody before you has even encountered this issue. If it's unlikely, the you probably have an issue in your setup. Just in case of doubt, please consult the mailing list archives : http://marc.info/?l=haproxy Otherwise, please try to gather the maximum amount of information to help reproduce the issue and send that to the mailing list : firstname.lastname@example.org Please include your configuration and logs. You can mask your IP addresses and passwords, we don't need them. But it's essential that you post your config if you want people to guess what is happening. Also, keep in mind that haproxy is designed to NEVER CRASH. If you see it die without any reason, then it definitely is a critical bug that must be reported and urgently fixed. It has happened a couple of times in the past, essentially on development versions running on new architectures. If you think your setup is fairly common, then it is possible that the issue is totally unrelated. Anyway, if that happens, feel free to contact me directly, as I will give you instructions on how to collect a usable core file, and will probably ask for other captures that you'll not want to share with the list. 5) How to contribute -------------------- Please carefully read the CONTRIBUTING file that comes with the sources. It is mandatory. -- end