Skip to content
Switch branches/tags

Latest commit


Git stats


Failed to load latest commit information.
Latest commit message
Commit time

Simple validation for Go. Some things that make it different from the (many) other libraries:

  • No struct tags – which I don't find a good tool for this – just functions.
  • Validations return parsed values.
  • Easy to display validation errors in UI.
  • Doesn't use reflection (other than type assertions); mostly typed.
  • No external dependencies.
  • Easy to add nested validations.
  • Not tied to HTTP (useful for validating CLI flags, for example).
  • Supports translating error messages.

I originally wrote this at my previous employer (, this is an improved (and incompatible) version.

API docs:

Basic example:

email := ""

v := zvalidate.New()
v.Required("email", email)
m := v.Email("email", email)

if v.HasErrors() {
    fmt.Printf("Had the following validation errors:\n%s", v)

fmt.Printf("parsed email: %s\n", m.Address)

All validators are just method calls on the Validator struct, and follow the same patterns:

  • The input's zero type (empty string, 0, nil, etc.) is valid. Use the Required() validator if you want to make a parameter required.

  • key string, value [..] are the first two arguments, where key is the parameter name (to display in the error or next to a form) and value is what we want validated (type of value depends on validation).

  • Optionally accept a custom message as the last parameter.

The error text only includes a simple human description such as "must be set" or "must be a valid email". When adding new validations, make sure that they can be displayed properly when joined with commas. A text such as "Error: this field must be higher than 42" would look weird:

must be set, Error: this field must be higher than 42


List of validations with abbreviated function signature (key string, value [..] omitted):

Function Description
Required() Value must not be the type's zero value
Exclude([]string) string Value is not in the exclude list
Include([]string) string Value must be in the include list
Range(min, max int) Minimum and maximum int value
Len(min, max int) int Character length of string
Integer() int64 Integer value
Boolean() bool Boolean value
Domain() []string Domain name; returns list of domain labels
Hostname() []string Any hostname
URL() *url.URL Valid URL
Email() mail.Address Email address
IPv4() net.IP IPv4 address
IP() net.IP IPv4 or IPv6 address
HexColor() (uint8, uint8, uint8) Colour as hex triplet (#123456 or #123)
Date(layout string) Parse according to the given layout
Phone() string Looks like a phone number
UTF8() String is valid UTF-8
Contains([]*unicode.RangeTable) Only allow the given character ranges

You can set your own errors with v.Append():

if !some_complex_condition {
    v.Append("foo", "must be a valid foo")

Nested validations

Sub() allows adding nested subvalidations; this is useful if a form creates more than one object. For example:

v := zvalidate.New()
v.Sub("settings", -1, customer.Settings.Validate())

This will merge the Validator object in to v and prefix all the keys with settings., so you'll have settings.timezone (instead of just timezone).

You can also add arrays:

for i, a := range customer.Addresses {
    a.Sub("addresses", i, c.Validate())

This will be added as addresses[0].city, addresses[1].city, etc.

If the error is not a Validator then the Error() text will be added as just the key name without subkey, as if you called v.Append("key", "msg"). This is mostly to support cases like:

func (Customer c) Validate() {
    v := validate.New()
    v.Email("email", c.Email)
    if v.HasErrors() {
        return v

    // Check if this email already exists in the DB, may return various errors.
    ok, err := c.isUniqueEmail(c.Email)
    if err != nil {
        return err
    if !ok {
        v.Append("email", "must be unique")

    return v.ErrorOrNil()

Displaying errors

The Validator type satisfies the error interface, so you can return them as errors; usually you want to return ErrorOrNil().

The general idea is that validation errors should usually be displayed along the input element, instead of a list in a flash message (but you can do either).

  • To display a flash message or CLI just call String() or HTML().

  • For Go templates there is a TemplateError() helper which can be added to the template.FuncMap. See the godoc for that function for details and an example.

  • For JavaScript Errors is represented as map[string][]string, and marshals well to JSON; in your frontend you just have to find the input belonging to the map key. A simple example might be:

    var display_errors = function(errors) {
        var hidden = '';
        for (var k in errors) {
            if (!errors.hasOwnProperty(k))
            var elem = document.querySelector('*[name=' + k + ']')
            if (!elem) {
                hidden += k + ': ' + errors[k].join(', ');
            var err = document.createElement('span');
            err.className = 'err';
            err.innerHTML = 'Error: ' + errors[k].join(', ') + '.';
            elem.insertAdjacentElement('afterend', err);
        if (hidden !== '')
        'xxx':    ['oh noes', 'asd'],
        'hidden': ['asd'],

caveat: if there is an error without a corresponding form element then that error won't be displayed. This is why the above examples Pop() all the errors they want to display, and then display anything that's left at the end. This prevents "hidden" errors.


You can change the messages with Validator.Messages:

v := zvalidate.New()
v = v.Locale(zvalidate.Messages{
    Required: func() string { return myTranslateFunction("must be set") },
    Exclude:  func() string { return myTranslateFunction("cannot be ‘%s’") },
    // ...

You can also use this to change the default message if you don't like one of them. zvalidate.DefaultMessages is used by default. If you don't specify one of the struct fields then it will fall back to the values in that struct.


Static validation for Go that returns parsed values







No releases published

Sponsor this project



No packages published